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MARCH 2008 / IRON MAN MAGAZINE

WE KNOW TRAINING

MUSCLE SIZE SIMPLIFIED / REG PARK

REG PARK: A LEGEND REMEMBERED—RARE PHOTOS
REG PARK: A LEGEND REMEMBERED—RARE PHOTOS
MUSCLE SIZE SIMPLIFIED
MUSCLE
SIZE
SIMPLIFIED
The Science of Hyperspeed Hypertrophy
The Science of
Hyperspeed
Hypertrophy
STEROIDS THE TRUTH
STEROIDS
THE TRUTH
•Who’s Using and Why, page 240 •Life After ’Roids page 298
•Who’s Using and
Why, page 240
•Life After ’Roids
page 298
3D H.I.T.
3D H.I.T.
Complete Workout to Up Your Mass FAST!
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PLUS:

•See More of Her Inside (She’s Our Hardbody) •IRON MAN Pro Retro—Full-Page Pics of Every
•See More of Her Inside (She’s Our Hardbody)
•IRON MAN Pro Retro—Full-Page Pics of
Every Winner (Cutler, Priest, Wheeler, Wow!)

MARCH 2008

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IRON MAN MAGAZINE WE KNOW TRAINING IRON MAN MAGAZINE WE KNOW TRAINING IRONMAN MAGAZINE WE KNOW TRAINING IRON MAN MAGAZINE WE KNOW TRAING IRON MAN MAGAZINE IRONMAN MAGAZI

G A Z I N E I R O N M A N M A G

WE KNOW TRAINING

March 2008

284

CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS C

FEATURES

HARDBODY
HARDBODY

62 TRAIN, EAT, GROW 101

Back to POF basics with the Arthur Jones–inspired 3D HIT routine.

Marzia Prince

92 A BODYBUILDER IS BORN 32

Ron Harris says bigger isn’t better when it comes to physiques.

102 GROWTH-REP TURBOCHARGER

Mike Lackner explains the wonders of beta-alanine and why it’s taking the bodybuilding world by storm.

118 SHOCKING SHOULDERS

From the Bodybuilding.com archives, Layne Norton lays out his prescription for electrifying delts.

130 THE SCIENCE OF MUSCLE SIZE

Steve Holman explores the research that has produced record-breaking muscle growth and how to apply the science in the gym.

154 THE LONG, LONG ROAD TO VICTORY

Ron Harris outlines the contest prep that put him in the winner’s circle.

168 REG PARK

Gene Mozée remembers the legendary bodybuilder with one of his last interviews—and plenty of classic photos.

204 TONIC IN A TEAPOT, PART 2

Jerry Brainum’s conclusion on the health-fixer elixir that burns fat.

224 HEAVY DUTY

John Little channels the wisdom of Mike Mentzer. This month: soreness.

246 FITTEST COUPLE

The winners of our ’07 event—looking good!

260 IRON MAN PRO RETROSPECTIVE

Big full-page photos of our champions—19 years’ worth of awesome muscle.

284 HARDBODY

Marzia Prince reveals her eye-popping, jaw-dropping physique.

298 ONLY THE STRONG SHALL SURVIVE

Bill Starr’s take on life after steroids.

260 IRON MAN PRO RETROSPECTIVE 19 years of winners
260 IRON MAN PRO
RETROSPECTIVE
19 years of winners
260 IRON MAN PRO RETROSPECTIVE 19 years of winners 168 REG PARK Remembering a legend Reg
260 IRON MAN PRO RETROSPECTIVE 19 years of winners 168 REG PARK Remembering a legend Reg
168 REG PARK Remembering a legend Reg Park REG PARK: A LEGEND REMEMBERED—RARE PHOTOS Marzia
168
REG PARK
Remembering
a legend
Reg Park
REG PARK: A LEGEND REMEMBERED—RARE PHOTOS
Marzia Prince and
Gegg Plitt appear
on this month’s
cover. Hair and
makeup Alex
Almond. Photo by
Michael Neveux.
Inset photo of
Reg Park by Russ
Warner.
MUSCLE
SIZE
SIMPLIFIED
The Science of
Hyperspeed
Hypertrophy
STEROIDS
THE TRUTH
•Who’s Using and
Why, page 240
•Life After ’Roids
page 298
3D H.I.T.
Complete
Workout to
Up Your
Mass
FAST!
MARCH 2008
$5.99
PLUS:
www.IronManMagazine.com
Vol. 67, No. 3
•See More of Her Inside (She’s Our Hardbody)
•IRON MAN Pro Retro—Full-Page Pics of
Every Winner (Cutler, Priest, Wheeler, Wow!)
Please display until 3/4/08
252 NEWS & VIEWS The world of bodybuilding
252
NEWS & VIEWS
The world of
bodybuilding
234 MUSCLE “IN” SITES Surfing the Web
234
MUSCLE “IN”
SITES
Surfing the Web

CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CONTENTS CO

DEPARTMENTS

28 TRAIN TO GAIN

Get wider wings. Plus, Joe Horrigan’s Sportsmedicine column covers fatigue.

42 SMART TRAINING

Coach Charles Poliquin on size vs. strength rep ranges.

48 EAT TO GROW

The zinc enigma and X-treme lean tips and tricks.

74 NATURALLY HUGE

John Hansen tells you how to train, eat, sleep and grow.

84 SHREDDED MUSCLE

Dave Goodin discusses getting the ultradry look.

88 CRITICAL MASS

Steve Holman presents a reverse-pyramid primer.

234 MUSCLE “IN” SITES

Eric Broser’s Web-site suggestions, reviews and training advice.

240 BODYBUILDING PHARMACOLOGY

Jerry Brainum discusses who uses bodybuilding drugs and why.

252 NEWS & VIEWS

Lonnie Teper covers the wild world of bodybuilding.

274 PUMP & CIRCUMSTANCE

Ruth Silverman’s picturesque look at all the happenings around the sport.

308 MIND/BODY CONNECTION

Bomber Blast with Dave Draper, Gallery of Ironmen (but it’s a woman) and IRON MAN’s Rising Stars too.

320 READERS WRITE

Cover controversy, Shredder siting and the Governator meets the Abdominator.

www.IronManMagazine.com SeemorePhotos @ SeemoreVideo@
www.IronManMagazine.com
SeemorePhotos @
SeemoreVideo@

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CONTEST COVERAGE Get the latest, greatest results, photos, video and blogs from the biggest events.

THE-SCENES VIDEOS See and hear interviews with the stars of the muscle world.

See and hear interviews with the stars of the muscle world. > HOT CLIPS Feel your

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HOT CLIPS Feel your heart race when you view these studio sessions with fit, gorgeous gals.

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PDF LIBRARY Read and/or download some of our most popular features. Build your muscle-bulding collection.

In the next IRON MAN:

We delve more deeply into occlusion, or blood-flow blockage, the new fron- tieer of muscle growth. New studies say it works big time—in other words, clues you can use to get huge. Then we get your traps rising with an analy- sis of the best upper-back exercises—it takes more than just shrugs. Plus, Jerry Brainum checks out low-carb diet- ing—is it really dead (not on your life), and we show you how to optimize your size with the 3D HIT program. Look for the April issue on newsstands the first week of March.

PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S LETTER PUBLISHER’S L

Publisher’s Letter

by John Balik

The Legacy of a Legend
The Legacy
of a Legend

26

The legacy of Reg Park is worldwide, and it’s a living legacy, manifest in the bodies and lives he changed by his example. In 1956 I was in the

eighth grade, and I distinctly remember seeing a photo of Reg in Muscle Power. He was doing a front lat spread. I stared at it in amazement, and

I began to dream of being stronger and more muscular. At the time I

weighed 100 pounds and was about to borrow my uncle’s weights so that I could begin to realize my dream. In a very real sense, my lifelong connection with bodybuilding started with that photo. Fast-forward 25 years, and I’m on the outside deck of World Gym in Venice, California, taking exercise photos of Reg and his son, Jon Jon. I’d met them through Arnold. Reg had an unmistakable presence, a voice and a demeanor that got your attention—regal yet not aloof. Here was a man who’d won everything there was to win in his day but never men- tioned it. He was just a guy who loved to help people, and he loved to train. That wasn’t false modesty—it was simply the way he was. The last time I saw Reg was at the Arnold Classic in 2007. He greeted me warmly, as if we’d talked the day before, when in fact it had been a year since I’d last seen him and his wife, Mareon. When the emcee ac- knowledged the Parks, the crowd rose as one with a sustained standing ovation—a “goose bumps” moment. When I was a teenager, Reg unknowingly touched me through his photos, and last December I had the privilege of attending a tribute to him and celebration of his life hosted by Arnold. Speaking about his friend and mentor, Arnold said that as a teenager he’d had Reg’s picture taped to his bedroom ceiling. He also said that he wouldn’t be where he is today without Reg, cit- ing the inspiring photos as well as being invited to South Africa after the NABBA Mr. Universe con- test in 1965. The three weeks Arnold spent with Reg in South Africa were a turning

point in his life. As Arnold said, “Reg’s influence taught me about ‘I’ and ‘we’.” In observing the love between Reg and Mareon and Reg’s devotion to his children, Arnold saw what family life—something he didn’t have growing up—was all about, and he wanted his life to be that way. He saw, too, that Reg was not only

a bodybuilding champion but also a successful entrepreneur and actor.

Reg’s example revised Arnold’s vision of what he could do, and the rest is history. The thousands of e-mail condolences Jon Jon Park received from people around the world bear witness to his father’s legacy. On a per- sonal level, I always say that our only touch with immortality is through our children. In this case, Reg Park is immortal because of the way he led his life and the way he touched the people he encountered. IM

life and the way he touched the people he encountered. IM MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com Founders

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Founders 1936-1986:
Founders 1936-1986:

Peary & Mabel Rader

Publisher/Editorial Director: John Balik Associate Publisher: Warren Wanderer Design Director: Michael Neveux Editor in Chief: Stephen Holman Art Director: T. S. Bratcher Senior Editor: Ruth Silverman Editor at Large: Lonnie Teper Articles Editors: L.A. Perry, Caryne Brown Assistant Art Director: Brett R. Miller Designer: Chester Chin IRON MAN Staff:

Mary Gasca, Vuthy Keo, Mervin Petralba

Contributing Authors:

Jerry Brainum, Eric Broser, David Chapman, Teagan Clive, Lorenzo Cornacchia, Daniel Curtis, Dave Draper, Michael Gündill, Rosemary Hallum, Ph.D., John Hansen, Ron Harris, Ori Hofmekler, Rod Labbe, Skip La Cour, Jack LaLanne, Butch Lebowitz, John Little, Stuart McRobert, Gene Mozée, Charles Poliquin, Larry Scott, Jim Shiebler, Roger Schwab, Pete Siegel, C.S. Sloan, Bill Starr, Bradley Steiner, Eric Sternlicht, Ph.D., Randall Strossen, Ph.D., Richard Winett, Ph.D., and David Young

Contributing Artists:

Steve Cepello, Larry Eklund, Ron Dunn, Jake Jones Contributing Photographers:

Jim Amentler, Ron Avidan, Roland Balik, Reg Bradford, Jimmy Caruso, Bill Dobbins, Jerry Fredrick, Irvin Gelb, Isaac Hinds, Dave Liberman, J.M. Manion, Merv, Gene Mozée, Mitsuru Okabe, Rob Sims, Ian Sitren, Leo Stern

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Jonathan Lawson, (805) 385-3500, ext. 320 Newsstand Consultant:

Angelo Gandino, (516) 796-9848

We reserve the right to reject any advertising at our discretion without explanation. All manuscripts, art or other submissions must be accompanied by a self- addressed, stamped envelope. Send submissions to IRON MAN, 1701 Ives Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033. We are not responsible for unsolicited material. Writers and photographers should send for our Guidelines outlining specifications for submissions. IRON MAN is an open forum. We also reserve the right to edit any letter or manuscript as we see fit, and photos submitted have an implied waiver of copyright. Please consult a physician before beginning any diet or exercise program. Use the information published in IRON MAN at your own risk.

IRON MAN Internet Addresses:

Web Site: www.ironmanmagazine.com John Balik, Publisher: ironleader@aol.com Steve Holman, Editor in Chief: ironchief@aol.com Ruth Silverman, Senior Editor: ironwman@aol.com T.S. Bratcher, Art Director: ironartz@aol.com Helen Yu, Director of Marketing: irongrrrl@aol.com Jonathan Lawson, Ad Coordinator: ironjdl@aol.com Sonia Melendez, Subscriptions: soniazm@aol.com

TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO GAIN TRAIN TO G

28

SIZE MATTERS, SO

Train to Gain
Train to Gain

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

You don’t have to go super heavy to make squats an effective leg builder.

Merv

Neveux \ Model: Chris Cook

WHEELS

Squats: Don’t Skip ’Em

PeterPeter Putnam.Putnam.
PeterPeter Putnam.Putnam.

The argument has raged for decades now:

Do you absolutely have to squat with a barbell to maximize your thigh development, or can you get the job done with Smith-machine squats, leg presses and hack squats? I’ve flip-flopped on the question many times over the years. The number-one rea- son most people don’t squat: a current or previ- ous injury. Either they’re suffering pain in the lower back or knees to the point that they can no longer go heavy with a bar on their back, or they avoid heavy squats out of fear of reinjury. My own experience has been that no matter how heavy and intense my work is on any com- bination of other leg exercises, I never feel

as if I’ve truly worked my legs unless I’ve squatted. I always believed that if I couldn’t go heavy on squats—for whatever reason—I didn’t see the point of doing them. Why not just do heavy leg presses or something else instead? Recently, I spoke with ’07 USA light-heavyweight winner Peter Putnam, an up-and-coming bodybuild- er who has some serious wheels. Putnam squats last in his leg workouts for two reasons. First, he wants to make sure his calves and hamstrings are worked as hard as they need to be. He finds that ham and calf work don’t detract from his squats anywhere near as much as squatting first saps his energy and performance for hams and calves. Second, he squats last so that he won’t be able to handle as much weight. “It’s just a lot safer for me to squat with 400 pounds than 600,” he says. Looking at his incredible quads, you may ask

why he even both- ers to squat at all. “There’s something about the squatting motion itself that simply can’t be dupli- cated with anything else,” he observes. “I believe you don’t even have to neces- sarily go heavy at all to reap the benefits of the squat.” That statement should set off some bells in your head if you can’t or won’t squat heavy anymore. I can punish my legs just as brutally with three sets of 20 with 225 as I could with 405 for eight to 10 reps. There are also other methods of making lighter weight feel heavier, such as constant-ten- sion “piston” squats,

pause squats— where you hold the very bottom position for a beat before driving back up—and slow-motion reps. As a bodybuilder with a very tender lower back that’s been injured dozens of times over the past 20 years, I’ve used all of those techniques successfully to keep squats in my leg workouts. The kicker is that in many cases the other types of sets stimu- lated even more growth than heavy straight sets.

So those of you who refuse to get under a dan- gerously heavy barbell and squat, try using more moderate weight to work your wheels. Giving up on squats completely is probably the worst thing you can do in regard to lower-body training. Find a way to keep this miraculously productive movement that simply can’t be replaced or duplicated in your work- outs, and I promise that you’ll be glad you did. —Ron Harris www.RonHarrisMuscle.com

Neveux \ Model: Sebastian Segal

30

Train to Gain / MASS MOVES
Train to Gain / MASS MOVES

Get Thee Behind, Satan

Behind-the-neck pulldowns have acquired such a notorious reputation as

a wrecker of rotator cuffs that you’re as likely to find bodybuilders doing them as you are catching them doing the backstroke in piranha-infested waters or trimming their nails with a chain saw. Behind-the-necks can indeed damage

the rotator cuff muscles to the point where chronic pain severely limits virtually anything you do for the upper body. But do they have to be dangerous? Do they really have to be consigned to bad-exercise hell? Not necessarily. After speaking with both supertrainer Charles Glass and Ms. Olympia Iris Kyle on the subject, I’m convinced that the behind-the-neck pulldown can be

a safe and effective exercise for the middle and lower regions of the traps as

well as the smaller, “detail” muscles of the upper back, such as the rhomboids, teres major and minor, and infraspinatus. Having a bit of extra development can definitely give you an edge in the rear “relaxed” pose and the rear double- biceps pose. Even if you don’t compete, your back will have a more polished and com- plete look. Iris explains how to eliminate the risk, which is really nothing more than minimizing the external rotation of the shoulder joint. “Don’t pull all the way to the neck,” she advises, “only to the middle of your head. And don’t go very heavy—I do them toward the end of my back workout and really focus on the squeeze.” One more tip. Tilt your head slightly forward when you do pulldowns behind the neck. That will let you pull in more or less a straight line downward, so your shoulders aren’t ever put in the precarious position they’d be in if your hands and elbows were to travel a few inches to the rear to get around your noggin. Try doing them at every other back workout near the end for three sets of 12 to 15 reps with an emphasis on the peak contraction (hold it for a count of two), and see if you notice a difference in the musculature of your upper back within a couple of months.

—Ron Harris www.RonHarrisMuscle.com

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

X-FILES

X-traordinary Arms Q: The leadoff exercise for the triceps sweep workout [in the e-book X-traordinary
X-traordinary
Arms
Q: The leadoff exercise for
the triceps sweep workout [in
the e-book X-traordinary Arms]
is lying extensions, or skull
crushers. You describe the best
grip width and how to use an
EZ-curl bar for more long-head
involvement, but I don’t like
dragging a bar over to a flat
bench. Can I use dumbbells for
lying extensions instead of a
bar?
A: Magnetic resonance imaging
shows that lying extensions done on a
flat bench with a bar mostly stress the
triceps’ long head, so we classify it as
a
sweep exercise. You’d think using
dumbbells would be the same—but
that’s not the case.
With dumbbells your palms face
each other, which forces your upper
arms inward.
That throws
more em-
phasis onto
the lateral, or
outer, head, so
it’s more of a
width exercise
(see the in-for-
out/out-for-in
rule). The outer
triceps head
is
most no-
ticeable from
the front when your arms are at your
sides, creating a wide-arm look.
You could try rotating your hands to
a
palms-up position once the dumb-
bells get past the sides of your head
near the bottom of the stroke, but that
can be awkward. If you’re after the
most triceps sweep, use a bar or EZ-
curl bar on a flat bench, elbows flaring
out slightly. By the way, the long head
is
the most massive segment of the
triceps muscle.
—Steve Holman and
Jonathan Lawson
www.X-Rep.com
Editor’s note: This is an excerpt
from the IRON MAN e-zine. You can
subscribe and have it delivered to
your e-mail box free every week. Go
to www.IronManMagazine.com
and provide your e-mail address in the
upper-left corner of the home page.
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Train to Gain / MATURE MUSCLE Wider Wings for a V-Taper Q: I’m 49 years
Train to Gain / MATURE MUSCLE
Wider Wings for a V-Taper
Q: I’m 49 years old and have never been able to
get that V-taper. I do have a small waist, but I can’t
get my lats to
grow outward. I do
three sets of 10
reps on pullups,
pulldowns and
low-pulley rows
twice a week and
have never gotten
my lats to grow.
What am I doing
wrong?
By changing the
long bar for the
V-bar, you’ll be
biomechanically
reaching the lats
because the stretch
and contraction will
be enhanced.
A: You’re training
your back too often. I
say that assuming that
you’re not using any
muscle-growth-en-
hancing drugs. Work-
ing any large bodypart
once in an eight-day
cycle is optimal for
most men who are
over 40 and natural.
When I create
workouts for clients,
I ensure that they get
plenty of rest after
doing the most lever-
age-advantageous
exercises to failure for
each bodypart. Those
exercises are based
on an enormous
amount of information
that each person gives
me in a questionnaire
There once was a notion that the wider you held your hands
doing pullups and pulldowns, the wider the back muscles
would get. That’s
true only if your
spine has a per-
fect shape, your
muscles are in
perfect alignment
and you have a
perfect muscu-
loskeletal frame.
No one has that.
We all have to
look at our spine,
rib cage, arm
length and so on
to understand
what exercises are
best for maximum
muscle stimula-
tion.
By changing
the long bar for
the V-bar, you’ll
be biomechani-
cally reaching
the lats because
the stretch and
contraction will be
enhanced. You’ll
attack your outer
muscles instead
of struggling with
a wide grip and
wide bar—which
both work the
inner part of your
back as opposed
that took me 20 years
to develop. It asks
clients the measurements of their entire musculoskeletal sys-
tem—everything from wrist, knee and ankle circumferences
to specific information that tells me the shape of their spine
and rib cage and the width and shape of their clavicles, as
well as arm and leg lengths from various joint-to-joint points. I
apply the information to a database that I’ve compiled over 25
years, which includes more than a thousand male measure-
ments and the optimal exercises for developing each body-
part. That speaks to their potential muscular hypertrophy.
Let’s say your arm is 35 inches long and you’re 6’3”. You
may have relatively wide shoulders and a relatively robust rib
cage, but your spine’s shape leans toward being almost in-
verted from L-1 to S-1. That would tell me that your trapezius,
rhomboids and muscles around the scapula are taking a lot of
the load in a workout. Your genetic tendency would be to have
a thick inner back; however, the latissimus and teres would
suffer because of how your musculature is shaped around
your spine.
The solution is to do your pullups and pulldowns with a
narrow V-bar grip. That will activate your lats more effectively.
to the outer back.
The form of
your genetic musculoskeletal frame indicates what exercises
are most biomechanically advantageous. The key in formulat-
ing your lat training lies in understanding how certain exercises
affect specific muscle groups on you and you only.
—Paul Burke
Editor’s note: To contact Paul Burke, write to pbptb@
aol.com. Burke has a master’s degree in integrated studies
from Cambridge College in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He’s
been a champion bodybuilder and
arm wrestler, and he’s considered a
leader in the field of over-40 fitness
training. You can purchase his book,
Burke’s Law—a New Fitness Para-
digm for the Mature Male, from Home
Gym Warehouse. Call (800) 447-0008,
or visit www.Home-Gym.com. His
“Burke’s Law” training DVD is also
now available.
Neveux \ Model: Gus Malliarodakis

32

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

Train to Gain / HARDGAINER
Train to Gain / HARDGAINER

The Brothers Grimm

A bodybuilding odyssey, part 3

The Brothers Grimm A bodybuilding odyssey, part 3 It’s been two months since Yiannis and Stelios

It’s been two months since Yiannis and Stelios took the two workouts I described in Part 1 [January ’08]. Previously, the brothers were subconsciously resigned to bodybuilding failure. They’d experienced years of little or no progress, although they kept plugging away in the gym. Now, though, they have training purpose, confidence and know-how—and bodies that are ready for effective training. Even good bodybuilding progress is slow, but slow and steady progress for a few years produces terrific physiques. Here’s the seven-point plan Yiannis and Stelios must follow:

1) Passion and desire for physique improvement and training—training regularity is essential.

2) Appropriate training routines and employing exercises that suit each of them.

3) Correct exercise technique and smooth, controlled rep speed.

4) Hard, serious training.

5) Full satisfaction, every day, of the components of recuper- ation from training—nutrition, rest and sleep—and the adop- tion of a healthful lifestyle. Without their health, the brothers can’t train hard and consistently.

6) Consistent progression—adding weight to their exercises without any perceived increase in effort to achieve the target reps and sets and without any compromise on technique and rep speed. For example, if Yiannis adds some weight to an exercise every week or two but each time he perceives an increase in the effort required, he’ll soon grind to a halt because he won’t be able to add weight. But if he’s able to add a tad of weight on a consistent basis to each exercise without a perceived increase in effort and while maintain- ing correct technique and rep control, he’ll make consistent progress.

7) Apply points 2 through 6 with persistence and patience.

The brothers need to get today right, then tomorrow, then the following day, then the next and so on. Regardless of whether it’s a training day, each day will contribute to their progress. A big part of the brothers’ problems was that they weren’t capable of hard but safe squatting and deadlifting. Done safely, the squat and the deadlift are great exercises, but if they aren’t done safely, they’re dangerous. They should be done correctly, or not at all. Because I wanted Yiannis and Stelios to train as effectively as possible and because I would supervise them, they’d be squatting and deadlifting. When I first saw them train, neither could use correct squat or deadlift technique because they didn’t have the required flex- ibility. As a result, their forward tilt was excessive, they couldn’t

keep their heels flat on the floor, they couldn’t keep their lower backs slightly hollow at the bottom position of the squat and deadlift, and they couldn’t keep their knees in the correct position on the ascent of the squat. It wasn’t just overall flexibility they were lack- ing; they lacked symmetrical flexibility, for two main reasons: First, they never did any flexibility work. Second, due to some jammed-up mus- cles as a result of past neglect and injury, each had greater inflexibility on one side of his body than on the other. That led to asymmetrical squatting and deadlifting technique, which kept irritating their backs or knees and preventing the intensity required to build bigger muscles. From the first week under my direction the brothers stretched every other day for about an hour, using a combination of common athletic

stretches and a few yoga asanas, or postures. They concentrated on their calves, hamstrings, thigh adductors and hip musculature but covered the rest of their bodies too. I had both of them get a few treatments from a chiropractor to correct some structural problems, and I had them get some soft-tissue therapy from a physical therapist. The combination of those treatments and six weeks of gradually progressive but

safe stretching made a big difference. They could squat without any elevation under their heels other than the thin heel of their shoes, with their lower backs slightly hollow even at the bottom position of the squat and deadlift, with their feet in a wider posi- tion in the squat than they were used to and with their knees lined up with their flared feet. Even with that type of preparation, some bodybuilders have

a body structure unsuited to the squat or the deadlift. Tall, lanky people aren’t well-suited to the squat, and people with short legs and arms but long torsos aren’t well-suited to the deadlift.

If you’re truly not suited to the squat even though you’re flexible

enough, try the leg press or parallel-grip deadlift instead. And if you’re truly not suited to the deadlift, even though you’re flexible enough, use the partial deadlift (from knee height) and the back extension instead. Now the brothers are ready to squat and deadlift, provided

they use correct technique—that’s another big stumbling point for most bodybuilders. Even if they’re truly fit for the move- ments, they can’t progress well on them because they don’t use correct technique. As a result they repeatedly injure them- selves. In the future I’ll take you through the brothers’ new workouts, and you’ll see the difference in their old and new regimens. —Stuart McRobert www.Hardgainer.com

Editor’s note: Stuart McRobert’s first byline in IRON MAN appeared in 1981. He’s the author of the new 638- page opus on bodybuilding Build Muscle, Lose Fat, Look Great, available from Home Gym Warehouse (800) 447-0008 or www.Home-Gym.com.

34

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Where Is Training Fatigue?

All of us who train hard have experienced the burn during our toughest sets—the last few reps at the end of the workout. It seems quite obvious that we can’t do any more reps because the muscle can’t contract anymore. It doesn’t just feel fatigued; it feels wiped out. So it may seem silly to raise the question, Where is training fatigue? The question isn’t so silly. There’s more than one type of fatigue, and there’s much research into muscle or per- formance fatigue each year. You should know about two main types of fatigue: peripheral and central. Peripheral fatigue includes the energy systems in the muscle itself. When the muscle consumes all the available

muscle itself. When the muscle consumes all the available energy substances, it won’t be able to

energy substances, it won’t be able to contract. When the by-products of muscle work, such as lactic acid and carbon dioxide, increase to very high levels, the burn increases, and it becomes very difficult for the muscle to work. When the muscle is working so hard, oxygen is con- sumed as well. The contraction of the muscle exerts force on the small arteries and veins leading into and out of the muscle, and they’re compressed as well. That further interferes with the muscles’ ability to continue to work because their work exceeds the body’s ability to sup- ply them with what they need. When the nerves to the muscle are stimulated too many times in a short amount of time, the peripheral nerve can fatigue too, so it’s dif- ficult for the nerve to keep conducting an impulse without proper rest. Rest enables the neurotransmitters to re- cover and helps reestablish the balance between sodium

and potassium. That may sound complicated, but much, much more is taking place when you’re performing, say, preacher curls to failure. Central fatigue occurs in the brain and spinal cord. Have you ever had a day in the gym where the workout, sets, reps or weight just didn’t seem to be happening the way you thought they would? Have you ever had days where you had enough sleep and didn’t think you were tired, but the bar just didn’t want to move and the weight felt heavy with a poundage that you moved for sets the week before? That may be a sign of central fatigue. We need to keep in mind that strength is a neurological phenomenon. If a muscle fiber is a little thicker, it is a little stronger; however, if we can learn to recruit more muscle fibers, we can be much stronger. Strength is determined by an impulse starting in the brain, traveling down the spi- nal cord, spinal nerve root and peripheral nerve to a point on a muscle known as a motor endplate. From there the impulse spreads throughout the muscle, and that deter- mines how many muscle fibers should be recruited and how fast. The average untrained person recruits about 53 per- cent of the muscle fibers. Training increases that thresh- old. We literally learn to recruit more fibers. The part of the brain controlling that, the motor cortex, can fatigue as well. That’s been monitored on studies known as function MRIs. Once the motor cortex fatigues, there’s less output to the body or bodypart to continue the same motion. Some studies have shown that the fatigue can spread to other areas of the brain such as the visual cortex (Ben- well, Mastaglia and Thickbroom. Reduced functional ac- tivation after fatiguing exercise is not confined to primary motor areas. Exp Brain Research; 2006). Whenever we discuss fatigue, we must bring in the topic of recovery. The balance between fatigue and re- covery is what keeps us in the gym. Too much central fatigue leads to overtraining and a lack of results—or even a loss of strength and size. I’ve addressed overtrain- ing many times over the past 18 years, and I will again. For now, if your workouts aren’t working—if your gains stopped and you tried changing your routine, and you’re getting enough sleep and eating well and are fully hy- drated—try taking a break from training for a week or two and see if you become rejuvenated in the gym. —Joseph M. Horrigan

Editor’s note: Visit www.SoftTissueCenter.com for reprints of Horrigan’s past Sportsmedicine columns that have appeared in IRON MAN. You can order the books, Strength, Conditioning and Injury Prevention for Hockey by Joseph Horrigan, D.C., and E.J. “Doc” Kreis, D.A., and the 7-Minute Rotator Cuff Solution by Horrigan and Jerry Robinson from Home Gym Warehouse, (800) 447- 0008 or at www.Home-Gym.com.

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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Who Do You Want to Look Like?

Following the recent—and highly contro- versial—Mr. Olympia competition, several Internet sites conducted polls to determine which of the top five men the readers would rather look like. The results were supposed to correlate to how the placings should have been determined. After all, Mr. Olym- pia does, theoretically, have the ideal phy- sique that we all aspire to. Predictably enough, more people stated that they would prefer owning a more shapely and aesthetic physique along the lines of Victor Martinez, Dexter Jackson or Dennis Wolf than the sheer bulk of mass monsters like Jay Cutler and Ronnie Cole- man. I don’t want to argue over the hows and whys of those opinions. We all have our own tastes. What I find slightly disturbing is the whole concept of aspiring to look “just like” any top pro— and not for the reasons you might think. I have said ad infinitum that the top pros are all genetic freaks and, for the most part, are all chemically assisted as well. Unless you share their rare genetics and have ac- cess to the same chemicals, the idea of

resembling them is pure fantasy. More important, everyone has a unique genetic blueprint. We can only do the best we can with the genetics we’ve been born with, and who’s to say that the physique we eventually build can’t be great in its own way? Just because it wouldn’t belong on the Mr. Olympia stage doesn’t mean it wouldn’t be something to be proud of and that people everywhere wouldn’t respect and admire. Those of you who have put years into hard training and good eating probably already know what I mean. People you meet are often as impressed by your physique as they would be by any pro’s. In fact, they may be even more impressed because you have a more attainable look than that of a cartoon-proportioned freak. It’s perfectly fine to draw inspiration from the physiques of the pros and to respect the hard work they put in to look the way they do. All I want to get across to you is that in aspiring to look exactly like them, you’re doing yourself a disservice. Why not aspire to be the most incredibly and perfectly developed you that you can be? That’s a goal you can actually reach. When you do, you’ll be pleased to find that it feels just as good as looking like a pro. Knowing you reached your ultimate potential feels damn good—maybe even as good as be- coming Mr. Olympia!

—Ron Harris www.RonHarrisMuscle.com

coming Mr. Olympia! —Ron Harris www.RonHarrisMuscle.com OPTIMAL WORKOUT Time to Train Many trainees wonder
OPTIMAL WORKOUT
OPTIMAL WORKOUT

Time to Train

Many trainees wonder what time of day is best for a workout. Is it morning, noon or night? Research suggests that peak performance oc- curs in the afternoon or early evening because your mus- cles are warmer from moving all day, your body tempera- ture is normal, and your heart and lungs are functioning efficiently. Of course, if early morning is the only time you can hit the weights, do it. That’s a lot better than trying to make it to the gym after work, when it’s crowded and you’re dragging. Do it when you can get to it. —Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com

when you can get to it. —Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com 38 MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com Free Free

38

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING

Neveux \ Model: Ted ArcidiNeveux

\ Model: Dave Goodin

Neveux \ Model: Ted ArcidiNeveux \ Model: Dave Goodin Smart Training by Charles Poliquin Size vs.

Smart Training

by Charles Poliquin

Size vs. Strength Rep Ranges
Size vs. Strength
Rep Ranges

Q: There’s a recent trend in bodybuilding to do fewer reps than the traditional recommendation. I’m talking about eight to 10 sets of three reps. Typi- cally, according to what you used to say, at least, that’s more or less for strength and not for hyper- trophy. What are your thoughts?

A: True, it’s best to do higher reps when you’re looking for hypertrophy in the shortest time. You can definitely grow on sets of three; it just takes longer for the muscle mass to come along. You’ll get stronger on that low-rep system way before you get bigger. The thing is that most intermediate bodybuilders don’t grow because they’re just too weak. If you do eight sets of three or cluster training or some other heavy-load set-and-rep scheme, you use maxi- mal weights, and your body learns to recruit high-threshold motor units. Let’s say a guy can do 250 for eight reps on the bench

press, and his pecs are at their limit. He can then go on a strength cycle. If he does 250 for eight, his max should be about 320. If he goes on a strength cycle and gets his bench up to 360, when he goes back to doing sets of eight, he’ll be able to handle 280. For that reason his pecs are going to grow—because he has used enough weight long enough to stimulate growth. But look at Olympic lifters. They never do more than six

Powerlifters and weightlifters use low-rep sets, while bodybuilders tend to use higher reps. Low reps
Powerlifters and weightlifters use low-rep sets,
while bodybuilders tend to use higher reps.
Low reps will hypertrophy muscle tissue; it
just takes longer than using the bodybuilding
standard of eight to 12.

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MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMA

Smart Training

reps, but they have huge thighs and traps—because they’ve done it over a long period. What people don’t know is that muscle grows because it’s easier for muscle to hypertro- phy than it is to recruit more motor units. It’s basically the body’s laziness. If you tap into new motor units and then go back and do sets of eight with your new max, you’ll grow. The opposite is also true. Some guys, for example, go into the weight room and lift every day, and their lifts haven’t improved since Hillary Clinton smiled. I ask them, “What’s your best for eight reps?” and they say, “I don’t know, 250.” And I say, “Try training with only eight-rep sets, and get that max up to 270. Then go back to heavy train- ing.” So if you haven’t gained strength in a long while, you have to hypertrophy the fibers. Hypertrophy training is actually quite simple—I didn’t say easy. It’s much harder to make an athlete gain strength on a relative basis—that is, strength on a pound for pound basis—than to gain mass. The key to hypertrophy training is variety in applying the loading limits.

Q: In your writings you come across as a low-carb type of guy. Can you summarize why?

A: How about a list? I’d like to make the following points regarding low-carb diets. Of course, I could go on and on, but these are important points to consider:

1) Carbohydrate intake should be individualized. Some people (a minority) simply cannot train for extensive peri- ods on low carbs. They’re usually gifted for aerobic sports, so I don’t see them anyway. 2) Low carb for life is the best solution for at least 75 percent of the population. If we banned grains, 90 percent of the health-care costs would go down. No more triglycer- ides, LDL, C-reactive proteins, low androgens, etc. 3) A lot of people are kidding themselves about how

44

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

many carbs they need. There’s a difference between a mouth and a vacuum. Skip a high-carb meal, and you can save a small African country. 4) You need more a low-carb lifestyle than a low-carb diet. Forty to 50 grams per day of good carbs is plenty for most of the population. That’s why there are so many fat dietitians and personal trainers. I recently saw a fitness au- thor who’s a legend in his own mind for his dietary counsel- ing prowess and a record of never healing weight training injuries. He’s never met a carbohydrate he didn’t like. No wonder his waist size exceeds his shoulder girth. 5) You need to distinguish between carbs and “neo” carbs. Neo carbs were not accessible to cavemen. Did a caveman have access to doughnuts? No. Doughnuts are neo carbs. Did a caveman have access to pasta? No. Pasta equals neo carbs. Did a caveman have access to grapes? Yes. Grapes are allowable carbs (in some instances). 6) Nutrient timing makes a difference. A 200-pound man can stay lean eating 250 grams of carbs a day if he takes 200 of them postworkout and spreads the other 50 throughout the day as low-glycemic carbs. I said, “stay lean,” not get lean. If you want carbs, get lean first. You have to deserve them. 7) No one eats enough vegetables. Have you ever heard of anybody bingeing on brussels sprouts? If you don’t eat enough veggies, a daily intake of mixed fibers may be in- dicated for a short period. If you were to get all nutrition- ists to agree only on one thing, it would be that everybody needs to eat more vegetables. 8) The leaner you are, the more carbs you can eat. That’s one of the reasons I insist that my athletes get as lean as possible as early as possible when they start working with me. 9) You can dramatically improve insulin sensitivity. When I teach the Biosignature, I give 16 hours of info on

It should be a low-carb lifestyle rather than a low-carb diet. Forty to 50 grams per day of good carbs is plenty for most of the population.

lifestyle rather than a low-carb diet. Forty to 50 grams per day of good carbs is
Smart Training Charles Poliquin’s you tear fibers at both ends, and you get super- compensation.
Smart Training
Charles Poliquin’s
you tear fibers at both ends, and you get super-
compensation.
Here’s a nasty superset for biceps:
Fixation/insertion
supersets involve
attacking a muscle at
both ends, origin and
Do four to six reps of close-grip chinups (or
close-grip pulldowns, if you’re not strong enough
to do chinups), rest eight to 10 seconds, and then
do eight to 10 reps of incline dumbbell curls.
Do five supersets, resting approximately two
minutes after each round, and I guarantee you
there will be no way you can bend your elbows
without feeling extreme soreness for at least five
days.
Here’s what’s happening: When you do the
chinups, the origin is at the elbow and the inser-
tion is at the shoulder. Then, when you do the
incline dumbbell curls, it’s the opposite: The
origin is at the shoulder and the insertion is at
the elbow.
Mechanically, you’re doing two extremes, and
you’re inducing fiber damage beyond belief.
For triceps you can superset weighted dips
with overhead extensions. Do five reps of weight-
ed dips, rest eight to 10 seconds, and then do 10
to 12 reps of overhead extensions with a rope
attachment. Rest two minutes and repeat. Do a
total of five supersets, and you won’t be able to
brush your hair for a few days.
insertion.
that topic alone. Plenty of nutra-
ceuticals (i.e., R-form stabilized
alpha-lipoic acid, not the useless
racemic form that everybody sells)
and botanicals will improve insulin
sensitivity, and functional tests can
determine which ones would work
best for you. Insulin sensitivity and
the ability to hypertrophy while
leaning out are very strongly cor-
related—much more than androgen
output.
10) Every fifth day you should go
back to eating more good carbs, as
oxidation of branched-chain amino
acids is compromised on low-carb
diets. The number of good carbs
should be inversely proportional to
your percentage of bodyfat.
11) Following a low-carb diet
without getting a high intake of
smart fats is suicidal. Make sure to
eat good sources of omega-3s and/or
supplement them in your diet.
Again, because
of varying arm
positions in the
two movements,
you have your
elbows below your
shoulders in one
movement and
your elbows above
your shoulders in
the next.
Editor’s note:
Q: My arms haven’t grown in a
while. Anything you can suggest
to get me out of the rut?
A: Try fixation/insertion super-
sets. In kinesiology, the origin of
Charles Poliquin is
recognized as one
of the world’s most
successful strength
coaches, having
coached Olympic
medalists in 12
different sports,
including the U.S.
women’s track-
and-field team for
the 2000 Olympics.
He’s spent years
researching Eu-
ropean journals
(he’s fluent in
English, French
and German) and
speaking with
other coaches and
scientists in his
quest to optimize
the muscle is what’s fixated, and
the insertion is what moves. If you can somehow superset
movements that combine those two opposite functions,
training methods.
For more on his books, seminars and methods, visit www.
CharlesPoliquin.net. Also, see his ad on page 271. IM
SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMART TRAINING SMA
Neveux \ Model: Cesar Martinez
Neveux \ Model: Derik Farnsworth

46

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROWEAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT TO GROW EAT T

Neveux \ Model: Peter Putnam

to Grow
to Grow

Nutrition With a Get-Big Mission

48

NUTRITION

SCIENCE

NUTRITION SCIENCE

The Zinc Enigma

Do hard-training athletes need more, and does it raise testosterone?

A supplement popular with many bodybuilders is known as ZMA. That’s an acronym for its primary ingredients—30 milligrams of zinc, 450 milligrams of mag- nesium aspartate and 10.5 milligrams of vitamin B6, or pyridoxine. The B6 is added because it participates as a co- enzyme in reactions involving the uptake and absorption of the mineral content. The suggested dose for ZMA is three capsules taken just before sleep—the magnesium is a sleep aid. According to the developer of ZMA, many hard-training bodybuilders and

other athletes are deficient in zinc and magnesium. When you consider that vital minerals activate more than

300 important enzyme systems in the body—including the ones involved with protein and carb uptake, hormone release and fat oxidation—it’s not hard to understand why being deficient in either or both hampers muscular gains and athletic progress. The human body contains two to three grams of zinc, of which 0.1 per- cent is replenished daily by food. Red meat is the most reliable food source. Poultry and fish, common staples of bodybuilding diets, are inferior sources. One study showed that adult men whose primary protein sources are fish and chicken had insufficient zinc intake. Women often shun red meat, which places them at higher risk for both zinc and iron defi- ciencies. While zinc exists

in plant foods, some

natural substances in

those foods interfere with zinc absorp- tion—phytates in whole grains and lignins in flax, for example. Overcook-

ing protein results in what chemists call

a Maillard reaction,

which interferes with

both zinc and protein absorption. Other nutrients can also block zinc uptake, such as calcium, iron and large doses of the B-complex vitamin folic acid. Most researchers suggest that at least 25 percent of the world’s popula- tion is at risk for zinc deficiency, al- though most of those people live in poor Third World countries. Zinc is required for growth and devel- opment, as well as for immune function, cellular DNA repair, reproduction, vision, taste and brain function. Most forms of cancer involve damage to cellular DNA, and zinc is required for enzymes that repair DNA damage. Another way zinc helps protect against cancer is through in- teraction with superoxide dismutase, a major antioxidant that blocks the nox- ious effects of free radicals known to damage cells and initiate cancer. 1 Various diseases impair zinc uptake, including those associated with alco- holism, such as liver cirrhosis. Stress can lead to enhanced zinc excretion. A potentially deadly genetic disease called acrodermatitis enteropathica is marked by an impairment of intestinal absorp- tion of zinc. Signs of zinc deficiency include lack of growth, impaired immu- nity, dermatitis, poor healing of wounds and hair loss, with black hair often turning reddish brown. Zinc may also help prevent dementia, although higher amounts of zinc are also found in some demented older people. Just as zinc deficiency is a problem, so is zinc overload—usually the result of

supplement overkill, though the effects are generally subtle. The recommended daily intake of zinc for adult men is 11 milligrams, eight for women. Vegetar- ians require an additional three to four milligrams daily because natural ele- ments in vegetables and grains interfere with zinc uptake. Pregnant and nursing women also require about the same amount of additional zinc.

Like most minerals, zinc follows a bell curve: Too much is as bad as too

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

So little. Too much zinc leads to an imbalance between zinc and copper, resulting in

So

little. Too much zinc leads to an imbalance between zinc and copper, resulting in an ex- cess excretion of copper. The effects of a copper deficiency include a type of anemia and a decline in protective high-den-

sity-lipoprotein cholesterol, and

a serious copper deficiency

could lead to a breakdown of the aorta, the large artery leading out of the heart, be- cause copper is required for the synthesis of collagen, which strengthens blood vessels. While having sufficient zinc is vital for the func- tion of immune cells known as T cells—which, among other things, protect against viruses and tumor formation—getting too much zinc works in reverse, impeding immune reactions in the body. Taking as little as 80 milligrams of zinc daily will have an immune-suppressing effect in most people. It concentrates in the prostate gland, and one study found that con- sistently taking 100 milligrams of zinc or more daily led to a 290-percent in- crease in the risk of metastatic prostate cancer. Even taking only 53 milligrams of zinc daily can impair copper status in the body. Plus, while not having enough zinc impairs blood-platelet aggregation, which leads to increased bleeding time, having too much increases the risk of internal blood clotting, which is linked to heart attack and stroke. 2

From an athlete’s point of view, zinc status can either help or hinder. Low zinc intake is associated with impaired muscle function, reduced strength and

a greater propensity to fatigue pre-

maturely during exercise. Among the enzymes activated by zinc is carbonic anhydrase, needed for the metabolism of carbon dioxide. So if you’re too low on zinc, the enzyme’s activity is impaired, which messes with your breathing and would result in premature exercise fatigue. 3 Zinc also works with various anabolic hormones, including testosterone, insulin, IGF-1 and growth

hormone.

Without it,

nitric oxide

declines,

which

adversely

affects

hormone

function

and blood

flow to

exercising

muscles.

can ZMA

aid your

bodybuild-

ing efforts? If you know the effects of zinc deficiency,

the benefits of a supplement like ZMA seem clear. Suppose, however, you get enough zinc in your diet—would ZMA still prove beneficial?

A recent study compared the effects

of taking the suggested three-capsule dose of ZMA to those of taking a pla-

cebo. 4 The subjects were 14 healthy, exercising young men whose baseline daily zinc intake averaged between 11.9 and 23.2 milligrams.

A study published in 2000 showed

that semiprofessional athletes who took

the suggested dose had a 30 percent

increase in plasma testosterone and

a corresponding increase in muscular

strength compared to athletes not tak- ing the supplement. In the new study, however, those taking ZMA had no rise

in testosterone or its urinary metabo-

lites. The pills were analyzed and found to contain no trace of pro-hormones, although they did meet label specifi- cations. Other effects of ZMA in the

subjects included a rise in urinary pH, or alkalinity, and a doubling of urinary flow over the eight-week study. The increased urine flow was likely related to the rapid excretion of zinc in the sub- jects taking ZMA. While the authors noted that the training level of the subjects was infe-

rior to that of the subjects in the 2000 study, both groups had similar zinc and testosterone measures before and after

the studies. The authors suggest that for those not deficient in zinc, taking ZMA won’t affect testosterone levels. They further suggest that the ZMA effect on pH, as well as the increased urinary flow, may prove a problem for some people, citing the 30-milligram dose, which is close to the suggested tolerable safe daily dose of 40 mil- ligrams. Since zinc is an ingredient in many other supplements bodybuilders use, such as meal replacements and vitamin-and-mineral capsules, that calls for caution on the part of supplement users. On the other hand, since stud- ies show that fish and chicken aren’t reliable sources of zinc, bodybuilders who eschew red meat may benefit from some type of zinc supplement. Two other factors to consider are that only about 20 percent of a zinc supplement is absorbed under the best conditions (25 percent is absorbed from

food). Other minerals, such as calcium and iron, speed zinc excretion. The other mineral in ZMA, magnesium, is also far more likely to be lacking in a typical bodybuilding diet. So a sup- plement such as ZMA may prove useful for many people. Just

don’t depend on it to raise your testosterone too. —Jerry Brainum

References

1 Ho, E. (2004). Zinc deficiency, DNA damage and cancer risk. J Nutr Bio-

chem. 15:572-78.

2 Hughes, S., et al. (2006). The ef- fect of zinc supplementation in humans on plasma lipids, antioxidant status and thrombogenesis.J Amer Coll Nutr.

25:4:285-91.

3 Lukaski, H. (2005). Low dietary zinc decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhy- drase activities and impairs cardiorespi- ratory function in men during exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 81:1045-51.

4 Koehler, K, et al. (2007). Serum testosterone and urinary excretion of steroid metabolites after administration of a high-dose zinc supplement. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1-6: In press.

www.ironmanmagazine.com \ MARCH 2008

49

Neveux \ Model: Tom Voss

to Grow
to Grow

FAT

LOSS

Watered-Down Fat

Now water can get you leaner

Your muscles are about 70 percent water—reason enough to get plenty of it during the day. Here’s another: Water also ramps up your metabolism. Researchers conducted a study to test its thermogenic effects, meaning its conversion of fat calories into heat. Seven men and seven women, average age 27, drank 500 milliliters, or about half a quart, of cold water. That caused a metabolic increase of 30 percent over resting status. The increase occurred within 10 minutes, reaching a maximum at 30 to 40 minutes after the subjects drank the water, and it lasted for more than an hour. It led the authors to suggest that drinking just a little more than a quart of water a day would augment energy expenditure by 200 kilojoules a day. That’s like taking 50 milligrams of ephedrine three times a day, which would give you an increased energy expenditure of 320 kilojoules. Granted, that adds up to only about 100 extra calories burned daily, but it does add to weight loss (J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 88:6015-6019; 2003).

—Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com

, 88:6015-6019; 2003). —Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com 50 MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com NUTRITION NOTES

50

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

NUTRITION NOTES Food Facts That can affect your workouts, weight and wellness Chocolate for your
NUTRITION
NOTES
Food Facts
That can affect your
workouts, weight and wellness
Chocolate for
your teeth? Re-
searchers at Tulane
University discov-
ered that theobro-
mine, a compound
in cocoa beans, is
better than fluoride
for hardening tooth
enamel and fighting decay.
Onions
have lots of
quercetin, a
bioflavonoid
that reduces
inflammation
in the same
manner as
aspirin. That
means onions can do good things for
healing joint pain as well as cardiovas-
cular health.
Seaweed may make junk food
healthier. How? By increasing its
fiber content. In a study done at the
University of Newcastle in the United
Kingdom, scientists added seaweed
to white bread for the health-boosting
effect. Let’s just hope it doesn’t make
toast smell like a fish
market.
Oil taken in with
meals, whether
as fish oil cap-
sules or salad
dressing, has
been shown to
boost absorption of
some antioxidants
and phytochemicals in vegetables by
as much as 10 percent. Take a few
fish oil capsules with every meal.
Mag-
nesium
can help
you sleep
better. The
mineral helps
the body
produce
melatonin, a
chemical in the brain that helps you
relax. Try taking 200 milligrams with
dinner.
—Becky Holman
www.X-tremeLean.com
Neveux \ Model: Gus Mallarodakis
to Grow
to Grow

SUPPLEMENTS

Creatine Timing and Loading

For the best muscle saturation

The research on creatine continues to point to its amaz- ing effectiveness and versatility. One recent study examined

resulting in the least urinary excretion and greatest reten- tion. That implies that if you slow creatine absorption, you’ll

the least urinary excretion and greatest reten- tion. That implies that if you slow creatine absorption,
 

the absorption effects of creatine when it was an ingredient in a drink and in two types of food bars. 1 The bars contained

 

either protein or beta-glucan,

retain more of it. Another study compared

a

soluble fiber

the usual creatine-loading regi- men—five grams of creatine four times daily—with a more frequent intake, one gram 20 times a day. 2 Nine subjects got the usual five-gram load at three-hour intervals, while those getting the one-gram dose got it every 30 minutes.

found natu- rally in oatmeal and barley.

The dose of creatine was two grams in all cases. The subjects got

it

three times

 

daily for one

Both regimens lasted five days. The results: The smaller creatine dose resulted in less urinary excretion than the larger one, which led to higher creatine retention. The authors con- cluded that taking smaller doses of creatine more often, or possibly using a timed-release form of the supplement, would

week in one form, then

took it in an- other form for

a

week—that

bring better results.

is, one week liquid, then

 

—Jerry Brainum

 

protein bar, then beta-glucan bar. The absorption of creatine was slowed eightfold by the beta-glucan bar and fourfold by the protein-and-creatine bar. Interestingly, all forms of creatine were completely absorbed, contrary to some advertising claims that most dietary cre- atine is largely degraded in the gut. The greatest effect was observed when creatine was combined with the beta-glucan,

References

1 Deldicque, L., et al. (2007). Kinetics of creatine ingested as a food ingredient. Eur J Appl Physiol. In press. 2 Sale, C., et al. (2007). Urinary creatine excretion follow- ing supplementation with 4x5 g day or 20x1 g day of creatine monohydrate for 5 days. J Sports Sci. 25:249.

MIND

MATTERS

 

Berry Good Memory

 

We’ve all had short-term memory lapses (“Where did I put those keys?”). Blackberries may help. Anthocy- anin, a phyoto- chemical they contain, has been shown to improve

I put those keys?”). Blackberries may help. Anthocy- anin, a phyoto- chemical they contain, has been

memory. The compound ap- pears to help protect and rebuild brain cells, and in older folks it’s been shown to actually reverse age-related memory decline.

 

—Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com

52

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

DIETS

Low Carb or Low Fat?

Maybe neither is best for long-term weight loss. Univer- sity of Pennsylvania scientists found that extreme changes in diet, like lowfat or low-carb regimens, trigger the release of stress hormones

scientists found that extreme changes in diet, like lowfat or low-carb regimens, trigger the release of

in the brain. That, in turn, causes anxiety, which can lead to binge eating. Carb reduction is a good strategy for los- ing weight, but don’t get carried away. Balance is

best if you want to maintain your ripped physique. —Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com

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ANABOLIC

DRIVE

Recent Relevant Research

Food news and supplement science

54

Not to blindside you with too much science, but here’s the lowdown on some recent work from the ivory tower. First off, anyone who thinks that merely drinking sugar- containing sports drinks is enough, think again. Drinking a sports drink before, during or after exercise is about as effective as entering the UFC’s Octagon after taking ballet lessons. Yep, it just ain’t enough.

A carb-and-protein blend better than carbs.

A study looked at whether resistance exercise perfor-

mance and postexercise muscle damage were altered for those drinking a carbohydrate-and-protein beverage. Thirty-four male subjects completed three sets of eight repetitions at their eight-repetition maximum to fatigue. They did, in order, high pulls, leg curls, standing over- head presses, leg extensions, lat pulldowns, leg presses and bench presses. In a double-blind manner they drank 355 milliliters of either a carb-and-protein bever- age or a placebo (electrolyte and artificial sweetener) 30

minutes prior to exercise: 177 milliliters immediately prior

to exercise, 177 milliliters halfway through the exercise

bout and 355 milliliters immediately following exercise.

Those on the carb-and-protein drink experienced re- duced muscle damage and soreness. 1

A creatine-aminos-and-protein combo is bet-

ter than carbs. Researchers compared a drink containing creatine, amino acids and protein to a carbo- hydrate placebo on body composition, strength, muscular endurance and anaerobic performance before and after 10 weeks of resistance training. Fifty-one men were ran- domly assigned to either the test drink or the placebo and

performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic tests (which

is one painful bike exercise) to determine peak power and

mean power. They found that the test drink was more ef-

and mean power. They found that the test drink was more ef- fective than carbohydrates alone

fective than carbohydrates alone for improving anaerobic power production. 2

Protease supplement works. What about the use of enzymes? Scientists studied the effect of a protease supplement on delayed-onset muscle soreness. They discovered that a protease supplement may be useful for reducing strength loss immediately after eccentric exercise and for aiding in short-term strength recovery. 3

ANTIOXIDANTS

Fruit Salad Synergy

When we eat fruit, most of us grab a single apple or ba- nana for

When we eat fruit, most of us grab a single apple or ba- nana for a blast of healthful antioxidants, but eating a few fruits together may be bet- ter. Mixing fruits, as in fruit salads, appears to boost antioxidant reactions more than

eating individual fruits alone. Sure, it’s easier to peel a banana than to get out the knife and cutting board, but if you take the time to

dice up lots—more than one serving—and put your salad in the fridge, you’ll have it for convenient snacking. —Becky Holman www.X-tremeLean.com

—Jose Antonio, Ph.D.

Editor’s note: You can listen to Dr. Jose Antonio and Carla Sanchez on their radio show Performance Nutrition, Web and podcast at www.performancenutritionshow.com. Dr. Antonio is the CEO of the International Society of Sports Nutrition—www.TheISSN.org. His other Web sites include www.SupplementCoach.com, www.Javafit.com, www .PerformanceNutritionShow.com and www.JoseAntonioPhD. com.

References

1 Baty, J.J., et al. (2007). The effect of a carbohydrate and protein supplement on resistance exercise performance, hormonal response, and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res. 21:321-9.

2 Beck, T.W., et al. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 21:100-4.

3 Beck, T.W., et al. (2007). Effects of a protease supple- ment on eccentric exercise-induced markers of delayed-onset muscle soreness and muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res.

21:661-7.

MARCH 2008 \ www.ironmanmagazine.com

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