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sets and systems


ELSEVIER Fuzzy Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245

Published in Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 1994 Vol 67, Iss 2, P 239-245 email abehera@nitrkl.ac.in

On fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions


S. D a n g a, A. B e h e r a b'*, S. N a n d a c
a Department of Mathematics, Government College, Rourkela, 769 004, India
b Department of Mathematics, Regional Engineering College, Rourkela, 769 008, India
c Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302, India
Received February 1993; revised March 1994

Abstract

This paper is devoted to the introduction and study of fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions between fuzzy
topological spaces. Some properties of these functions are characterized in terms of quasi coincidence, quasi neighbor-
hoods, 0-neighborhoods etc. Furthermore, some relations connecting fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions and fuzzy
retractions have been established.

Key words." Fuzzy weakly semi-continuous function; Quasi coincidence; Quasi-neighborhood; 0-neighborhood; Semi-
open set; Semi-closed set; Regular open set; Fuzzy retract

I. Introduction fuzzy semi-continuous functions. We have brought


out characterization of such functions and also
The concept of fuzzy set was introduced by have investigated some of their properties in Sect-
Zadeh in his classic paper [16]. Azad [2] has intro- ion 4 by using the notions of quasi-coincidence
duced the concepts of fuzzy semi-open and semi- (q-coincidence), quasi-neighborhood (q-nbd), and
closed sets. Since then, many authors including 0-cluster points as introduced by Ming and Ming
Azad have used these concepts to define and study [13] and Kotze [6]. This concept of q-coincidence
fuzzy semi-continuous, semi-open and semi-closed is found to be well suited to the fuzzy situations. In
mappings between fuzzy topological spaces (fts). Section 5, we have investigated some relations con-
Noteworthy among them are Mukherjee and Sinha necting fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions
[7-9], E1-Monsef and Ghanim [4] and Ghose [5]. and fuzzy retractions.
The concept of almost continuity, strong continuity
and principal super-connectedness for fts have
been, respectively, discussed by Nanda [10 12]. In 2. Preliminaries
this note we introduce fuzzy weakly semi-continu-
ous functions which are natural generalization of The definitions and results not explained in this
paper are already standardized by now and can be
found in [1-3, 10, 14-16]. But for the sake of
* Corresponding author. completeness, we recall some of these definitions

0165-0114/94/$07.00 © 1994 - Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved


SSDI 0 1 6 5 - 0 1 1 4 ( 9 4 ) 0 0 1 6 5 - O
240 s. Dang et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245

and results. So far as the notations are concerned, (b) A fuzzy point x~ is said to be contained in a
we shall write A, A °, A, A i and A' to mean, respec- fuzzy set A or x~ belongs to A, i.e. x~ e A if~ ~< A(x).
tively, the fuzzy closure, fuzzy interior, fuzzy semi-
closure, fuzzy semi-interior and fuzzy complement Theorem 2.5 [13]. Let A e I x. Then A is the union
of a fuzzy set A. The words 'fuzzy', 'neighborhood' of all its fuzzy points, i.e., A = ~/~ ~A x~.
and 'fuzzy topological space' will be abbreviated as
T, 'nbd' and 'fts', respectively. FSO(X) and I x will, Theorem 2.6 [3]. Let f be a function from an tis
respectively, mean the set of fuzzy semi-open sets X to an tis Y. Then the following statements hold:
and the set of all fuzzy sets on a nonempty set X. (1) I r A <~ B, t h e n f ( A ) < ~ f ( B ) f o r all A , B e I x.
(2) I f C <~ D, t h e n f - l ( C ) <~f - l ( D ) f o r a l l C,D e I r.
Definition 2.1 [2]. Let A be a fuzzy set in an fts (3) For any A e l x, A <~f-1 (f(A)).
(X, T). Then A is called (4) For any B e Ir, f ( f - l ( B ) ) < ~ B.
(a) f-semi-open if there is an f-open set B in (X, T) (5) For any B e f f , f I(B') = ( f - l ( B ) ) ' .
such that B ~< A ~</3, (6) For any A e I X , f ( A ') ~ (f(A))'.
(b) f-semi-closed if there is an f-closed set B in
(X, T) such that B ° ~< A ~< B, Theorem 2.7 [5]. A mapping f: X -~ Y from an tis
(c) f-regular open if 4 ° = A, X to antis Y is f-semi-continuous ifffor any f-point x~
(d) f-regular closed if ,~o = A. in X and any f-open set B in Y with f (x~) e B, there
exists A e FSO(X) such that x~ e A and f ( A ) <~ B.

Definition 2.2 [3]. A mapping f : (X, T 1 ) ~ ( Y, T 2) Definition 2.8 [13]. An f-set A is said to be quasi-
is said to be coincident (q-coincident) with an f-set B, if there
(a) fuzzy continuous (f-continuous) if f - I ( B ) e T1 exists at least one point x e X such that
for all B e 7"2, A(x) + B(x) > 1. It is denoted by A qB. A¢IB
(b) fuzzy open (f-open) if f (A) e T2 for all A e T1, means that A and B are not q-coincident.
(c) fuzzy closed (f-closed) iff(A') is fuzzy closed for For two fuzzy sets A and B, A<~B iff
all A e T1. A(x) <%B(x) for each x e X . Note that A ~< B iff
AraB'.
Definition 2.3 [4, 2]. A mapping f : X ~ Y from an
fts X to an fts Y is said to be Definition 2.9 [5]. (1) An f-set A is called an f-q-
(a) f-semi-continuous if f - 1 (B) e FSO(X) for each nbd (f-semi-q-nbd) of an f-point, x~ in an fts (X, T)
f-open set B in K iff there exists an f-open set (f-semi-open set) B in
(b) f-semi-open (semi-closed) if f (A) is f-semi-open X such that x~ q B ~< A.
(semi-closed) in Y for each f-open (f-closed) set (2) An f-point x~ in an fts (X, T) is called an
A i n X, f-semi-cluster point of an f-set A iff every f-semi-q-
(c) f-almost open [4] if f (A) is f-open in Y for each nbd of x~ is q-coincident with A. The set of all
f-regular open set A in X, f-semi-cluster points of an f-set A is called f-semi-
(d) f-irresolute [7] if f - l ( B ) e FSO(X) for each closure of A and denoted by .4. It is proved in [5]
B e FSO(Y). that ,4 = / ~ { V: V ~> A, where V is f-semi-closed in
X}. A is f-semi-closed iff A = A.
Definition 2.4 [13]. (a) A fuzzy point x~ in X is (3) The f-semi-interior of an f-set A, denoted by
a fuzzy set defined as follows: A i, is defined as A i --- V{U: U ~< A, U 6 FSO(X)}.

Theorem 2.10 [4]. For any f-set A in antis (X, T),


x~(y) = otherwise, A° <~ Ai <~ A <~ A <~ ,4.

where 0 < ~ ~< 1; c~ is called its value and x is its Theorem 2.11 [7]. I f f: X ~ Y is f-semi-continuous
support. and almost f-open then f is f-irresolute.
S. Dang et al. / Fuzz)," Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245 241

Definition 2.12 [8]. An fts (X, T) is fuzzy regular iff Consider the fuzzy topologies T1 = {0, C, 1} and
for each f-point x~ in X and each f-open q-nbd U of T 2 = { 0 , 1 , A , B , A v B } on I and the mapping
x~, there exists f-open q-nbd I/ of x~ such that f : (I, T1) ~ (I, Tz) defined b y f ( x ) = x/2 for all x e I.
17~< U. Then we see that f is fwsc; but f is not an f-semi-
continuous function sincef-~(B) = A' which is not
Definition 2.13 [8]. (1) An f-set A in an fts (X, T) is an f-semi-open set in (I, T~).
said to be an f-0-nbd (f-semi-0-nbd) of an f-point x~
iffthere exists an f-closed (f-semi-closed) q-nbd U of Theorem 3.4. I f Y is an f-regular space, then a map-
x~ such that U ~A', i.e., U ~< A. ping f: X ~ Y is fwsc iff f is f-semi-continuous.
(2) An f-point x, is said to be an f-semi-0-cluster
point of an f-set A iff for every semi-open q-nbd Proof. The necessary part follows from Note 3.2.
U of x~, U is q-coincident with A. The set of all We prove only the sufficient part. L e t f b e fwsc and
f-semi-0-cluster points of an f-set A is called f-semi- Y be an f-regular space. Let x~ be any f-point of
0-closure of A and denoted by [A]a. An f-set A is X and B be any f-open set in Y containing f(x,).
f-semi-0-closed iff A = [A]a. The complement of an Since Y is f-regular (cf. Definition 2.12) there exists
f-semi-0-closed set is called an f-semi-0-open set. an f-open-q-nbd C o f f ( x ~ ) = y, (where y = f ( x ) )
such that (7 ~< B. Sincefis fwsc and C is an f-open-
Theorem 2.14 [15]. Let f: X ~ Y be any function q-nbd off(x,), there exists A 6 FSO(X) with x~ e A
and x~ be any f-point in X, then such that f ( A ) <~ C. By Theorem 2.10, C ~< C and
(1) for A c X and x, q A , we have f ( x , ) q f ( A ) , so f ( A ) <~ C <~ C ~ B. Thus f is f-semi-continuous
(2) for B c Y and f ( x , ) q B , we have x, q f - l ( B ) . by Theorem 2.7 and this completes the proof. []

In the following theorems we give some charac-


3. Fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions terization of fwsc functions.

Theorem 3.5. A mapping f: (X, T1 ) ~ ( Y, T2 ) from


Definition 3.1. A mapping f : X ~ Y from an fls
antis X to antis Y is fwsc ifffor each f-open set B in
X to an fts Y is called fuzzy weakly semi-continu-
Y , f '(B) ~ (f-l(~))i.
ous (fwsc) iff for any f-point x~ in X and any f-open
set B in Y containingf(x,), there exists an f-semi- Proof. Let f b e fwsc and B~7"2. Let x, be an
open set A containing x~ such that f ( A ) <~ B. f-point in f - I(B). Thus f ( x , ) ~ B. f is fwsc implies
that there exists an A e FSO(X) such that x, ~ A
Note 3.2. It is clear from Theorems 2.10 and 2.7 and f ( A ) <~ B. By Theorem 2.6(2) and (3) we have
that every f-semi-continuous function is fwsc A ~<f-l(/~). Hence h i ~ (f-l(j~))i and since A is
whereas the converse is not true as can be seen from f-semi-open, A ~< ( f - 1(/~))i. So f - ~(B) <<,A <~
the example given below. i f - 1(~))i.
Conversely let x~ be an f-point in X and B be
Example 3.3. Let A, B and C be the fuzzy sets of any f-open set in Y such that f(x~) ~ B. By hypo-
I = [0, 1] defined as follows: thesis, f - l ( B ) <~ (f-l(/~))i = A (say). Hence
A(x) = ~0 if 0 ~< x ~< 1/2, x~ ~ f - 1(B) ~< A, which implies that A is an f-semi-
(2x-1 if 1/2~<x~< 1, open set in X containing x~. So A = if-1(/~))i <
f - 1(/~), i.e., f ( A ) ~ B (cf. Theorem 2.6(4)). Hence
1 if O~<x~< 1/4, f i s fwsc and this proves the result. []

B(x) = --4x+2 if 1/4 <. x <~1/2, Theorem 3.6. A mapping f: X ~ Y from an tis X to
0 if 1/2~<x~< 1, an fts Y is fwsc if for each f-open set B in Y,
f - ' (/~) e FSO(X).
0 if O~<x~< 1/4,
C(x) =
( 4 x - 1)/3 if 1/4~<x~< 1. Proof. Straightforward. []
242 S. Dang et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245

The following example shows that the composi- 4. Fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions in terms
tion of two fwsc functions need not be fwsc. of q-coincidence, q-neighborhoods and 0-cluster
points
Example 3.7. Let I = [0, 1] and Et be the Euclid-
In this section we characterize fuzzy weakly
ean subspace topology on I. Let /~, be the fuzzy
semi-continuous functions and investigate some of
topology on I induced by the usual topology on I.
their properties by using the notions of quasi-coin-
Let X = Y = Z = I with the fuzzy topology /~,.
cidence, quasi-neighborhoods and 0-cluster points
Consider the functions f : X -+ Y and g : Y ~ Z de-
as introduced by Ming and Ming [13].
fined by

x, 0~< x~< 1/2, Theorem 4.1. A mapping f: X ~ Y is fwsc iff corres-


f(x)= O, 1/2<x~<1, ponding to each f-open q-nbd B of y, in Y, there exists
an f-semi-open semi-q-nbd A of x, in X such that
0, 0 ~ < x < 1/2, f ( A ) <~ B, w h e r e f ( x , ) = (f(x)), = y,.
9(x)= 1, 1/2~<x~< 1.
Proof. L e t f b e fwsc and B be an f-open q-nbd ofy,,
It is easy to check that f and 9 are fuzzy semi- where f ( x ) = y in Y. So, B(y) + ~ > 1. We can
continuous and hence fwsc (cf. Note 3.2); but 9 of is choose a positive real number ? such that
not fwsc. B(y) > ? > 1 - ~. Hence B is an f-open nbd ofy~ in
Under reasonable conditions, the following re- Y. Since f is fwsc, there exists an f-semi-open set
sult shows that 9 of is fwsc. A containing x~ such that f(A) ~</~. Now A(x) >1 7
implies A ( x ) > l - ~ , i.e., A ( x ) + ~ > l . Thus
x~ q A. So A is an f-semi-open semi-q-nbd of x=.
Theorem 3.8. I f f: X ~ Y is f-irresolute and
Conversely, let the condition of the theorem
9 : Y ~ Z is fwsc, then 9 °f: X ~ Z is fwsc.
hold, i.e., let x, be an f-point in X and B be an
f-open set in Y containing y , = ( f ( x ) ) , . So,
Proof. Let x, be any f-point in X and C be any x~ ~ f - 1 ( B ) = C (say). Hence C(x)>-~. We can
f-open set in Z containing ((g of)(x,)) = 9(f(x,)). choose a positive integer 7 such that C(x)>~ 1/?.
Since g is fwsc there exists an f-open set B in Put a, = 1 + (i/n) - C(x), for any positive integer
Y containing f ( x , ) such that g(B) <~ C. Also since n>~7. Clearly 0 < a , ~ < 1 for all n~>7. Now
f is fuzzy irresolute and B is f-open in Y, it B(y) + ~n = B(y) + 1 + (l/n) -- C(x) = 1 + (I/n)
follows that f - l ( B ) is f-semi-open in X. Let > 1 (since C(x) = f - l ( B ) ( x ) = B ( f ( x ) ) = B(y)).
A = f - l ( B ) . Now (9of)(A) = 9 ( f ( A ) ) <~ 9(B) <~ C. Hence Y,, q B, i.e., B is an f-open q-nbd of y,, for all
So 9 o f is fwsc and this completes the n >i 7. So by hypothesis there exists an f-semi-open
proof. [] q-nbd An of x~, such that f ( A , ) ~</~, for all n/> y.
Now A = V, >--~ An is f-semi-open in X. It remains
to show that x, E A. We have An(x) + C~n> 1 for all
Corollary 3.9. I f f : X ~ Y is f-semi-continuous and
n ~> 7- This implies A,(x) > 1 - ctn = C(x) - (i/n)
f-almost open (or f-open) and 9 : Y ~ Z is fwsc, then
for all n ~> 7. Thus A(x) > C(x) - (l/n) for all n ~> 7.
g of is fwsc.
Since x~ E C, A(x) >~ C(x) >1 or. So A is an f-semi-
open set in X such that f ( A ) = f ( V , > , ~ A n ) =
Proof. The proof follows from Theorems 2.11 and V , ~ rf(An) <~ B. H e n c e f i s fwsc and this completes
3.8. [] the proof. []

Remark 3.10. Fuzzy weakly semi-continuity of Lemma 4.2 [8]. For any two f-sets A and B in X,
a function is both a local and global property. A <~ B ifffor each x~ in X, x~ e A implies x~ ~ B.
S. Dang et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245 243

Theorem 4.3. If f: X ~ Y is an fwsc function from an f(A) <%


, B. Thus f is fwsc and this completes the
fts X to an fts Y, then for each f-open set B in Y, proofi []
f-'(B)<.f-l(B).
Theorem 4.6. If f: X ~ Y is fwsc then for each f-
Proof. An f-set is the union of all of its f-points point x, in X and each fuzzy O-nbd B o f f (x~), f - I (B)
[13]. Suppose that there is an f-point x, Ef-I(B) is an f-semi q-nbd of x,.
but x, 6f-l(B). Since f ( x , ) ¢ B there exists an f-
open set C in Ywithf(x,) ~ C such that C~/~. Thus Proof. Let f: X ~ Y be an fwsc function and x, be
C ~ B and by Proposition 1.4 of [1] C ¢1B. Sincefis an f-point in X. Let /~ be an f-0-nbd off(x,). So
fwsc, there exists an A E FSO(X) with x, ~ A such there is an f-open q-nbd C off(x,) such that (~¢1B',
thatf(A) ~< t~. Hencef(A)Cln, sincef(A) ~< C ~< C. i.e., t~ ~< B. Since C is an f-open q-nbd off(x,), by
But on the other hand, since each f-semi-open set is Theorem 4.1, there is an f-semi-open q-nbd A of x,
f-semi q-nbd of each of its f-point, x, ~jT-I(B ) and such thatf(A) ~< C and thusf(A) ~< (~ ~< C ~< B. So
A is an f-semi q-nbd of x~. By Definition 2.9(2), A ~<f - 1(B). Hence f - x(B) is an f-semi q-nbd of x,
A q f - 1 (B). By Theorem 2.14(1), f(A) q f(f-i (B)), and this completes the proof. []
and hence by Theorem 2.6(4), f ( A ) q B which is
a contradiction. This completes the proof of the Theorem 4.7. Iff: X ~ Y is a function such that for
theorem. [] each f point x~ in X and each f-semi O-nbd B o f f (x~)
in Y , f - l(B) is f-semi q-nbd of x~ in X, then f is fwsc.
Theorem 4.4. Let f: X ~ Y be an f-open and fwsc
mapping. Then f(A) <~f(A),for each f-open set A in Proof. Let x~ be an f-point in X and B be any
X. f-open q-nbd off(x~). We note that B is an f-semi-
open q-nbd off(x~). So/~is an f-semi 0-nbd off(x~).
Proof. Let A be an f-open set in X and letf(A) = B. By hypothesis, f - 1(/~) is an f-semi q-nbd of x~. So
Since f is f-open, we see that B is an f-open set in there exists an f-semi-open set A in X such that
Y. Hence by Theorem 2.6(3), A < ~ f - l ( f ( A ) ) = x~ q A ~<f - 1(/~), i.e., f(A) <~B. Hence f is fwsc and
f - t ( B ) . Sincefis fwsc, we have from Theorem 4.3, this completes the proof.
f-a(B) <<,f-I(B). Thus ,4 ~<f-~(B), i.e.,f(,4) ~< B =
f(A) and this proves the result. [] Theorem 4.8. If f: X ~ Y is fwsc then
(i) f ( ~ <~[.f(A)]#for each f-set A in X,
Theorem 4.5. A function f: X ~ Y is fwsc ifffor each (ii) f [ f - l ( B ) i ~ ] <%[B]afor each f-set B in Y.
f-open set B in Y, x~ q f - 1 (B) implies x~ q f - 1(~)i f o r
each f-point x~ in X. Proof. (i) Let x~ ~ ,4 and S be an f-closed q-nbd of
f(x~). Then there exists an f-open q-nbd V off(x~)
Proof. Let f be fwsc. Let x~ be an f-point in X and such that V ~< S. Since f is fwsc, by Theorem 4.1
B be any f-open set in Y such that x~ q f - 1(B). Then there exists an f-semi-open q-nbd U of x~ such that
f(x~) q B. Sincefis fwsc by Theorem 4.1, there exists f(U) <%~'. Since x~ E A, by Definition 2.9(2), x~ is an
an f-semi-open set A in X such that x~ q A and f-semi-cluster point of A. Hence U q A and also
f(A) <~B. By Theorem 2.6(2) and (3) we have f(U)qf(A). Since f(U)<<, V, Vqf(A). Again since,
A ~<f-t(/~). Since A eFSO(X), A<<,f-I(B) ~. So S is f-closed, we have 17~< I7~< S. Therefore
X~q f - 1(/~)i . Sqf(A). By Definition 2.13(2),f(x~)e [f(A)]g, i.e.,
Conversely, let the condition given in the state- x, Ef - 1 [f(A)]g. Therefore, A -.~ -< f - 1[f(A)]~; which
ment hold. Let x~ be an f-point in X and B be an implies f(A) ~< [-f(A)]~, proving (i).
f-open q-nbd of f(x~) such that x ~ q f - l ( B ) . By (ii) Let B be an f-set in Y and x~ be an f-point in
hypothesis, x~ q f - 1(/~)i. Put A = f - 1(/~)i. Hence X such that x~ e f - l ( B ) i - . Let V be any f-open
A ~ FSO(X). x~ q A implies that A is an f-semi-open q-nbd off(x~). By Theorem 4.1, there exists f-semi-
q-nbd of x~. Also f ( f - , ( ~ ) i ) < f ( f - l ( ~ ) ) , i.e., open q-nbd U of x~ such that f(U)<~ ~'. Since
244 S. Dang et al. / Fuzzy Sets and Systems 67 (1994) 239-245

y - 1(B)i ~<f - 1(B), we have x~ ~ f - 1(B)i ~. By Def- disjoint semi q-nbds, i.e., if x, and yp are distinct
inition 2.13(2), U q f - 1(B), i.e.,f (U) q B~ Thus 17q B, fuzzy points in X, then there exist fuzzy semi q-nbds
which implies f ( x ~ ) e [ B ] ¢ . So f [ f - l ( B ) i ~ ] <<, V1 and V2 such that x~q V1, yaq Vz and
[B]~, proving (ii). [] V1A V 2 = 0 .

Theorem 5.6. I f Y is an f-quasi Urysohn space and


5. Fuzzy weakly semi-continuous functions f: X ~ Y is an fwsc injection, then X is a fuzzy quasi
and fuzzy retracts semi-H ausdorff space.

Definition 5.1. Let X be an fts and A c X. Then the Proof. Let x~ and ya be two distinct fuzzy points in
subspace (crisp) A of X is called a fuzzy retract of X. f being injective, f(x~) and f(ya) are distinct
X if there exists a fuzzy continuous function fuzzy points in Y. Since Y is fuzzy quasi Urysohn,
r: X ~ A such that r(a) = a for all a e A. In this case there exists f-open sets Va and V2 in Y such that
r is called a fuzzy retraction. A is called an f-open, f(x~)qVa, f(ya)qVz and 171 /x 172=0, i.e.,
semi-continuous retract of X if r is f-open and f-l(1?l)i A f-l(1?2) i = 0. By T h e o r e m 3.5,
f-semi-continuous; similarly A is called fwsc retract
of X if r is fwsc. x ~ q f - l ( V ~ ) ~<f-l(ffl)i-~< f - 1(171)i.

Similarly
Theorem 5.2. I f A is an f-open, f-semi-continuous
retract of the fts X then for every fts Y, any fwsc ypq f - l(V2) <~f l(v2)i ~f-1(172)i.
function g : A ~ Y can be extended to an fwsc func-
So, f - 1(i? I )i and f - 1(172)i are disjoint fuzzy semi
tion of X into Y.
q-nbds of x~ and yp, respectively. So X is
Proof. Let Y be an arbitrary fts and g : A ~ Y be an fuzzy quasi semi-Hausdorff and this proves the
fwsc function. By Corollary 3.9, g o r : X ~ Y is fwsc result. []
and g or(a)= g(r(a))= g(a) for all a ~ A , where
r : X ~ A is an f-open, f-semi-continuous retraction.
Hence g o r is an fwsc extension of g to X and this Acknowledgement
completes the proof. []
It is a pleasure to thank the referees for their
c o m m e n t s which resulted in an improved presenta-
Theorem 5.3. I f A is an f-open, f-semi-continuous
tion of the paper.
retract of X and B is an fwsc retract of A then B is an
fwsc retract of X.

Proof. Let r : X ~ A be an f-open and f-semi-con- References


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