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INTRODUCTION

INDUSTRIAL PROFILE

Modern marketing calls for more than developing a good product it


attractively and making it accessible to target customers. Companies must also
communicate with their present and potential customers. Every company is inevitably
cast into the role of communicator and promoter.

Communicated, however should not be left to change. To communicate


effectively; companies hire advertising agencies to develop effective ads; sales
promotion specialists to design sales incentive programs and public relations firms to
develop the corporate image. They train their sales people to be friendly and
knowledgeable. For most companies, the question is not whether to communicate but
rather what to say, to whom.

Promotion influences demand by communicating product and company


message to the market. A promotion Techniques involves the co-ordination of all
communication efforts aimed at a specific audience; consumer and shareholder. The
most critical promotional question is the proper mix of advertising, personal selling,
sales promotion and publicity. The promotion mix is usually co-ordinated on a
campaign basis, taking the campaign may efforts include a total campaign with one
unified theme. All promotion messages tie in to this theme in one way or the the,
rather than conflicting with it.

ADVERTISING

The word ‘Advertising’ has its origin from a Latin word ‘Adventure’ which
means to turn to. The dictionary meaning of the word is ‘to announce publicity or to
give public concerned to a specific thing which has been announced by the advertiser
publicity in order to inform and influence them with the ideas which the
advertisement carries. In business world the terms in mainly used with reference to
selling the product of the concern.
The advertising, as Jones defines it is "a sort of machine made mass production
method of selling which supplements the voice and personality of the individual
salesman, such as manufacturing the machine supplements the hands of the
craftsman." It is thus a process of buying/sponsor/identified media space or time in
order to promote a product or an idea. From a careful scrutiny of the above definition,
the following points emerge :

Advertising is a paid form and hence commercial in nature.This any sponsored


communication designed to influence buyer behavior advertising.Advertising is non-
personal. Unlike personal selling, advertising is done in a non-personal manner
through intermediaries or media whatever the form of advertisement (Spoken, written
or visual). It is directed at a mass audience and not directed at the individual as in
personal selling.

Advertising promotes idea, goods and services. Although most advertising is


designed to help sell goods, it is being used increasingly to further public interest
goals.Advertising is identifiable with its sponsoring authority and advertiser. It
discloses or identifies the source of opinions and ideas.It is important for us to
emphasize that advertising may involve the communication of ideas or goods of
service. We are all aware that advertising attempts to sell goods and services. But we
may overlook the more important fact that it often sells ideas. Advertising may
persuade with information; it may persuade with emotion: more frequently, it
endeavors to persuade with some mixture of both.

(1) Electronic Media- Advertisers use two types of media to reach target consumers
over the airwaves; radio or T.V.

(A) Radio:Advertisers using the medium of radio may also be classified as


National or Local advertisers. The radio is a prominent vehicle of advertising
in our country and accounts for a large sum of the total advertising
budget.The radio serves principally local rather than national or large
regional markets. Many small advertisers use the radio. So do some large
organizations.When T.V. became a factor in the advertising scene, some
industry observers felt that radio advertising might become insignificant or
even disappear. This has not been so, for radio operators have responded to
the challenge by offering programmes that features music etc. which appeal
to local audience consumers have responded very favorably to this approach.
Moreover TV does not have much coverage in our country.

(B) Television :Late in India, a growing class of advertising media has been the
TV. In our country, commercial advertising on TV is severely limited
because broadcast timings are only in the evenings. The TV is a unique
combination timing of sight and sound and achieves a deeper impact than the
other media do. This is particularly advantageous for advertisers whose
product require demonstration. TV advertising offers advantage of impact,
mass coverage, repetition, flexibility and prestigious. In our country not
everyone has a TV set; therefore it does not reach everyone. Moreover, in
rural India where 76.31% of our population lives. There are hardly any TV
sets, except at the community centres where electricity is available.
Moreover, TV programmes in our country do not offer much selectivity. The
translation is limited, any centers do not have TV towers.TV appeals to both
the senses of sound and of sight . As a result is combines the two to produce
high-impact commercials. Finally, the fact that product or service is
promoted on TV may build a prestigious image of the product and its
sponsor. The pleasure derived from watching TV is at least potentially
transferable to the advertising message delivered through the medium.

(ii) Print Media: The print media carry their massages entirely through the
visual mode. These media consist of newspapers, magazines and direct mail.

(A) Newspaper :A sizable share of the total advertising budget is spent on


advertising in newspapers. Newspapers in our country virtually reach most of
the homes in the cities. Since newspapers are local, marketers can easily use
them to reach particular markets. This selectivity is easily rigorous. Some are
in the twelve-hour range. From the viewpoint of the advertiser, newspaper
offers several advantage, they are local in content and appeal and provide
opportunity for direct communication between a product and its local dealers
or distributors. Because newspapers supply news, they offer an atmosphere of
factual information and of currency that may be favorable for some
advertising situations. Advertisers can reach a very broad audience through
newspapers which offer great flexibility. The advertisers may choose the
specific area to be covered and the advertisement can be placed in
newspapers at very short notice as compared with other media.

(C) Magazines :Magazines are also mean of reaching different market, both
original and of general and specific interest. An organization may approach
national markets through such publication as Business India, Famina,
Sportsweek, India Today, Business World and Film fare. Some marketers
divide their market on the basis of such variable as age, educational level and
interest magazines. Magazines are divided into those parts that serve
business, industrial consumers, ladies, sports etc. The diversity of magazines
is tremendous. Some offer news or together "General Interest" content to
huge audience. Others are highly specialized, technical or even exotic. In
general, magazines offer advertiser the opportunity to reach highly selective
audience.

The primary advantage of magazine advertising are selectivity of market


targets; quantity reproduction long life; the prestige associated with some
magazines; and the extra service offered by many publications. The quality of
magazines reproduction is usually high. Consumers sometime keep
individual copies for long period of time; reread them or pass them on to
other. Some magazines have prestige value. The marketer can cover national
or large regional markets at a low cost per contract (per individual reached).
Magazines generally offer high-quality printing of advertisement.

(iii) OUTDOOR AND TRANSIT MEDIA

(A) Outdoor Advertising :Outdoor advertising involves the use of sign and
bill-boards, posters or displays (such as those that appear on a building’s
wall) and electric spectacular (large, illuminated, sometime animated
sign and display). The marketers may purchase billboards on the basis of
showings. A showing indicates the percentage of the total population of
a particular geographic area that will be exposed to it during one month
period. The highest showing is 100. Here the number of billboards is
would attract approximately 50% of the local population about 20 times
during a month. Sings are usually smaller than billboards and are erected
and maintained by the marketer rather than by the advertising media.

This form of advertising has the advantage of communication quick and


simply ideas of repetition and of the ability to promote products that are
available for sales. Outdoor advertising is particularly effective in
metropolitan and other can use this medium to bring the products to the
attention of consumers or to remaining them of the product, while they
are on shopping trips or area disposed towards shopping. Advertisers
may utilize this medium to economically reach a large mass of people or
small local markets.

(B) Transport Advertising :Transport advertising appears on the inside


or outside of taxis, buses, railways and other modes of passenger
transportation. Marketers may use transit advertisement to attain high
exposure to particular groups consumers on theory way to and from
work and tourists. Repeat exposure is possible for a majority of the
people in our country use public transport basis. Transport advertising is
useful in reaching consumers at an advantageous point which they are
embarking on a shopping trip. This medium is a low cost medium.

SALES PROMOTION

According to the American Marketing Association, Sales Promotion


consists of those marketing activities other than personal advertising and
publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness,
such as displays shows and expositions, demonstration and various non-
recurrent selling efforts not in the ordinary routine.
Sales promotion activities are impersonal and usually non-recurring and
are directed at the ultimate consumers, industrial consumers and
middlemen. These activities tend to supplement the advertising and
personal selling efforts. Examples of sales promotion are free product
samples, trading stamps, store displays, premiums, coupons and trade
shows. For many organizations, including the marketers of food, toys
and clothing, store displays are an important sales promotion device.
Display exposes the promotion messages to consumers at the time and
place of purchase. Such exposure is especially important for items that
are bought on impulse. Numerous consumers products are purchased in
stores that use self-service selling method's. Marketers of such items
need effective display in order to distinguish their products from those of
their rivals.

1. PUBLICITY

Publicity is a means of promoting the mass market and is similar to


advertising, except that it is free, is found in the editorial portion of news
media and pertains to newsworthy events. The most common type of publicity
are news release (also know as press release), photographs and feature stories.
Marketers have less control over the nature of the publicity that their
organization and products receive than they have over their advertising,
personal selling and sales promotions messages. Upon receiving a news
release, for instance, the editor or broadcast station program director may
choose to throw the release in the waste paper basket, change the hording, or
print or broadcast it in the original form. The disposition of the news release is
entirely in the hands of the media and cannot be dictated by the marketer.
Publicity may be negative as well as positive. Some products and brands have
received bad publicity; for example cigarettes, wings, artificial sweeteners
have been branded unsafe or unhealthy in the publicity which they would
rather have done without. Many a companies and trade association officials
attempt to develop favorable working relationships, with the media in order to
minimize bad publicity. They realize that such communications to the public
may have every adverse impact upon the image of the organization.

PERSONAL SELLING

Personal selling consists of persons to communication between the


sales persons and their prospects. Unlike advertising, it involves personal
interactions between the sources and the destination. Advertising aims at
grouping the shotgun approach, while personal selling aims at individuals the
right approach. Sales persons are in the position to tailor their messages
according to the unique characteristics of each prospect. Further, by observing
and listening, sales persons receive immediate feedback on the extent to which
their messages are getting across. If feedback indicates that the message is not
getting across, the sales person may quickly adjust it or the method of its
presentation.

Personal selling may be a very intense means of promotion. Consumers can


easily leave the room-during a TV commercial, ignore a store display. The
most effective method of promotion probably is to have sales person provided
that the organization has sufficient funds. The most effective method of
promotion probably is to have sales person call upon every target consumers,
for many institutions, especially those that appeal to the mass market, this
would be terribly inefficient. As a result, they employ mass marketing
techniques such as advertising, personal selling is very important in industrial
marketing.

2. PUBLIC RELATIONS

Marketers engage in public relations in order to develop a favorable


image of their organization and products join the eyes of the public. They
direct this activity to parties other than target consumers. These "other"
include the public at large labor unions, the press and environmental groups.
Public relations activities include sponsoring, lobbying and using promotion
message to persuade members of the public to take up a desired position. The
term public relations refers to a firm's communication and relationships with
the various sections of the public. These sections include the organization
customers, suppliers, share holders, employees, the government, the general
public and the society in which the organization operates. Public relations
program may higher be formal or informal. The critical point is that every
organization, whether or not it has a formalized (organized, programmed,
should be concerned about its public relations).

ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

Advertising is an art not a science. Effectiveness of which cannot be


measured with a mathematical or empirical formula some advertisers argue
that advertising efforts go to waste, but every advertiser is keenly interested in
measuring or in evaluation of ad. effectiveness. Testing for the effectiveness
of ad. will lead advertisement testing must be done either before or after the ad
has done in the media. It is of two types, pretesting which is done before the
ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is done
before the ad. has been launched and one is referred to as cost testing which is
done after launching the advertising campaign. The basic purpose of
advertising effectiveness is to avoid costly mistakes, to predict the relative
strength of alternative strength of alternative advertising strategies and to
increase their efficiency. In measurement of ad. effectiveness feedback is
always useful even if it costs some extra expenditure to the advertiser.

Sales-Effect:

Communication-effect advertising research helps advertisers assess


advertising's communication effects but reveals little about its sales impact.
What sales are generated by an ad that increases brand awareness by 20% and
brand preference by 10%?Advertising's sales effect is generally harder to
measure than its communication effect. Sales are influenced by many factors
besides advertising, such as the product's features, price, availability and
competitors' actions. The fewer or more controllable these other factors are,
the easier it is to measure advertising's effect on sales. The sales impact is
easiest to measure in direct-marketing's effect on sales. The sales impact is
easiest it is to measure in direct-marketing situations and hardest measure in
brand or corporate-image-building advertising.

3. PROGRESS TESTS

These assess the various stages of buyer awareness, preference, buying


intention and the actual purchase in relation to ad. effort. They are called sales
effect tests.

Measuring Sales Response to Advertising :

Though increase in sales in the true measure of advertising


effectiveness, in reality it is difficult to measure the increase that is due to a
particular advertisement. It is rather difficult to correlate the response in sales
with the advertising programme. However, a few methods have been discalced
in the following paragraphs which are generally used to measure the sales
response to advertising.

The Netapps Method

The term Netapps has been framed from the term net-ad-produce-
purchases. This method, which has been developed by Daniel Starch and Staff
company, requires the measurement of both readers and non-readers who
purchased and who did not purchase the brand under investigation. The
netapps method is useful in the relative measurement of the sales-effectiveness
of various advertising approaches. But the method is subject to a high level of
false reporting and open to interviewer bias. Moreover, we have considered
advertising influence as the only factor which results in a purchase. There may
be, and often are, other variables which affect purchases.

Sales Results Tests


The additional sales generated by the ads are recorded, taking several
routes. Past Sales before the ad and sales after the ad are noted. The difference
is attributed to ad impact.

Controlled Experiment

In experimental market, any one element of marketing mix is changed.


It is compared with the sales of another similar market. The element's presence
observance is a reason for difference in sales. Instead of two markets, the
experiment can be carried on the two groups of consumers. The inventory
audit is dealers inventory before and after the ad is run.

Attitude Tests

This is an indirect measurement of the post-testing effects of ads on attitudes


towards the advertised product or brands. The change in attitude as a result of
advertising is assessed. The assumption is that favorable attitude towards the
product may lead to purchases.Most ads are designed to either reinforce or
change existing attitudes. An attitude is a favorable or unfavorable feeling
about a product.

COMPANY PROFILE

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CLIENTS
Objective of Advertising Effectiveness research

Advertising objectives of all business are to makes profits and a merchandising


concern can do that by increasing its sales at remunerative prices. This is possible, if
the product is widely polished to be audience the final consumers, channel members
and industrial users and through convincing arguments it is persuaded to buy it.
Publicity makes a thing or an idea known to people. It is a general term indicating
efforts at mass appeal. As personal stimulation of demand for a product service or
business unit by planting commercially significant news about it in a published
medium or obtaining favourable presentation of it upon video television or stage that
is not paid for by the sponsor.
On the other hand, advertising denotes a specific attempt to popularize a
specific product or service at a certain cost. It is a method of publicity. It always
intentional openly sponsored by the sponsor and involves certain cost and hence is
paid for. It is a common form of non- personal communication about an organisation
and or its products idea service etc. that is transmitted to a target audiences through a
mass medium. In common parlance the term publicity and advertising are used
synonymously.

OBJECTIVES
The long term objectives of advertising are broad and general, and concern the
contribution advertising should make to the achievement of overall company
objectives. Most companies regard advertisingly main objective as hat of proving
support to personal selling and other forms of promotion. But advertising is a highly
versatile communications tools and may therefore by used for achieving various short
and long term objectives.

Among these objectives are the following :


1. To do the entire selling job (as in mail order marketing).
2. To introduce a new product (by building brand awareness among potential
buyers).
3. To force middlemen to handle the product (pull strategy).
4. To build brand preference 9by making it more difficult for middleman to sell
substitutes).
5. To remind users to buy the product (retentive strategy).
6. To publicize some change in marketing strategy (e.g., a price change, a new
model or an improvement in the product).
7. To provide rationalization (i.e. Socially acceptable excuses).
8. To combat or neutralize competitors advertising.
9. To improve the moral of dealers and/or sales people (by showing that the
company is doing its share of promotion).
10. To acquaint buyers and prospects with the new uses of the product (to extend
the PLC).

BENEFITS
The functions of advertisement, and that purpose its ethics, may be discussion
below :
1. It leads to cheaper prices. "No advertiser could live in the highly competitive
arena of modern business if his methods of selling were more costly than those
of his rivals."
2. It acquaints the public with the features of the goods and advantages which
buyers will enjoy.
3. It increases demand for commodities and this results in increased production.
Advertising :
a) Creates and stimulates demand opens and expands the markets;
b) Creates goodwill which loads to an increase in sales volume;
c) Reduces marketing costs, particularly product selling costs.
d) Satisfied consumer demands by placing in the market what he needs.
4. It reduces distribution expenses in as much as it plays the part of thousands of
salesman at a home. Information on a mass scale relieves the necessity of
expenditure on sales promotion staff, and quicker and wider distribution leads
to diminishing of the distribution costs.
5. It ensures the consumers better quality of goods. A good name is the breath of
the life to an advertiser.
6. By paying the way for large scale production and increased industrialization,
advertising contributes its quota to the profit of the companies the prosperity
of the shareholder the uplifts of the wage earners and the solution of he
unemployment problem.
7. It raises the standard of living of the general public by impelling it to use to
articles of modern types which may add to his material well being. "Modern
advertising has made the luxuries of yesterday the necessities of today .It is a
positive creative force in business. It makes two blades of grass grow in the
business world where one grew before.
8. It establishes the goodwill of the concern for the test articles produced by it and
in course of time they sell like not cakes consumer search for satisfaction of
their needs when they purchase goods what they want from its beauty,
superiority, economy, comfort, approval, popularity, power, safety,
convenience, sexual gratification and so on. The manufactures therefore tries
to improve this goodwill and reputation by knowing the buyer behaviour.
To sum up it may be said that advertising aims at committing the producers,
educating the consumer, supplementing the salesman converting the producer
and the dealer to eliminate the competitor, but above all it is a link between the
produce and the consumer.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.WHY & WHEN TO ADVERTISE


Advertising as a tool to marketing not only reaches those who buy , but also
those whose opinions or authority is counted for example a manufacturer of marble
tiles and building boards advertises not only to people who intend to build houses but
also to architect and engineers. While the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals products
advertise to doctors as well as to the general public. At time it is necessary for a
manufacturer or a concern to advertise things which it does not sell but which when
sold stimulates the sales of its own product. There are concerns like electric heaters,
iron etc. because the use of these increases the demand for their products.
Advertising should be used only when it promises to bring good result more
economically and efficiently as compared to other means of selling. There are goods
for which much time and efforts are required in creating a demand by sending
salesman to prospective buyers than by simply advertising them. In the early days of
the cash register in America it was sold by specially trained salesman who called on
the prospective users and had the difficult task of convincing them that they could no
longer carry on with the old methods, and that they urgently needed a cash register. In
our country certain publishers have found it less costly to sell their books by sending
salesman from house to house among prospective buyers than to advertise them. In
these two examples the cost of creating demand would be too high if attempted by
advertising alone under such circumstances advertising is used to make the salesman
acceptable to the people they call upon to increase the confidence of the public in the
house. Naturals when there are good profits competitors will be attracted and they
should be kicked out as and when sufficient capital is available by advertising on a
large scale. Immediate result may not justify the increased expenditure but it will no
doubt secure future sales.

2.DESIGNING ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN :


An advertising is an organized series of advertising messages. It has been
defined as "a planned, co-ordinate series of promotional efforts built around a central
theme and designed to reach a specified goals." In other words, it is an orderly
planned effort consisting of related but self – contained and independent
advertisements. The campaign may appear in one more media . it has single theme or
keynote idea and a single objective or goal. Thus, "a unified theme of content
provides psychological continuity throughout the campaign while visual and oral
similarity provide physical continuity. In short run, all campaign want pre-determined
psychological reaction in the long run, practically all campaigns have sales goal.
The series of advertisements used in the campaign must be integrated with the sales
promotional efforts and with the activities of the sales force.
Campaign vary in length some may run only for a few days, other for weeks, yet other
for a season or the entire year. Usually a range of 3 to 6 months includes many
campaigns. Many factors influences campaign length such as competitors advertising
media, policies, seasonal falls curves of the product involved, the size of the
advertising funds, campaign objectives and the nature of the advertisers marketing
programme.

3.OBJECTIVES OF CAMPAIGN
The advertising campaign, especially those connected with the consumers aims
at achieving these objectives :
i) To announce a new product or improve product.
ii) To hold consumers patronage against intensified campaign use.
iii) To inform consumers about a new product use.
iv) To teach consumers how to use product.
v) To promote a contest or a premium offer.
vi) To establish a new trade regional, and
vii) To help solve a coca regional problem.
To create a corporate personality or image.
ii) To build a company prestige.
iii) To keep the company name before the public.
iv) To emphasize company services and facilities.
v) To enable company salesman to see top executive consistently when
making sales calls, and
vi) To increase friendliness and goodwill towards the company.
Developing the campaign programmes. The advertising campaigns are
prepared by the advertising agencies, which work an behalf of their clients who
manufacture product or service enterprises, which have services to sell. The word
campaign is used because advertising agencies approach their task with a sum Blanca
of military fanfare in which one frequently hears words like target audience logistics,
zero in and tactics and strategy etc.
The account executive co-ordinates the work in a campaign. The creation of
an advertising campaign starts with an exploration of consumers habits and
psychology in relation to the product. This requires the services of statistical trained in
survey techniques and of others trained in social psychology. Statisticians select
samples for survey which are done by trained interviewers who visits individuals,
included in the sample and ask question to find out about their taste and habits.
This enquiry often leads to a change in a familiar product. For instance bathing
soap may come in several new colours or cigarette in a new packet or talcum powder
in another size.
Such interviews are often quite essential to find out the appeal of advertising
message for a product that would be most effective with consumers.
David Ogilvy describes a consumers survey to find out the most meaningful
benefit in which women are interested when they buy a face cream. The largest
preference as given to "Cleans deep into pores" followed in order of importance by
prevent dryness, "is a complete beauty treatment, recommended by skin doctors"
makes skin look younger' contains estrogenic hormones, pasteurized for purity,
prevent skin form aging, smooth our wrinkles ogilvy concludes, form this voting
come one of Helena Rubinstein's most successful face creams. We christened it deep
cleanser, thus, building the winning form into name of the product.
After getting the data the account executive puts together the essential
elements of his clients brief, interprets the research findings and draws up what he
calls the "advertising strategy".
The major objectives are :
1. Identifying and analyzing the advertising.
2. Defining advertising objects.
3. Creating the advertising platform.
4. Determining the advertising appropriation.
5. Selection media plan.
6. Creating the advertising message.
7. Evaluating the effectiveness of advertising.
8. Organizing of advertising campaign.

1. Identifying & Analyzing the Advertising target :


Under this step it is to decided as to whom is the firm trying to reach with the
message. The advertising target is the group of people towards which advertisements
are aimed at four this purpose complete information about the market target i.e. the
location and geographical location of the people, the distribution of age, income, sex,
educational level, and consumers attitudes regarding purchase and use both of the
advertising product and competing products is needed with better knowledge of
market target, effective advertising campaign can be developed on the other hand, if
the advertising target is not properly identified and analyzed the campaign is does
likely to be effective.
2. Determining the advertising objectives :
The objectives of advertisement must be specifically and clearly defined in
measurable terms such as "to communicate specific qualities about a particulars
product to gain a certain degree of penetration in a definite audience of a given size
during a given period of time", increase sales by a certain percentage or increase the
firms market shares."
The goals of advertising may be to :
i) Create a favourable company image by acquainting the public with the
services offered available to the employees and its achievements.
ii) Create consumers or distributor awareness by encouraging requests
providing information about the types of products sold; providing
information about the benefits to be gained from use of the company's
products or services; and indicating how product (or services) can be
used;
iii) Encourage immediate sales by encouraging potential purchasers
through special sales contests, getting recommendation of professional
people about company's products etc.
iv) It secures action by the reader through associating ideas, repetition of
the same name in different contexts, immediate action appeal.
3. Creating the Advertising platform :
An advertising platform consists of the basic issues or selling points that an
advertiser wishes to include in the advertising campaign. A single advertisement in an
advertising campaign may contain one or more issues in the platform. A motorcycle
producers advertising platform should contain issues which are of importance to
consumers filling and such issues also be those which the competitive product do not
posses.
4. Determining the Advertising Appropriation:
The advertising appropriation is the total amount of money which marketer
allocates. For advertising for a specific time period. Determining the campaign budget
involves estimating now much it will cost to achieve the campaigns objectives. If the
campaign objectives are profit relating and stated quantitatively, then the amount of
the campaign budget is determined by estimating the proposed campaigns
effectiveness in attaining them. If campaigns object is to build a particular type of
company image, then there is little basis for predicting either the campaigns
effectiveness or determining the budget required.
5. Selecting the Media :
Media selection is an important since it costs time space and money various
factors influence this selection, the most fundamental being the nature of the target
market segment, the type of the product and the cost involved. The distinctive
characteristics of various media are also important. Therefore management should
focus its attention on media compatibility with advertising objectives.

Media Form
1. Press Advertising or Print
i) Newspapers City, Small town, Sundays, Daily,
weekly, Fortnightly, quarterlies,
financial and annuals, English,
vernacular or regional languages.
ii) Magazines General or special, illustrated or
otherwise, English, Hindi, Regional
language.
iii) Trade & Technical Journals, Industrial year Circulated all over the country and
books, commercial, directories, telephone, among the industrialist and business
Directories, references books & annuals. magnates.
2. Direct Mail Circulars, catalogues, leaflets,
brochures, booklets, folders,
colanders, blotters, diaries & other
printed material.
3. Outdoor or Traffic Poster and bills on walls, railways
stations platforms outside public
buildings trains, buses.
4. Broadcast or radio and T.V. Spot, Sectional or national trade cost
5. Publicity Movie Slides and films non
theatrical and documentary films
metal plates and signs attaches to
trees.
6. House to house Sampling , couponing, free gifts,
novelties, demonst-rations.
7. Dealer aids Counter and widows display
demonstration given by retailer or
the advertises goods.
8. Internet Today, Internet is a big spot for
advertising.
So these are the media of the advertising campaign of the selecting of the media.

6. Creating the Advertising Messages :


This is an important stage of advertising campaign. The contents of the message
has to be very carefully drafted in the advertisement. Characteristics of person in the
advertising target influence the message content and form. An advertisers must use
words, symbols and illustration that are meaningful, familiar and attractive to those
persons. The type of media also influence the content and form of the message.
7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Advertising :
The effectiveness of advertising is measured for a variety of reasons :
a) To determine whether a campaign accomplished its advertising objects.
b) To evaluate the relative effectiveness of several advertisements to
ascertain which copy, illustrations or layout is best.
c) To determine the strengths and weaknesses of various media and media
plans.
In other words, measuring advertising effectiveness is needed to determine
whether proposed advertisement should be used and if they will be now they might be
improved; and whether going campaign should be stopped, continued or changed. In
accomplishing these purposes, pretests and post test are conducted. The former tests
before exposing target consumers to advertisements and the letter after consumers
have been exposed to advertisements and the letter after consumers have been
exposed to advertisements.
For an effective advertising programme, the advertising manager requires a
basic understanding of the medium that is going to carry it.
For effectively using advertising the management must test advertising to
know which of the advertisement to know which of the advertisement have proved
profitable and why as compared to others.

LIMITATIONS
 The project relied mainly on the primary data.
 Respondents give very unclear picture.
 We have a limited time.
 The study is based on limited sample of 100.
 It begin my first attempt to undertake such a study, thus the inexperience is also a
obstacle to accomplish the project in a proper way.
 It was also difficult to get proper information from the people because they were
indulging in some other activities.

Review of Literature

Its main topics were techniques of measurement, recognition tests, recall and
association tests, opinion and attitude ratings, projective methods, laboratory testing
and analyses of content, and inquires and sales measure. The second half covered
media analysis.

This research summary was a blend of academic psychology, marketing


theory, survey methodology, and practical experience. Real-world applications, and
real-world problems and limitations, were stressed throughout.
In 1994, the annual Advertising and Consumer Psychology Conference of the Society
for Consumer Psychology covered some of the same territory.It was a blend of
academic psychology, marketing theory, survey methodology, and practical
experience.There were, however, some important differences. In the original
Measuring Advertising Effectiveness, the authors devoted entire chapters to
recognition and recall. In this volume, recognition is scarcely mentioned, and recall
comes in for heavy criticism. This is a sign of progress. We no longer believe that
memorability, however measured, is necessary or sufficient. Instead, we know that
advertisements are subtle, diverse, complex phenomena that require detailed
individual investigation. We also know that advertising effects are different from
advertising effectiveness, and that neither effects nor effectiveness can be evaluated in
isolation.

The three chapters in this section open the discussion stressing the
multidimensional nature of advertising's diverse effects. They delineate the
differences between those two domains, and propose separate strategies for solving
evaluation problems.

When the economic environment becomes difficult, marketers demand proof


of advertising's effectiveness, preferably in numerical terms. Unfortunately, few
marketers can agree on what standards advertising is expected to meet, or even what
constitutes definitive proof. We are in such a period now. In a time of recurring
recession and in an environment of advancing globalization of companies, products,
and brands, many brands are experiencing low growth in unit volume and increasing
competition from private brands and generics. In this business climate, advertisers
want to know what they are getting for their advertising dollars.

The proof called for is usually short term. Brand managers must account for
yearly budgets to their division heads. The question asked about the advertising is
whether its performance justified its proportion of last year's marketing budget.
Agencies scramble to produce facts that indicate a positive evaluation of the
advertising contribution. Everyone is on the defensive. Effects are hard to isolate
because advertising merges with other elements of the marketing mix and with non-
marketing aspects of the message environment.
To further complicate the problem, stress on short-term evidence ignores some
of the most important contributions advertising can make Corporate Communications
Manager for General Electric, declared that the value of corporate advertising was
long-term creation and maintenance of goodwill that enhanced his company's ability
to do business. He went on to state that effectiveness can be calculated by taking the
difference between the market price of GE's stock and the book value of the tangible
assets of the company. The more common situation, selling a specific product to a
target market -- does not lend itself to similar calculations. Nevertheless, Costello
made an important point by noting that the true value of advertising is its long-term
contribution to the brand. The goodwill created through advertising can reduce the
cost of doing business and prepare markets for positive responses to subsequent
selling efforts.

ACADEM I C RESEARCH:

M EASURI NG ADVERTI SI NG EFFECTS

Although long-term contribution is of vital interest to advertising practitioners


and their clients, it is not frequently discussed in academic journals. Academic
research tends to focus on specific elements within ads and how these elements
influence viewer responses. Which dependent measure is examined is typically
determined by the theory used to frame the research. This type of research might best
be termed the study of advertising effects.

Academic research typically focuses on manipulating a few variables to isolate


their respective impact. Although several effects may be tested in one study, each is
usually considered separately, and no summary statement across measures is
expected. Although a few academic studies have looked at interrelationships among
effects, they have been the exception rather than the rule. Advertising effects the same
as advertising effectiveness is the question raised in me during the research. Although
the two are certainly related, distinctions between them must be clearly understood.

Advertising effectiveness is concerned with making a tangible contribution to a


company or brand. This benefit must exceed its cost if it is to be considered
worthwhile. Effectiveness is cumulative over time and affects feelings, attitudes, and
behaviors.

Assessments of effectiveness are typically made over longer time spans than
measures of effects. They involve multiple exposures to ads and multiple executions
within campaigns. In contrast, most effects research involves limited numbers of
executions and exposures. Effects are as likely to be evaluated in an experimental
setting as in a natural field setting. Effectiveness must be determined within a
complex environment where other marketing activities and competitive actions
greatly add to the difficulty of assessing advertising's value.

For a full understanding of effectiveness we need to know which effects contribute to


effectiveness, and we need to know whether effective campaigns show similar
patterns.

With a large sample of advertising questionnaire to describe the most and least
successful in their experience. I concluded that successful campaigns "are based on
market research findings; they are backed with adequate financial and managerial
resources, they are based on careful media planning; and, they are likely to use
messages that are perceived to be creative and unique" followed up with an identically
designed study with similar results. Both sets of findings focused on organizational
and situational correlates of successful campaigns, with success defined as a
composite score that includes sales, attitude, and awareness. Although i did not
directly address the issue of how success is demonstrated, respondents in samples
agreed that a good client-agency relationship is one of the correlates. A "good"
relationship was defined as consistent key personnel on both sides during the
campaign's development and a lack of client-agency personality conflicts.

INDUSTRY M EASUREM ENTS:

JUSTIFYING AD BUDGETS IN TERMS OF SALES RESULTS

Because "effectiveness" has tended to refer to whether the cost of advertising


is returned to the advertiser in the form of current or potential sales revenue, several
authors have proposed using sales as the primary criterion. However, because
additional variables act as channels or barriers (we often do not know which) between
message and purchase, many other authors have argued for measures of consumer
knowledge and beliefs

The exact nature of the relationship between these surrogate measures and actual
sales is not known; thus what constitutes the appropriate measure of effectiveness
remains highly debatable.

To understand effectiveness in a real-world context we need to have some


systematic collection of facts that tell us the probability that the intended audience
saw the campaign, what intervening phenomena affected the campaign's impact, and
the net impact of those phenomena and the campaign on purchase behavior.
Combining this collection of facts with data about specific ad effects may help us
understand the performance of the campaigns, as well as contribute to theory
development.

To further complicate the issue, I have to consider the role of competitors'


budgets, or what the industry calls share of voice (SOV). It has been argued that the
most appropriate measure of effectiveness is market share to market voice ratio . An
additional, virtually unaddressed area is the content of the media in which the
advertising message appears.

Little in the academic literature has helped to resolve these issues. Instead, advertising
effects are typically studied in controlled experiments that employ one-shot exposures
to single messages over relatively short periods of time. They fail to capture the
effects of multiple related messages in natural environments,each designed to achieve
different changes in consumers.

1.The issue of long-term versus short-term time frames for assessing expected impact.

2.The fact that advertising often involves multiple objectives.

3.The problem that the link between advertising and sales is usually indirect.

FOUR CRITERIA FOR DEMONSTRATING EFFECTIVENESS

Effects are clearly individual-level phenomena. Effectiveness is not simply an


aggregation of effects across consumers. We might better conceive of effectiveness as
a societal-level concept, observable through consensus of a community of
professionals. Examination of debate within the industry indicates convergence on
four main criteria for demonstrating advertising effectiveness. To be comprehensive
and compelling in demonstrating value advertising profession-all must do the
following.

1.Make the role of each advertising effort explicit in the context of multiple
marketing goals and program alternatives. Advertising is only one component of a
broader marketing mix designed to build sales. To evaluate advertising's contribution
to the larger effort, it is necessary to specify in advance what particular goals the
advertising is intended to achieve. For example, advertising may be used to build a
particular brand identity, to change existing perceptions, or to create trial purchase.
Specifying objectives in advance allows for the establishment of specific performance
criteria.

2.Establish a chain of evidence to demonstrate the indirect linkages between the


advertising, its expected impact, and the ultimate expected business outcome. The
more indirect the outcome for which advertising is held accountable, the more
necessary it is for a chain of evidence to be established. This is the evaluative
counterpart of defining the particular role advertising is expected to play in the
marketing mix. Not only must advertising and-7marketing goals be shown to have
been achieved, but evidence indicating that advertising contributed to the larger
marketing objectives must also be provided. Additionally, the ability to rule out non-
advertising-related situational factors may also help to strengthen the desired linkages.

4.Identify and account for the contribution of creative. The main focus of a large
portion of effects research is on the impact of specific elements of the creative
message. Measures of effectiveness must also consider the contribution of creative
work, but this should take the entire creative message into account and not be
restricted just to specific parts of it.

5.Recognize that advertising has long-term as well as short-term value. Specification


of the long-and short-term contribution of the advertising investment is crucial to a
fair evaluation of its performance. When we set short-term performance standards we
should also consider their role in long-term strategies. It has long been recognized in
work on media and budget models that advertising has carryover effects Delayed
response effects occur when there is a delay between the time advertising money are
spent and a consumer response (purchase) is made. Customer holdover effects refer to
the fact that an ad can have an effect on subsequent repurchases. Thus an ad might
continue to influence a consumer's buying choice not only in the next purchase
situation, but in later ones as well.

A LONG-TERM VIEW OF ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

Because brand knowledge and image are cumulative effects of many campaigns, it
may take years to assess the full impact of advertising. Ironically, the group that
stresses long-term effects the most is the critics of advertising. Critics tend to make
assertions such as:

•Advertised products lead children to develop poor nutritional habits.

•Commercial messages promote materialistic values.

•Models shown in ads lead to an overemphasis on beauty and thinness for women.

•Adolescents start to smoke because cigarette ads show attractive, adventurous, and
popular people smoking.

•Stress on superficial attributes (both for products and political candidates) leads
people to develop poor decision-making strategies.

Although these issues involve a range of target audiences and outcomes, the common
underlying theme is that consistent messages over long periods of time have important
impacts on beliefs, and these beliefs influence behavior. Applied more generally to
our understanding of advertising effectiveness, this theme suggests that consistent
messages over time create beliefs about brands and brand users that ultimately
influence choice processes and create tangible benefits for the advertiser.

Example : Ivory Soap provides a positive example. In 1882, Ivory ran a


newspaper ad that showed a drawing of a pair of hands and a large bar of Ivory soap,
followed by five dense paragraphs of copy. The first paragraph stressed that Ivory had
"the fine qualities of a choice Toilet Soap" and (in bold) that it was 99 and44/100%
pure. One hundred and twelve years later, Ivory ran ads in which photographs of
people dominated the page. In one case the photo showed a close-up of a 14-year-old
girl; another pictured a young father and son. The only copy appeared in a strip down
the right-hand side of the page. In large print, one word at a time, the copy said,
"You're never too old to baby your skin."In between each word in smaller print the
copy said, "no greasy creams," "no heavy perfumes," "no deodorants," "just the
basics." The bottom of the column included a color picture of a wrapped bar of Ivory
and the statement "9944/100% pure," which is now a registered trademark of Ivory.

The look of the Ivory ad has certainly changed to fit the times, but even with
these changes, for more than 100 years Ivory has continued to say that it is 99 and
44/100% pure. In 1882 this point needed to be placed in bold in the first paragraph.
By 1994, all that was needed was a simple reminder in small print below the bar. By
consistently stressing this one claim, Ivory has captured the attribute of purity (and
perhaps associated attributes such as mildness and gentleness). The value for Ivory of
having used this consistent advertising message is that it would now be extremely
difficult, if not impossible, for any other brand to challenge Ivory on this dimension.
This equity that advertising has created needs to be recognized in any discussion of
advertising effectiveness.

We can easily find several other examples. When one thinks of a dependable
washing machine, the first brand that comes to mind is Maytag. With years of
consistent advertising, Maytag has dominated the claim of dependability and
generated widespread brand awareness, even though Maytag's advertising budget is
typically well below that of its major competitors. This example suggests that long-
term consistent advertising messages can create an image that keeps the brand in the
consumer's mind. If a company strongly associates itself with a particular attribute or
image, it can afford to reduce its advertising budget or even stop advertising for brief
periods of time without significantly hurting its sales. This tangible economic benefit
must be considered in assessing advertising effectiveness.

Originally, Maytag stressed dependability to overcome the perceived financial


risk inherent in buying a washing machine instead of a washboard. Today, in a more
hectic and complex world, families are concerned about the potential loss of time and
convenience that can be caused by an undependable appliance.

Maytag has understood this and re-expressed its equity through the lonely Maytag
repairman who is never called because Maytag appliances never break. Thus, Maytag
capitalized on its initial efforts by updating its imagery to fit the times, while
continuing to stand for the same value: dependability.

LONG-TERM VERSUS SHORT-TERM VI EWS OF EFFECTIVENESS

Not surprisingly, long-term effectiveness and short-term effectiveness must be


assessed in different ways. Differences include type of effect examined, time period
considered, measurement method, and target audience.

Type of Effects

Short-term effectiveness is best assessed by demonstrating a chain of effects


that includes sales, brand perceptions, and advertising awareness or attitudes. Failure
to show any of these effects would raise questions about either effectiveness or
causality. The more clearly and convincingly the ties between each of these effects
can be made and the greater the degree to which alternative causes can be ruled out,
the more compelling the case that advertising created an impact.

A long-term perspective of advertising effectiveness would focus more on cumulative


perceptions. Here too, it would be important to show that outcomes match the prime
focus of a brand's campaigns over the years. Because other elements of the marketing
mix will normally be consistent with the long-term advertising image or benefit when
a campaign is successful, it will be more difficult here to identify advertising's unique
contribution.

Time Period

In the short term, effectiveness can be assessed in time periods ranging from a
few minutes to a year. To directly establish that advertising made an impact, copy test
results that examine attitude change immediately after exposure may be an
appropriate measure. To show that the campaign affected sales, the appropriate time
period may range from monthly or quarterly changes to 1 year.

The time required to measure changes in brand perceptions is typically shorter. In


measuring long-term changes in brand beliefs, 10 years or longer would not be
unusual. Although studies of this sort do not fit the time frames brand managers
generally have to demonstrate their ability, they provide vital evidence about the
importance of advertising and they increase marketers' ability to use advertising
effectively.

Appropriate Outcome Measure

In assessments of short-term advertising effectiveness, the most common


measurement is the change in awareness, brand knowledge, attitudes, or sales.
Because it is also important to show that changes are due to advertising and not some
other cause, the test brand's change scores should be compared with those of its major
competitors. This comparison can help allay concerns that the change was due to a
change in economic or market conditions or some other confounding factor.

Although change is the predominant way of assessing short-term advertising


effectiveness, change is not always appropriate when examining long-term
effectiveness. Here, the goal is to associate a brand with a clear and recognizable
attribute or image. Thus, the objective should be consistency over time rather than
change. The most appropriate way to assess long-term. effectiveness is to examine the
strength of association between the desired image or attribute and the brand. As with
short-term effectiveness, it may be worthwhile to compare the performance of the
target brand with its major competitors. When a campaign has been effective, the
brand will have a stronger linkage to its advertised image or attribute than any rival.

Target Audience

The final difference between the long-term and short-term views of


advertising effectiveness is the target audience. Some authors have recently written
about the importance of focusing just on current prospects in assessing short-term
measures of advertising effectiveness.

They argue that including non-prospects in a sample creates error in


estimating effectiveness because non-prospects are unlikely to respond to advertising
in the same way as prospects do.
However, when we talk about long-term effectiveness, people who are not
currently prospects but who might one day become buyers may be the most important
group to consider. These people do not wake up one day and become prospects for a
product without prior ideas or information. Rather, they have images and conceptions
about brands and brand users prior to reaching a consideration phase in buying.

If a brand can project a clear and consistent image or a strong association with
an attribute, it is more likely that future prospects will remember the brand and know
something about it when they reach the product consideration stage.

Campaign to promote use of ads in business publications to support personal selling.


What was true for the role of business ads in personal selling may also be true of the
long-term role of advertising for consumer products and services. By creating a clear
and recognizable image or attribute association through long- term consistent
advertising, advertisers can assure that future prospects will come to the buying
situation with a feeling that they know the advertiser's brand, its customers, its
reputation, and what it stands for. This is another important long-term benefit of
advertising.

CONCLUSION

Advertising is under increasing pressure to demonstrate that it makes a


difference and is worth its cost. However, given advertising's salience, there is a
surprising lack of consensus regarding its effectiveness. We have tried to resolve
some of the problems by differentiating advertising effectiveness from advertising
effects. Effectiveness involves assessments of actual campaigns in natural settings,
whereas effects involve responses to individual ads.

We proposed that effectiveness may best be thought of as a societal-level


concept whose meaning is established by the consensus of a community of
professionals. As such, a first step in future research might be to determine what
information professionals use in judging effectiveness. One potential source of useful
data is the Advertising Effectiveness Awards, commonly known as Effies.

Entrants for this award provide descriptions of campaign objectives and background
situation, creative and media strategy, and most importantly, evidence of the results of
the campaign. A pool of more than 300 judges representing clients, agencies,
marketing research companies, and a few academics, assess the effectiveness of each
entry. The research question would be what criteria these professionals use to judge
effectiveness in this context.

As useful as it might be, this information is limited to short-term effectiveness.


A more complete conceptualization of effectiveness must take into account a
campaign's ability to contribute to long-term brand equity. Greater consideration of
ways to measure this contribution is clearly needed.

Research Design

After deciding the basic aspects of research project (i.e. formulating research
problem, objectives of research, data requirement, sample design, etc) and before the
commencement of work of research project, the researcher has to prepare research
design.It is a major step in the research process /procedure.

The research work will be conducted (i.e. data collection, etc) as per the
research design prepared. Research design means to prepare detailed plan and
procedures for the conduct of the research project. It is like preparing a master
plan/blue print for the conduct of formal investigation.
It is the basic plan that guides researcher in the execution of the research
project undertaken. It is like road map which enables the researcher to conduct
various activities for the completion of research project.

In short, research design is a systematic planning, organising and executing a


research project within specified time limit and resource allocation. Research design
tells the type of data to be collected, the sources of data and the procedures to be
followed in data collection. Research design provides suitable framework that guides
the collection and analysis of data.

SOURCES OF DATA
Primary source

Is a term used in a number of disciplines to describe source material that is


closest to the person, information, period, or idea being studied.[1][2]
In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source (also called
original source or evidence) is an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of
information that was created at the time under study. It serves as an original source of
information about the topic. Similar definitions are used in library science, and other
areas of scholarship. In journalism, a primary source can be a person with direct
knowledge of a situation, or a document created by such a person.
Primary sources are distinguished from secondary sources, which cite, comment on,
or build upon primary sources, though the distinction is not a sharp one. A secondary
source may also be a primary source and may depend on how it is used.[3] "Primary"
and "secondary" are relative terms, with sources judged primary or secondary
according to specific historical contexts and what is being studied.

Research Design
Marketing research can classified in one of three categories:
• Exploratory research
• Descriptive research
• Causal research
These classifications are made according to the objective of the research. In some
cases the research will fall into one of these categories, but in other cases different
phases of the same research project will fall into different categories.
• Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more precisely,
clarifying concepts, gathering explanations, gaining insight, eliminating
impractical ideas, and forming hypotheses. Exploratory research can be
performed using a literature search, surveying certain people about their
experiences, focus groups, and case studies. When surveying people,
exploratory research studies would not try to acquire a representative sample,
but rather, seek to interview those who are knowledgeable and who might be
able to provide insight concerning the relationship among variables. Case
studies can include contrasting situations or benchmarking against an
organization known for its excellence. Exploratory research may develop
hypotheses, but it does not seek to test them. Exploratory research is
characterized by its flexibility.
• Descriptive research is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to
describe users of a product, determine the proportion of the population that
uses a product, or predict future demand for a product. As opposed to
exploratory research, descriptive research should define questions, people
surveyed, and the method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. In
other words, the who, what, where, when, why, and how aspects of the
research should be defined. Such preparation allows one the opportunity to
make any required changes before the costly process of data collection has
begun.
There are two basic types of descriptive research: longitudinal studies and
cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies are time series analyses that make
repeated measurements of the same individuals, thus allowing one to monitor
behavior such as brand-switching. However, longitudinal studies are not
necessarily representative since many people may refuse to participate because
of the commitment required. Cross-sectional studies sample the population to
make measurements at a specific point in time. A special type of cross-
sectional analysis is a cohort analysis, which tracks an aggregate of individuals
who experience the same event within the same time interval over time.
Cohort analyses are useful for long-term forecasting of product demand.
• Causal research seeks to find cause and effect relationships between
variables. It accomplishes this goal through laboratory and field experiments.

Data Types and Sources


Primary Data
Often, secondary data must be supplemented by primary data originated specifically
for the study at hand. Some common types of primary data are:
• demographic and socioeconomic characteristics
• psychological and lifestyle characteristics
• attitudes and opinions
• awareness and knowledge - for example, brand awareness
• intentions - for example, purchase intentions. While useful, intentions are not a
reliable indication of actual future behavior.
• motivation - a person's motives are more stable than his/her behavior, so
motive is a better predictor of future behavior than is past behavior.
• behavior

Primary data can be obtained by communication or by observation. Communication


involves questioning respondents either verbally or in writing. This method is
versatile, since one needs only to ask for the information; however, the response may
not be accurate. Communication usually is quicker and cheaper than observation.
Observation involves the recording of actions and is performed by either a person or
some mechanical or electronic device. Observation is less versatile than
communication since some attributes of a person may not be readily observable, such
as attitudes, awareness, knowledge, intentions, and motivation. Observation also
might take longer since observers may have to wait for appropriate events to occur,
though observation using scanner data might be quicker and more cost effective.
Observation typically is more accurate than communication.

Personal interviews have an interviewer bias that mail-in questionnaires do not


have. For example, in a personal interview the respondent's perception of the
interviewer may affect the responses.
TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION

Questionnaire Design

The questionnaire is an important tool for gathering primary data. Poorly


constructed questions can result in large errors and invalidate the research data, so
significant effort should be put into the questionnaire design. The questionnaire
should be tested thoroughly prior to conducting the survey.
Data Collection

In addition to the intrinsic sampling error, the actual data collection process
will introduce additional errors. These errors are called non-sampling errors. Some
non-sampling errors may be intentional on the part of the interviewer, who may
introduce a bias by leading the respondent to provide a certain response. The
interviewer also may introduce unintentional errors, for example, due to not having a
clear understanding of the interview process or due to fatigue.
Respondents also may introduce errors. A respondent may introduce
intentional errors by lying or simply by not responding to a question. A respondent
may introduce unintentional errors by not understanding the question, guessing, not
paying close attention, and being fatigued or distracted.
Such non-sampling errors can be reduced through quality control techniques.

Sampling (statistics)

Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of a


subset of individuals from within a population to yield some knowledge about the
whole population, especially for the purposes of making predictions based on
statistical inference.
Researchers rarely survey the entire population for two reasons the cost is too
high, and the population is dynamic in that the individuals making up the population
may change over time. The three main advantages of sampling are that the cost is
lower, data collection is faster, and since the data set is smaller it is possible to ensure
homogeneity and to improve the accuracy and quality of the data.
Each observation measures one or more properties (such as weight, location,
color) of observable bodies distinguished as independent objects or individuals. In
survey sampling, survey weights can be applied to the data to adjust for the sample
design. Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide
practice. In business and medical research, sampling is widely used for gathering
information about a population.
Sampling methods

Within any of the types of frame identified above, a variety of sampling methods
can be employed, individually or in combination. Factors commonly influencing the
choice between these designs include:
• Nature and quality of the frame
• Availability of auxiliary information about units on the frame
• Accuracy requirements, and the need to measure accuracy
• Whether detailed analysis of the sample is expected
• Cost/operational concerns

Simple random sampling

In a simple random sample ('SRS') of a given size, all such subsets of the
frame are given an equal probability. Each element of the frame thus has an equal
probability of selection: the frame is not subdivided or partitioned. Furthermore, any
given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair (and
similarly for triples, and so on). This minimises bias and simplifies analysis of results.
In particular, the variance between individual results within the sample is a good
indicator of variance in the overall population, which makes it relatively easy to
estimate the accuracy of results.
However, SRS can be vulnerable to sampling error because the randomness of
the selection may result in a sample that doesn't reflect the makeup of the population.
For instance, a simple random sample of ten people from a given country will on
average produce five men and five women, but any given trial is likely to
overrepresent one sex and underrepresent the other. Systematic and stratified
techniques, discussed below, attempt to overcome this problem by using information
about the population to choose a more representative sample.
SRS may also be cumbersome and tedious when sampling from an unusually
large target population. In some cases, investigators are interested in research
questions specific to subgroups of the population. For example, researchers might be
interested in examining whether cognitive ability as a predictor of job performance is
equally applicable across racial groups. SRS cannot accommodate the needs of
researchers in this situation because it does not provide subsamples of the population.
Stratified sampling, which is discussed below, addresses this weakness of SRS.
Simple random sampling is always an EPS design, but not all EPS designs are simple
random sampling.

Simple random sampling

Use:
Use in simple experiments that require a single sample to be taken from a given
population or a representative sample frame.
The people in the sample frame must all be accessible and available.
Use when the target group is sufficiently large. Do not use when the target is a
relatively small subgroup that might be missed by this method.

Method:
Create the sample by selecting randomly from the sample frame or population.
This can be done using a paper list of random numbers, although these days a
computer is often used.

Example

Discussion:
The basic principle of simple random sampling is like drawing names out of a hat and
is based on the mathematical property that a truly random sample (if big enough) will
be representative of the target population.
The simple random sample has two key properties:
1. Unbiased: Each unit has the same chance of being selected.
2. Independent: The selection of each unit is not affected by the selection of
other units.
Random number generation is easy these days with a computer where, for example
the Excel '=RAND()' function (just type it into any cell) generates a random number
between 0 and 1. To generate a number between 0 and 5, multiply this by five and
take the integer to round it down (eg. '=INT(5*RAND()').
A problem with random selection is that this is not always possible. For example to do
a true random sample of the population of the USA, you would start with a list of
everyone there, then select a random sample from this (very big) list, then access
those people selected, no matter where they lived and whether or not they wanted to
partake in the study.

Convenience sampling

Use:
Use when you are unable to access a wider population, for example due to time or
cost constraints.

Method:
just use people who are available. Use people in the street, people you know, people
who work with you, customers and so on.
Do use as many people as possible to ensure results from a single test is not just a
coincidence.

Example
A group of students in a high school do a study about teacher attitudes. They
interview teachers at the school, a couple of teachers in the family and few others who
are known to their parents.

Discussion
Convenience sampling generally assumes a homogeneous population, and that one
person is pretty much like another. Whilst people are known to be different, the
difference is assumed to be probabilistic - thus if 80% of a sample prefer coffee to tea,
you might conclude that 80% of the population at large would choose coffee. In
practice, your sample may be mostly middle class Parisians and the same test in
London may well give a different result.
Many famous psychological experiments were done with available people. Most
typically, experiments done in universities use students, simply because they are
cheap, willing and available. This has caused significant debate about the validity of
results.
Convenience sampling is also known as Opportunity Sampling, Accidental Sampling
or Haphazard Sampling.
Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling method.

FORMULATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE


The required data was collected through well-structured questionnaire,
• Closed ended questionnaire
• Open-ended questionnaire
• Multiple-choice questionnaire
• Dichotomous questionnaire

Close-ended questionnaire
They are those in which answers were arranged in a structured pattern. Underthis type of questions there are
various subtypes.
Eg : 10.From your point of view,rate the effectiveness of advertisement in various medium.
Highly Effective Neutral Ineffective Highly
effective ineffective

Press

Television

Radio
Cinema

Internet/Web
Advertising

Mobile Advertising

Open-ended questionnaire
In this type the questions are arranged in a structured form but the Reponses are unstructured. The
respondents are free to replay their own attitude towards the questions.
Eg: 9.Rapid growing market in Advertising is in which medium?
Multiple-choice questionnaire
These types of question list a number of answers and permit the respondent to select the answers.
Eg: 1.How well do you remember an advertisement? *
• Always
• Often
• At times
• Sometimes
• Never
Dichotomous questionnaire
These questions allow only two possible answers. E.g. YES OR NO
17.The expenditure incurred on advertisement of any product or service is such effective that it adds to
profit ?
* Yes * No

TOOLS FOR ANALYSIS

Before analysis can be performed, raw data must be transformed into the right
format. First, it must be edited so that errors can be corrected or omitted. The data
must then be coded; this procedure converts the edited raw data into numbers or
symbols. A codebook is created to document how the data was coded. Finally, the
data is tabulated to count the number of samples falling into various categories.
Simple tabulations count the occurrences of each variable independently of the other
variables. Cross tabulations, also known as contingency tables or cross tabs, treats two
or more variables simultaneously. However, since the variables are in a two-
dimensional table, cross tabbing more than two variables is difficult to visualize since
more than two dimensions would be required. Cross tabulation can be performed for
nominal and ordinal variables.
Cross tabulation is the most commonly utilized data analysis method in
marketing research. Many studies take the analysis no further than cross tabulation.
This technique divides the sample into sub-groups to show how the dependent
variable varies from one subgroup to another. A third variable can be introduced to
uncover a relationship that initially was not evident.

PERCENTAGE (COMMON SIZE) ANALYSIS

Analysts also use percentage analysis to help them evaluate and compare
companies. Percentage analysis consists of reducing a series of related amounts to a
series of percentages of a given base. All items in an income statement are frequently
expressed as a percentage of sales or sometimes as a percentage of cost of goods sold.
A balance sheet may be analyzed on the basis of total assets. This analysis facilitates
comparison and is helpful in evaluating the relative size of items or the relative
change in items.

WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

Think of 3 number A,B,C. If you want an average of these numbers - it would be :


(A+B+C)/3
Now think of another situation :
There are three numbers again A,B,C. However this time you think to reach a specific
average you assign a weight to it x,y.z respectively. The average then comes to -
(AXx +BXy + CXz)/(x+y+z)
What is the utility? Heres one.
Let us say you have a sales team of 2 people. You want to find out who among them
is the best.Naturally you want to characterize them based on their sales ability.
However its difficult to quantify ability correct.
You can think of these as the important elements to arrive at a net figure:
A = Percentage of direct calls.
B = Percentage of achievement.
Now you think the weight of importance for A is 60%( or x) , and B should be 40%
( or y) ( or vice versa - depends on you)
To calculate the weighted average would be :
(A X x + B X y)/(x+y)

Tests of Statistical Significance


The chi-square ( c2 ) goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of
proportions have specified numerical values. It often is used to analyze bivariate
cross-tabulated data. Some examples of situations that are well-suited for this test are:
• A manufacturer of packaged products test markets a new product and wants to
know if sales of the new product will be in the same relative proportion of
package sizes as sales of existing products.
• A company's sales revenue comes from Product A (50%), Product B (30%),
and Product C (20%). The firm wants to know whether recent fluctuations in
these proportions are random or whether they represent a real shift in sales.

The chi-square test is performed by defining k categories and observing the


number of cases falling into each category. Knowing the expected number of cases
falling in each category, one can define chi-squared as:

c2 = å ( Oi - Ei )2 / Ei

where
Oi = the number of observed cases in category i,
Ei = the number of expected cases in category i,
k = the number of categories, the summation runs from i = 1 to i = k.
Before calculating the chi-square value, one needs to determine the expected
frequency for each cell. This is done by dividing the number of samples by the
number of cells in the table.
To use the output of the chi-square function, one uses a chi-square table. To do
so, one needs to know the number of degrees of freedom (df). For chi-square applied
to cross-tabulated data, the number of degrees of freedom is equal to
( number of columns - 1 ) ( number of rows - 1 )
This is equal to the number of categories minus one. The conventional critical
level of 0.05 normally is used. If the calculated output value from the function is
greater than the chi-square look-up table value, the null hypothesis is rejected.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

TABLE NO: 1

AGE OF RESPONDENTS

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 10-20 12 12%

2 21-31 81 81%

3 32-42 3 3%

4 43-53 2 2%

5 Above 55 2 2%
100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,12% of the respondent are between the age 10-20yrs,81%
between 21-31yrs,3% between 32-42yrs,2% between 43-53yrs and 2% above 55yrs.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 81% of the respondent fall in the age group 21-
31yrs.

GRAPH 1

AGE OF RESPONDENTS
AGEOFRESPONDENTS
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

20
10
0
10-20 YRS 21-31 YRS 32-42 YRS 43-53 YRS ABOVE 55
FREQUENCY 12 81 3 2 2

TABLE NO: 2

REMEMBRANCE OF ADVERTISEMENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 ALWAYS 26 26%

2 OFTEN 32 32%
3 AT TIMES 0 0%

4 SOMETIMES 42 42%

5 NEVER 0 0%

TOTAL 100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,26% of the respondents remember ad always,32% remember


ad often,0% at times,42% remember ad sometimes and 0% Never.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the category of
remembering ad Sometimes.

GRAPH 2

REMEMBRANCE OF ADVERTISEMENT
TABLE NO: 3

EXPECTATION FROM AN ADVERTISEMENT


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 CELEBRITY 6 6%

2 CREATIVITY 84 84%

3 JINGLES 1 1%

4 PRODUCT 6 6%
DESIGN

5 ANIMATION 3 3%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,6% of the respondent prefer Celebrity,84% prefer


Creativity,1% prefer Jingles,6% prefer Product Design and 3% prefer Animation.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 84% of the respondent fall in the category of
Creativity.

GRAPH 3

EXPECTATION FROM AN ADVERTISEMENT


TABLE NO: 4

DESCRIBING AN ADVERTISEMENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


1 CREATIVE 50 50%

2 EMOTIONAL 8 8%

3 INFORMATIVE 23 23%

4 SATISFYING 5 5%

5 UNIQUE 14 14%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,50% of the respondent chose creative,8% chose


emotional,23% chose informative,5% satisfying & 14% unique.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 50% of the respondent fall in the category
Creative.

GRAPH 4

DESCRIBING AN ADVERTISEMENT
TABLE NO: 5

IMPACT OF AN ADVERTISEMENT
S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 DEFINITELY 38 38%
YES

2 PROBABLY 54 54%

3 MAY BE 0 0%

4 PROBABLY 7 7%
NOT

5 DEFINITELY 1 1%
NOT

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,38% of the respondent says ad creates an impact,54% says


probably,0% maybe,7% probably not & 1% says definitely not.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 54% of the respondent fall in the Probably an ad
create an impact.

GRAPH 5

IMPACT OF AN ADVERTISEMENT
TABLE NO:6

FREQUENCY OF AN ADVERTISEMENT WATCHED


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 DAILY 42 42%

2 SEVERAL 41 41%
TIMES A
WEEK

3 ONCE A 13 13%
WEEK

4 SEVERAL 4 4%
TIMES A
MONTH

5 MONTHLY 0 0%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,42% of the respondent comes under the frequency of an ad


watched,41% says several times a week,13% says once a week,13% says several
times a month & 0% monthly.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the Frequency of
an ad watched is Daily.

GRAPH 6

FREQUENCY OF AN ADVERTISEMENT WATCHED


TABLE NO:7

PROVOKATION OF ADVERTISEMENT TO PURCHASE

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


1 DEFINITELY 25 25%
YES

2 PROBABLY 61 61%

3 MAY BE 0 0%

4 PROBABLY 11 11%
NOT

5 DEFINITELY 2 2%
NOT

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,25% of the respondent says ad definitely yes it provokes


them,61% says probably,0% maybe,11% probably not & 2% says definitely not.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 61% of the respondent fall in the Probably an ad
provoke them to buy.

GRAPH 7

PROVOKATION OF ADVERTISEMENT TO PURCHASE


TABLE NO: 8

EFFECTIVE MEDIUM OF AN ADVERTISEMENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE


S

1 PRESS 0 0%

2 TELEVISION 90 90%

3 RADIO 1 1%

4 CINEMA 1 1%

5 INTERNET/ 8 8%
WEB ADS

6 MOBILE 0 0
ADS

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,0% of the respondent votes for press a medium of advt.,90%
for tv,1% for Radio,1% for Cinema,8% for Internet/Web Advt.,0% for Mobile.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 90% of the respondent fall in the effective
medium of advertisement if TV.

GRAPH 8

EFFECTIVE MEDIUM OF AN ADVERTISEMENT


EFFECTIVEMEDIUM OFAN ADVERTISEMENT

100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

20
10
0
INTERNET/
PRESS TV RADIO CINEMA MOBILE
WEB ADVT
FREQUENCY 0 90 1 1 8 0

TABLE NO: 9

9.1 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN PRESS ADVERTISENT


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 EVERYDAY 42 42%

2 2TIMES A 8 8%
WEEK

3 ONCE A 19 19%
WEEK

4 OFTEN 12 12%

5 NOT MUCH 19 19%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,42% of the respondent says reference frequency in Press


advertising is Everyday,8% says 2Times a week,19% says Once a week,12% says
Often & 19% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the Everyday
category.

9.1 GRAPH

9.1 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN PRESS ADVERTISENT


9.1REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN PRESS
ADVERTISENT

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
DO
N

5
R
P
S
E
.F
T

0
2TIMES A ONCE
EVERYDAY OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK AWEEK
FREQUENCY 42 8 19 12 19

9.2 GRAPH

9.2 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN TV ADVERTISENT


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 EVERYDAY 70 70%

2 2TIMES A 13 13%
WEEK

3 ONCE A 2 2%
WEEK

4 OFTEN 11 11%

5 NOT MUCH 4 4%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,70% of the respondent says reference frequency in TV


advertising is Everyday,13% says 2Times a week,2% says Once a week,11% says
Often & 4% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 70% of the respondent fall in the Everyday
category.

GRAPH -9.2

9.2 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN TV ADVERTISEMENT


9.2REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN TV
ADVERTISEMENT

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

0
2TIMES A ONCE
EVERYDAY OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK AWEEK
FREQUENCY 70 13 2 11 4

9.3 GRAPH

9.3 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN RADIO ADVERTISENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 EVERYDAY 18 18%

2 2TIMES A 14 14%
WEEK

3 ONCE A 7 7%
WEEK

4 OFTEN 15 15%

5 NOT MUCH 46 46%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,46% of the respondent says reference frequency in Radio


advertising is Everyday,14% says 2Times a week,7% says Once a week,15% says
Often & 46% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 46% of the respondent fall in the Not much
category.

9.3 GRAPH

9.3 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN RADIO


ADVERTISEMENT
9.3REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN RADIO
ADVERTISEMENT

50

40

30

20

10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

0
2TIMES A
EVERYDAY ONCE AWEEK OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK
FREQUENCY 18 14 7 15 46

9.4 TABLE

9.4 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN CINEMA


ADVERTISENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 EVERYDAY 8 8%
2 2TIMES A 7 7%
WEEK

3 ONCE A 24 24%
WEEK

4 OFTEN 24 24%

5 NOT MUCH 37 37%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,8% of the respondent says reference frequency in Cinema


advertising is Everyday,7% says 2Times a week,24% says Once a week,24% says
Often & 37% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 37% of the respondent fall in the Notmuch
category.

9.4 GRAPH

9.4 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN CINEMA


ADVERTISEMENT
9.4REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN CINEMA
ADVERTISEMENT

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

0
2TIMES A
EVERYDAY ONCE AWEEK OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK
FREQUENCY 8 7 24 24 37

9.5 TABLE

9.5 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN WEB ADVERTISENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 EVERYDAY 49 49%

2 2TIMES A 12 12%
WEEK

3 ONCE A WEEK 8 8%

4 OFTEN 20 20%

5 NOT MUCH 11 11%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,49% of the respondent says reference frequency in Web


advertising is Everyday,12% says 2Times a week,8% says Once a week,20% says
Often & 11% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 49% of the respondent fall in the Everyday
category.

9.5 GRAPH

9.5 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN WEB ADVERTISEMENT


9.5REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN WEB
ADVERTISEMENT

60
50
40
30
20
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

0
2TIMES A
EVERYDAY ONCE AWEEK OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK
FREQUENCY 49 12 8 20 11

9.6 TABLE

9.6 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN MOBILE


ADVERTISENT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


1 EVERYDAY 23 23%

2 2TIMES A 11 11%
WEEK

3 ONCE A 11 11%
WEEK

4 OFTEN 24 24%

5 NOT MUCH 31 31%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,70% of the respondent says reference frequency in Mobile


advertising is Everyday,13% says 2Times a week,2% says Once a week,11% says
Often & 4% says Not much.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 31% of the respondent fall in the Notmuch
category.

9.6 GRAPH

9.6 REFERENCE FREQUENCY OF A MEDIUM IN AN MOBILE


ADVERTISEMENT
9.6REFERENCEFREQUENCYOFA MEDIUM IN AN MOBILE
ADVERTISEMENT

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

0
2TIMES A
EVERYDAY ONCE AWEEK OFTEN NOT MUCH
WEEK
FREQUENCY 23 11 11 24 31

TABLE NO: 10

RAPID GROWING MARKET IN THE MEDIUM

S.N CONTENT RESPONDENT PERCENTA


O S GE

1 PRESS 7 7%

2 TELEVISION 70 70%
3 RADIO 1 1%

4 CINEMA 0 0%

5 INTERNET/ 17 17%
WEB ADS

6 MOBILE 4 4%
ADS

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,7% of the respondent says Press,70% says TV,1% says
Radio,0% says Cinema,17% says Web & 4% says Mobile.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 70% of the respondent fall in TV category.

GRAPH 10

RAPID GROWING MARKET IN THE MEDIUM


RAPIDGROWING MARKET IN THE MEDIUM

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

10
0
INTERNET/
PRESS TV RADIO CINEMA MOBILE
WEB ADVT
FREQUENCY 7 70 1 0 17 4

TABLE NO: 11

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM

11.1 PRESS

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 20 20%
EFFECTIVE

2 EFFECTIVE 45 45%

3 NEUTRAL 27 27%

4 INEFFECTIVE 4 4%

5 HIGHLY 4 4%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,20% of the respondent says highly effective in Press,45% says
effective,27% says neutral,4% ineffective & 4% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 45% of the respondent fall in the Effective
category.

GRAPH : 11.1 PRESS

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM
11.1RATEOFTHEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTINPRESS

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 20 45 27 4 4

11.2 TV

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 83 83%
EFFECTIVE
2 EFFECTIVE 12 12%

3 NEUTRAL 2 2%

4 INEFFECTIVE 2 2%

5 HIGHLY 1 1%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,83% of the respondent says highly effective in Press,12% says
effective,2% says neutral,2% ineffective & 1% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 83% of the respondent fall in the Effective
category.

11.2 GRAPH TV

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM
11.2RATEOF THEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTINTV

90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

10
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 83 12 2 2 1

11.3 RADIO

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 13 13%
EFFECTIVE

2 EFFECTIVE 39 39%

3 NEUTRAL 4 4%

4 INEFFECTIVE 38 38%

5 HIGHLY 6 6%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,13% of the respondent says highly effective in Press,39% says
effective,4% says neutral,38% ineffective & 6% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 39% of the respondent fall in the Effective
category.

11.3 GRAPH RADIO

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM
11.3RATEOF THEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTIN RADIO

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 13 39 4 38 6

11.4 CINEMA

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 16 16%
EFFECTIVE

2 EFFECTIVE 29 29%

3 NEUTRAL 4 4%

4 INEFFECTIVE 11 11%

5 HIGHLY 40 40%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,16% of the respondent says highly effective in Cinema,29%


says effective,4% says neutral,11% ineffective & 40% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 40% of the respondent fall in the Highly
Effective category.

11.4 GRAPH CINEMA

11.4 RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN CINEMA


11.4RATEOFTHEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTIN CINEMA

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 16 29 4 11 40

11.5 INTERNET/WEB ADVERTISING

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM
S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 36 36%
EFFECTIVE

2 EFFECTIVE 42 42%

3 NEUTRAL 14 14%

4 INEFFECTIVE 5 5%

5 HIGHLY 3 3%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,36% of the respondent says highly effective in Cinema,42%


says effective,14% says neutral,5% ineffective & 3% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the Effective
category.

11.5 GRAPH

11.5 RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN WEB


11.5RATEOF THEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTIN WEB

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 36 42 14 5 3

11.6 MOBILE ADVERTISING

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 HIGHLY 14 14%
EFFECTIVE

2 EFFECTIVE 32 32%

3 NEUTRAL 35 35%

4 INEFFECTIVE 9 9%

5 HIGHLY 10 10%
INEFFECTIVE

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,14% of the respondent says highly effective in Mobile,32%


says effective,35% says neutral,9% ineffective & 10% says highly ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 35% of the respondent fall in the Neutral
category.

11.6 GRAPH MOBILE ADVERTISING

RATE OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISEMENT IN VARIOUS


MEDIUM
11.6RATEOFTHEEFFECTIVENESSOF ADVERTISEMENTIN MOBILE

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0
HIGHLT HIGHLY
EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE
EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE
FREQUENCY 14 32 35 9 10

TABLE NO: 12

AWARNESS OF NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH

S.N CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE


O

1 ALWAYS 22 22%

2 OFTEN 0 0%

3 AT TIMES 15 15%
4 SOMETIMES 63 63%

5 NEVER 0 0%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,22% of the respondent says Always,0% says often,35% says
neutral,15% At times & 63% says highly sometimes & 0% says Never.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 63% of the respondent fall in the Sometimes
category.

GRAPH 12

AWARENESS OF THE NEW PRODUCT LAUNCH


TABLE NO: 13

ADVERTISEMENT CONSISTENCY
S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 POSITIVE 87 87%

2 NEGATIVE 13 13%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,87% of the respondent says its Positive & 13% says highly
ineffective.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 87% of the respondent fall in the Positive
category.

GRAPH 13

ADVERTISEMENT CONSISTENCY
ADVERTISEMENTCONSISTENCY
100
90
80
70
60
50
40 POSITIVE
30 NEGATIVE
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

20
10
0
POSITIVE NEGATIVE

FREQUENCY

TABLE NO: 14

USEAGE EFFECT

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 LIKELIHOOD 43 43%
OF TRAIL
2 OR 20 20%
PURCHASE

3 LIKELIHOOD 37 37%
OF TRAIL,&
OR
PURCHASE

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,43% of the respondent says Likelihood of trail & 20% says or
purchase &37% Likelihood of trail,& or purchase..

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 43% of the respondent fall in the Likelihood of
Trail category.

GRAPH 14

USAGE EFFECT
USAGEEFFECT
50
45
40
35
30
25 LIKELIHOOD OF TRAIL
20
15 ORPURCHASE
10
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

5
0 LIKELIHOOD OF TRAIL,& OR
PURCHASE
LIKELIHOOD OF ORPURCHASE LIKELIHOOD OF
TRAIL TRAIL,& OR
PURCHASE

FREQUENCY

TABLE NO: 15

STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS CONTRIBUTE IN IMPROVING


ADVERTISEMENT
S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 TRUE 99 99%

2 FALSE 1 1%

100 100

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,99% of the respondent says its True & 1% says False.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 99% of the respondent fall in the True category.

GRAPH 15

STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS CONTRIBUTE IN IMPROVING


ADVERTISEMENT
TABLE NO: 16

EXPENDITURE INCURRED HELP IN PROFIT MAKING

S.N CONTENT RESPONDEN PERCENTAGE


O TS

1 YES 93 93%

2 NO 7 7%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,93% of the respondent says its Yes & 7% says No.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 93% of the respondent fall in the Yes category.

GRAPH 16

EXPENDITURE INCURRED HELP IN PROFIT MAKING


TABLE NO: 17

NECESSITY OF RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING IS FOR


COMPANY
S.N CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
O

1 YES 94 94%

2 NO 6 6%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,94% of the respondent says its True & 6% says False.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 94% of the respondent fall in the Yes category.

GRAPH 17

NECESSITY OF RESEARCH ON EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVERTISING IS FOR


COMPANY
TABLE NO: 18

STUDY FOR WHOM


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE
S

1 FOR 59 59%
COMPANY

2 FOR 9 9%
EMPLOYEES

3 FOR 32 32%
CUSTOMERS

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,59% of the respondent says its For Company,9% says its For
Employees & 32% says For Customers.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 59% of the respondent fall in the For Company
category.

GRAPH 18

STUDY FOR WHOM


STUDYFORWHOM
70

60

50

40

30

20
D
R
P
S
EO
N
.F
T

10

0
FORCOMPANY FOREMPLOYEES FORCUSTOMERS
FREQUENCY 59 9 32

TABLE NO: 19

EFFECTIVE ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT


S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE

1 CORPORATE 26 26%

2 COMMERCIAL 74 74%

100 100%

INTERPRETATION:

Out of 100 respondents,26% of the respondent says its Corporate & 74% says
Commercial.

INFERENCE:

Among 100 respondents, majority of 74% of the respondent fall in the Commercial
category.

GRAPH 21

EFFECTIVE ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT


TABLE NO: 20

ADVERTISEMENT WHICH ATTRACTED THE MOST

S.No Which Ad attracted you the most?


1 Vodaphone
2 Vodafone
3 Rin
4 Zoo Zoo Vodafone
5 vodafone zoozoo
6 Nerolac
7 Vodafone
8 Slice - the old one
9 mentos!
10 Vodafone
11 Bru
12 Vodafone, CSK, Close up
13 Dairy milk
14 johnsons baby
15 Vodafone
16 Vodafone Zoo Zoo
17 Vodafone
18 surf excel
19 KitKat
20 Sunrise
21 Bru coffee & MTR jamun
22 zazoo - condom ad
23 Mobile connections and Food Ad
24 Vodafone
25 Choco
26 bank of india ad
27 SKODA FABIA
28 Pepsodent
29 diarymilk
30 Raymonds
31 Pepsi
32 Vodafone
33 Vodafone
34 Dairy milk silk
35 cadburys Dairymilk
36 vodafone zoozoo
37 Vodafone, Airtel 3G
38 Vodafone
39 dairymilk,vodafone...
40 television and internet
41 airtel.vodofone.insurance.
42 Surf EXel Ads
43 SURYA JYO
where ever you go our network follows
44 you
45 dairy milk
46 ZOOZOO
47 Vodafone
48 cadbury silk
49 vodafone zoozoo, spice mobile
50 HIT
51 vodafone(zoozoo)
52 Vodafone
53 Lone
54 VODAFONE
55 Nolan's cheese
56 Vodafone
57 SurfExcel
58 Slice
59 SurfExcel
60 -------
61 Social Adz
62 -------
63 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
64 Axe
65 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
66 Slice
67 Vodafone pug
68 Reliance
69 IPL coco-cola Baar
70 sx4
71 Slice
72 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
73 tata ace
74 POTHYS
75 TELEVISION
76 Television
77 Vodafone
78 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
79 Vodafone
80 AIRTEL
81 KORTHE BIKES
82 AIRTEL
83 MENTOS
84 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
85 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
86 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
87 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
88 Vediocon
89 SUNRISE(SURYA&JO)
90 VICCO VAJRACHANDI CREAM
91 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
92 SUNRISE(SURYA&JO)
93 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
94 HAMAAM
95 SurfExcel
96 Kalyan Jewellers
97 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
98 vodafone -zoo zoo
99 coco cola
100 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO

TABLE NO: 21

AD EMOTIONAL EFFECT:

AD EMOTIONAL EFFECT: Where


(situation) have you used or felt like
S.No people in the ad?
1 vodaphone zuzu
2 Airtel
3 .
4 Some Life Insurance Adz
5 Airtel 3G video call ads.
lateral thoughts in its script and
6 making......
7 tata aig
8 sorry but i don't remember.
9 !!!!!
10 no idea..
11 Dont remember
12 Causes
13 While performing admad
14 johnsons baby
15 P&G add which help student to study
The new comer AD..! "Axis Bank"
16 Theme Special care.//
17 Ad involving in country's
I felt the same as the people who
described about the product in the ad. It
18 washes away the strains. strain is good
19 nothing like that.
Lot of scenarios where i relate myself to
20 the ad .. it is not specific ..
21 While chatting with friends n relatives
22 peeeeeeep
23 Real Time Life
ads about blood donation,anti-smoke etc
have had an effect on ma mental thoughts
24 :)
25 i dont no
26 in buying products
27 YES, WHEN I WAS DRIVING CAR
when ever i see the limca add ive felt like
28 the people in the ad
29 Miranda
30 when playing with animals
31 nope
32 none
33 ...
34 brb.
35 i dont often try to imitate others, i dont
like that too.................
i have my own style and i would prefer
that one is the best one in my life
in d surfexcel ad vich is informative n
36 emotional...
In Airtel 3G ad, I had felt that creativity
and depth of the ad, and on Vodafone 3G
i felt that how simple and powerful
advertising media is, covering from
children to the aged peoples, these are
two ad's which gave Me an strong impact
37 on Ad's,
38 vodafone
39 not much
40 sorry
41 creatively nd shoud reached our mind
42 NIl
43 During the surya and jyo add
44 srry no idea!!!!
45 .
46 :)
47 Surf excel ad
48 never
49 friend nd gf regarding add...
50 no idea
51 sorry don't remember..!!
while talking with friends about a certain
52 product
53 Marketing .. its very effective than all
54 SOMETIMES
55 I dont have any idea about this question.
56 there is creativity
I felt the same with my friend during our
57 conversation.
58 Nope
59 I dont remember..
60 -------
I have participated in the social service
61 activities hence met many regarding this.
62 ------------
I have not faced such type of ad
63 emotional effect from this ad.
64 ICICI Pension plan ad
65 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO it conveys a lot :)
66 I have faced nothing like that.
Vodafone pug created more love on to the
67 ad.
68 Reliance
Sony VAIO(Kareena Kapoor)Different
69 colours
70 men are back
71 Airtel songs
72 ---------
73 kutty yana
74 --------
75 ----
76 --------
77 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
78 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
79 Vodafone
80 AIRTEL
I FEEL THE BIKE DURING THE AD
81 TELECAST
82 AIRTEL
83 MENTOS
84 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
85 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
86 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
87 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO
88 Mango Soap
SurfExcel:A school girl falls into the pit
of mud & the boy hits the mud.kara
89 Naladhu
90 SHARUKHAN PEPSODENT ADVT
Vodafone ZOO-ZOO superhero (3G
91 advt.)provoked.
92 Colgate : Tooth paste la uppu irruka ?
93 Vodafone ZOO-ZOO for IPL update
94 BOOST : sachin with a boy
Daag achay hai,Two kids in which girl
95 falls into the pit of mud & boy hits mud.
Hutch dog with socks helping the school
96 girl.
97 ---------
98 No where ...
99 haman soap
100 LIFEBUOY
WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

11.From your point of view , rate the effectiveness of advertisement in various


medium.

ORIGINAL TABLE :
CALCULATED TABLE

FACTORS HIGHLY EFFECTIVE NEUTRAL INEFFECTIVE HIGHLY WEIGHTED RANK


EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE AVERAGE
(4) (3) (2)
(5) (1)

PRESS 20 45 27 4 4 3.73 3

TV 83 12 2 1 2 4.73 1
RADIO 3 39 38 6 4 3.51 4

CINEMA 16 29 40 11 4 3.22 2

WEB 36 42 14 5 3 4.03 5

MOBILE 4 32 35 4 3 3.14 6

TOTAL – 100

CALCULATION :

Formula

5 * X + 4 * X + 3 * X + 2 * X + 1 * X / 100 = ANSWER

SUBSTITUTION :

5 * 20 + 4 * 45 + 3 * 27 + 2 * 4 + 1 * 4 / 100 = 3.73 – RANK 3

5 * 83 + 4 * 12+ 3 * 2 + 2 * 1 + 1 * 2 / 100 = 4.73 – RANK 1

5 * 13 + 4 * 39 + 3 * 38 + 2 * 6 + 1 * 4 / 100 = 3.51- RANK 4

5 * X16 + 4 * 29 + 3 * 40 + 2 * 11 + 1 * 4 / 100 = 3.22 – RANK 2

5 * 36 + 4 * 42 + 3 * 14 + 2 * 5 + 1 * 3 / 100 = 4.03 – RANK 5

5 * 4 + 4 * 32 + 3 * 35 + 2 * 4 + 1 * 3 / 100 = 3.14 – RANK 6

CROSS TABULATION
BETWEEN TABLE : 7 & 8

TABLE NO:7
PROVOKATION OF ADVERTISEMENT TO PURCHASE

S.NO CONTENT RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE


S

1 DEFINITELY 25 25%
YES
2 PROBABLY 61 61%

3 MAY BE 0 0%

4 PROBABLY 11 11%
NOT

5 DEFINITELY 2 2%
NOT

100 100%

TABLE NO: 8

EFFECTIVE MEDIUM OF AN ADVERTISEMENT

S.N CONTENT RESPONDEN PERCENTA


O TS GE

1 PRESS 0 0%

2 TELEVISION 90 90%

3 RADIO 1 1%

4 CINEMA 1 1%

5 INTERNET/ 8 8%
WEB ADS

6 MOBILE 0 0
ADS

CALCULATED CROSS TABULATION :

FACTORS DEFINITELY PROBABLY MAY PROBABLY DEFINITELY TOTAL


YES BE NOT NOT

PRESS 0 0 0 0 0 0

TV 23 57 0 8 2 90

RADIO 1 0 0 0 0 1

CINEMA 0 0 0 1 0 1
WEB 2 5 0 1 0 8
MOBILE 0 0 0 0 0 0
26 62 0 10 2 100

CHI SQUARE TEST :

CALCULATED TABULATION :

OBSERVED EXPECTED O-E (O - E)² (O - E)² /E


FREQUENCY FREQUENCY

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

23 23.4 -0.4 0.16 0.00683

57 55.80 1.2 1.44 0.0258

0 0 0 0 0

8 9 -1 1 0.111

2 1.80 0.20 0.04 0.022

1 0.26 0.74 0.5476 2.106

0 0.62 -0.62 0.3844 0.62

0 0 0 0 0

0 0.1 -0.1 0.01 0.1

0 0.02 -0.02 .0004 0.02

0 0.26 -0.26 0.0676 0.26

0 0.62 -0.62 0.3844 0.62

0 0 0 0 0

1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.1

0 0.02 -0.02 0.0004 0.02

2 2.08 -0.08 0.0064 O.0030

5 4.96 0.04 0.0016 0.00032

0 0 0 0 0

1 0.8 0.2 0.04 0.05

0 0.16 -0.16 0.0256 0.16

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0
Formula : c2 = å ( Oi - Ei )2 / Ei

where
Oi = the number of observed cases in category i,
Ei = the number of expected cases in category i,
k = the number of categories, the summation runs from i = 1 to i = k.

FINDINGS

After going through all the project and the collected data, I found that:
• Out of 100 respondents,12% of the respondent are between the age 10-
20yrs,81% between 21-31yrs,3% between 32-42yrs,2% between 43-53yrs and
2% above 55yrs.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 81% of the respondent fall in the age
group 21-31yrs.
• Out of 100 respondents,26% of the respondents remember ad always,32%
remember ad often,0% at times,42% remember ad sometimes and 0% Never.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the


category of remembering ad Sometimes.

• Out of 100 respondents,6% of the respondent prefer Celebrity,84% prefer


Creativity,1% prefer Jingles,6% prefer Product Design and 3% prefer
Animation.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 84% of the respondent fall in the


category of Creativity.

• Out of 100 respondents,50% of the respondent chose creative,8% chose


emotional,23% chose informative,5% satisfying & 14% unique.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 50% of the respondent fall in the


category Creative.

• Out of 100 respondents,38% of the respondent says ad creates an impact,54%


says probably,0% maybe,7% probably not & 1% says definitely not.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 54% of the respondent fall in the


Probably an ad create an impact.

• Out of 100 respondents,42% of the respondent comes under the frequency of


an ad watched,41% says several times a week,13% says once a week,13%
says several times a month & 0% monthly.

• a week,13% says once a week,13% says several times a month & 0% monthly.

• Out of 100 respondents,25% of the respondent says ad definitely yes it


provokes them,61% says probably,0% maybe,11% probably not & 2% says
definitely not.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 61% of the respondent fall in the


Probably an ad provoke them to buy.
• Out of 100 respondents,0% of the respondent votes for press a medium of
advt.,90% for tv,1% for Radio,1% for Cinema,8% for Internet/Web Advt.,0%
for Mobile.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 90% of the respondent fall in the


effective medium of advertisement if TV.

• Out of 100 respondents,42% of the respondent says reference frequency in


Press advertising is Everyday,8% says 2Times a week,19% says Once a
week,12% says Often & 19% says Not much.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the


Everyday category.

• Out of 100 respondents,70% of the respondent says reference frequency in


TV advertising is Everyday,13% says 2Times a week,2% says Once a
week,11% says Often & 4% says Not much.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 70% of the respondent fall in the


Everyday category.

• Out of 100 respondents,46% of the respondent says reference frequency in


Radio advertising is Everyday,14% says 2Times a week,7% says Once a
week,15% says Often & 46% says Not much.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 46% of the respondent fall in the Not
much category.

• Out of 100 respondents,8% of the respondent says reference frequency in


Cinema advertising is Everyday,7% says 2Times a week,24% says Once a
week,24% says Often & 37% says Not much.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 37% of the respondent fall in the


Notmuch category.

• Out of 100 respondents,49% of the respondent says reference frequency in


Web advertising is Everyday,12% says 2Times a week,8% says Once a
week,20% says Often & 11% says Not much.
• Among 100 respondents, majority of 49% of the respondent fall in the
Everyday category.

• Out of 100 respondents,70% of the respondent says reference frequency in


Mobile advertising is Everyday,13% says 2Times a week,2% says Once a
week,11% says Often & 4% says Not much.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 31% of the respondent fall in the


Notmuch category.

• Out of 100 respondents,7% of the respondent says Press,70% says TV,1%


says Radio,0% says Cinema,17% says Web & 4% says Mobile.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 70% of the respondent fall in TV


category.

• Out of 100 respondents,20% of the respondent says highly effective in


Press,45% says effective,27% says neutral,4% ineffective & 4% says highly
ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 45% of the respondent fall in the


Effective category.

• Out of 100 respondents,83% of the respondent says highly effective in


Press,12% says effective,2% says neutral,2% ineffective & 1% says highly
ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 83% of the respondent fall in the


Effective category.

• Out of 100 respondents,13% of the respondent says highly effective in


Press,39% says effective,4% says neutral,38% ineffective & 6% says highly
ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 39% of the respondent fall in the


Effective category.
• Out of 100 respondents,16% of the respondent says highly effective in
Cinema,29% says effective,4% says neutral,11% ineffective & 40% says
highly ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 40% of the respondent fall in the Highly
Effective category.

• Out of 100 respondents,36% of the respondent says highly effective in


Cinema,42% says effective,14% says neutral,5% ineffective & 3% says
highly ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the


Effective category.

• Out of 100 respondents,14% of the respondent says highly effective in


Mobile,32% says effective,35% says neutral,9% ineffective & 10% says
highly ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 35% of the respondent fall in the Neutral
category.

• Out of 100 respondents,22% of the respondent says Always,0% says


often,35% says neutral,15% At times & 63% says highly sometimes & 0%
says Never.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 63% of the respondent fall in the


Sometimes category.

• Out of 100 respondents,87% of the respondent says its Positive & 13% says
highly ineffective.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 87% of the respondent fall in the Positive
category.

• Out of 100 respondents,43% of the respondent says Likelihood of trail & 20%
says or purchase &37% Likelihood of trail,& or purchase..

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 43% of the respondent fall in the


Likelihood of Trail category.
• Out of 100 respondents,99% of the respondent says its True & 1% says False.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 99% of the respondent fall in the True
category.

• Out of 100 respondents,93% of the respondent says its Yes & 7% says No.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 93% of the respondent fall in the Yes
category.

• Out of 100 respondents,94% of the respondent says its True & 6% says False.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 94% of the respondent fall in the Yes
category.

• Out of 100 respondents,59% of the respondent says its For Company,9% says
its For Employees & 32% says For Customers.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 59% of the respondent fall in the For
Company category.

• Out of 100 respondents,26% of the respondent says its Corporate & 74% says
Commercial.

• Among 100 respondents, majority of 74% of the respondent fall in the


Commercial category.

SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS :

I reached some suggestions :


• Advertisement should not be too expensive, because the advertisement leads
and increase the prize of the product.
• Media should be selected according to the choice of customers.
• In rural areas media should be according to the choice of the people.
• To give more attention in making the advertisement to make it effective
• Price should be decreased so as to attract the consumers to use product more.
• To give attention on the weak media of advertisement so that the consumers
comes to know about the product.
• It should be attractive one so that people are attracted toward the
advertisement.
• Choosing commerciality will help in the growth of the company as well as
Industry.

CONCLUSION
To conclude with my research, I found that Among 100 respondents, majority
of 81% of the respondent fall in the age group 21-31yrs.Among 100 respondents,
majority of 42% of the respondent fall in the category of remembering ad
Sometimes.Among 100 respondents, majority of 84% of the respondent fall in the
category of Creativity. Among 100 respondents, majority of 50% of the
respondent fall in the category Creative. Among 100 respondents, majority of
54% of the respondent fall in the Probably an ad create an impact. Among 100
respondents, majority of 61% of the respondent fall in the Probably an ad provoke
them to buy.Among 100 respondents, majority of 90% of the respondent fall in
the effective medium of advertisement if TV.Among 100 respondents, majority of
42% of the respondent fall in the Everyday category.Among 100 respondents,
majority of 70% of the respondent fall in the Everyday category.Among 100
respondents, majority of 46% of the respondent fall in the Not much
category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 37% of the respondent fall in the
Notmuch category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 49% of the respondent
fall in the Everyday category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 31% of the
respondent fall in the Notmuch category.Among 100 respondents, majority of
70% of the respondent fall in TV category.Among 100 respondents, majority of
45% of the respondent fall in the Effective category.Among 100 respondents,
majority of 83% of the respondent fall in the Effective category.Among 100
respondents, majority of 39% of the respondent fall in the Effective
category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 40% of the respondent fall in the
Highly Effective category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 42% of the
respondent fall in the Effective category.Among 100 respondents, majority of
35% of the respondent fall in the Neutral category.Among 100 respondents,
majority of 63% of the respondent fall in the Sometimes category.Among 100
respondents, majority of 87% of the respondent fall in the Positive
category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 43% of the respondent fall in the
Likelihood of Trail category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 99% of the
respondent fall in the True category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 93% of
the respondent fall in the Yes category.Among 100 respondents, majority of 94%
of the respondent fall in the Yes category.Among 100 respondents, majority of
59% of the respondent fall in the For Company category.Among 100 respondents,
majority of 74% of the respondent fall in the Commercial category.As a result, I
wanted convey that Effectiveness of Advertisement is found majorily in the
medium of Television & Press.To improve the industry as such of the company
this research had given an indepth view of the facts through processed & scientific
method.This study on effectiveness on advertising gives the customer psychology
too .100 Samples is a fair example for the expected result.Hence I learnt the
effectiveness of the advertising industry practically too.This major project field
work helped me more practically in gaining knowledge on the agency,my topic
and have helped me in processing few suggestions & recommendation to the
company.

ANNEXTURES

QUESTIONNAIRE:
Effectiveness of Advertising
I need your cooperation in filling this questionnaire on the topic "Effectiveness of Advertising" This
will enhance me in understanding the topic's core ideas and brings out the result to the research.
* Required

Name *

Gender *

Email

Qualification *

1.How well do you remember an advertisement? *


• Always
• Often
• At times
• Sometimes
• Never

2.What do you expect the most about an ad? Please be specific. *


• Celebrity
• Creativity
• Jingles
• Product Design
• Animation

3.If you describe an ad to a friend, would you say this ad is... *


• Creative
• Emotional
• Informative
• Satisfying
• Unique

4.How much does an Ad create an impact in you? *


• Definitely yes
• Probably
• May be
• Probably not
• Definitely not

5.How frequently do you see a product or service 's Advertisement? *


• Daily
• Several times a week
• Once a week
• Several times a month
• Monthly

6.Does an Advertisement provoke you to buy the product? *


• Definitely yes
• Probably
• May be
• Probably not
• Definitely not
7.Which medium of Advertisement is effective? *
• Press
• Television
• Radio
• Cinema
• Internet/Web Advertising
• Mobile Advertising

8.How frequently do you refer to each of the medium?,when looking for information on product or
service that are of interest of you ? *
Every day 2 Times a Once a Often Not much
week week

Press

Television

Radio

Cinema

Internet/Web
Advertising

Mobile Advertising

9.Rapid growing market in Advertising is in which medium? *

10.From your point of view,rate the effectiveness of advertisement in various medium. *


Highly Effective Neutral Ineffective Highly
effective ineffective

Press

Television

Radio

Cinema

Internet/Web
Advertising

Mobile Advertising

11.How often you are aware of the new product launch? *


• Always
• Sometimes
• Often
• At times
• Never

12.Which Ad attracted you the most? *

13.AD EMOTIONAL EFFECT: Where (situation) have you used or felt like people in the ad? *

14.AD CONSISTENCY : What impressions are taken away from the ad ? *


• positive
• Negative

15.USAGE EFFECT :Would you use the product advertised? If so,is it because of *
• Likelihood of trial
• or purchase
• Likelihood of trial, and/or purchase

16.Does the study of effectiveness contribute in the improvement of advertisement ? *

17.The expenditure incurred on advertisement of any product or service is such effective that it adds to
profit ? *
• Yes
• No

18.Is Advertisement Effectiveness Research is necessary for the company ? *


• Yes
• No

19.The use of study of effectiveness is for whom? *


• For Company
• For Employees
• For Customers

20.which oriented Advertisement has more creativity,attractiveness & provoke you? *


• Corporate
• commercial
BIBILIOGRAPHY

Aaker D. A., Batra R., & Myers J. G. ( 1992). Advertising management ( 4th ed.).
Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Abraham M. M., &Lodish L. M. ( 1990). Getting the most out of advertising and
promotion.Harvard Business Review, 68, 50-60.

Bogart L. ( 1976). Mass advertising: The message, not the measure. Harvard Business
Review, 54,107-116.

Comprehensive Measurement of Advertising Effectiveness:

Notes From the Marketplace Christine Wright-Isak

Young & Rubicam, Advertising,Ronald J. Faber,Lewis R. Horner

University of Minnesota

In 1963, Lucas and Britt published Measuring Advertising Effectiveness, a summary


of the state of the art. The first half of their review -- about 200 pages -- covered
"measurement of advertising messages".