Upgrading Active Directory Domains to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 AD DS Domains

Microsoft Corporation Published: November 2009 Writer: Justin Hall Editor: Jim Becker

Abstract
This guide explains the process for upgrading Active Directory domains to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2, how to upgrade the operating system of domain controllers, and how to add domain controllers that run Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 to an existing domain.

Copyright Information
This document supports a preliminary release of a software product that may be changed substantially prior to final commercial release, and is the confidential and proprietary information of Microsoft Corporation. It is disclosed pursuant to a non-disclosure agreement between the recipient and Microsoft. This document is provided for informational purposes only and Microsoft makes no warranties, either express or implied, in this document. Information in this document, including URL and other Internet Web site references, is subject to change without notice. The entire risk of the use or the results from the use of this document remains with the user. Unless otherwise noted, the example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious, and no association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred. Complying with all applicable copyright laws is the responsibility of the user. Without limiting the rights under copyright, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), or for any purpose, without the express written permission of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft may have patents, patent applications, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property rights covering subject matter in this document. Except as expressly provided in any written license agreement from Microsoft, the furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents, trademarks, copyrights, or other intellectual property. © 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Active Directory, Microsoft, Windows, and Windows Server are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners.

Contents
Upgrading Active Directory Domains to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 AD DS Domains................................................................................................................................1 Abstract....................................................................................................................................1 Copyright Information......................................................................................................................2 Contents..........................................................................................................................................3 Upgrading Active Directory Domains to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 AD DS Domains................................................................................................................................6 About this guide...........................................................................................................................6 In this guide.................................................................................................................................6 Related information......................................................................................................................6 Overview of Upgrading Active Directory Domains...........................................................................7 Planning to Upgrade Active Directory Domains..............................................................................7 In this guide.................................................................................................................................7 Checklist: Preupgrade Tasks...........................................................................................................8 Assign Appropriate Credentials.......................................................................................................9 Introduce a Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2.......11 Determine Supported Software Upgrades....................................................................................12 Assess Hardware Requirements...................................................................................................14 Disk space requirements for upgrading to Windows Server 2008.............................................15 Disk space requirements for upgrading to Windows Server 2008 R2........................................16 Determine Domain Controller Upgrade Order...............................................................................19 Develop a Test Plan for Your Domain Upgrade Process...............................................................20 Determine Service Pack Levels....................................................................................................21 Back Up Domain Data...................................................................................................................23 Resolve Upgrade and Application Compatibility Problems............................................................23 Known issues for upgrading to Windows Server 2003...............................................................24 Performing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains...................................................................25 In this guide...............................................................................................................................25

.........................................................................49 New groups and new group memberships that are created after upgrading the PDC.............................................................................................................................................48 Intrasite replication frequency......................47 _msdcs...........................................................................................................forest_root_domain subdomain...........................................................................................................................53 System requirements for installing Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2................................................................27 Upgrade Existing Domain Controllers.................................................................52 Microsoft Support Quick Start for Adding Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Domain Controllers to Existing Domains.....................45 Appendix A: Background Information for Upgrading Active Directory Domains..........................................................................................................................44 Finding Additional Information About Upgrading Active Directory Domains..................................................................................................................................................................................................................56 Functional level features and requirements.......................................................38 Completing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains...46 Active Directory preparation tool...............................................................................................................................................43 Complete the Upgrade.............................53 What’s new in AD DS in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2...56 ...........................................29 Unattended upgrade ......................48 _msdcs...............................................................37 Perform Clean-up Tasks...................41 Redirect Users and Computers.........................................................................................................25 Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade...............Checklist: Upgrade Tasks......................38 In this guide.....................................................39 Checklist: Post-Upgrade Tasks............................50 Security policy considerations when upgrading from Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003.46 Application directory partitions for DNS.........................39 Raise the Functional Levels of Domains and Forests..........................40 Move DNS Data into DNS Application Directory Partitions..............................52 Secure channel signing and encryption............................................................................................47 Service (SRV) resource records..................................................34 Update Group Policy Permissions................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 52 SMB packet signing........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................55 Supported in-place upgrade paths....domain_name subdomain...............................................26 Install Active Directory Domain Services on the Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2....30 Modify Default Security Policies.......................................................

............................71 Adprep errors................. and other virtualization software.......................................................................57 Secure default settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2......................................................................... remote administration................................................71 Domainprep errors.........72 Rodcprep errors....................................................59 Known issues for upgrades to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2................................................................................. VMware.............71 Forestprep errors................................................................................................................................................................................68 Upgrading and promoting new domain controllers into an existing domain..............................................................................................66 Run adprep /domainprep /gpprep......................................................61 Run Adprep commands..................................................................................................................58 Configuring the Windows Time service for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 ..................................................70 Fixes to install after AD DS installation..............................58 Administration.......72 Dcpromo errors..............................................................................................................72 ............... run adprep /rodcprep......................................Client........................70 Troubleshooting errors......................................65 If you are deploying RODCs............................ and cross-version administration....................................................................65 Add schema changes using adprep /forestprep.............................................. and application interoperability..................67 Background information about the in-place upgrade process....................................................................................................................................................68 Post-installation tasks..................................................................67 Upgrade domain controllers................................................................................. server.................57 Virtualized domain controllers on Hyper-V™.....................................................................................61 Verifications you can make and recommended hotfixes you can install before you begin......

• For more information about AD DS functional levels.microsoft. It provides detailed guidance for upgrading Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domains to Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domains that have domain controllers running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. About this guide This guide is intended for use by system administrators and system engineers. see Enabling Advanced Features for AD DS. see Designing the Logical Structure for Windows Server 2008 AD DS [LH]. and allows your organization to take advantage of the improved security that is offered by the Windows Server® 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems. 6 . In this guide • • • • • • Overview of Upgrading Active Directory Domains Planning to Upgrade Active Directory Domains Performing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains Completing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains Finding Additional Information About Upgrading Active Directory Domains Appendix A: Background Information for Upgrading Active Directory Domains • Microsoft Support Quick Start for Adding Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Domain Controllers to Existing Domains Related information • For more information about the AD DS logical structure and the Domain Name System (DNS) infrastructure that is necessary to support AD DS. efficient. see Deploying Domain Name System (DNS) (http://go. use the checklists that are provided in this guide and complete the tasks in the order in which they are presented.com/fwlink/?LinkId=93656). For a seamless deployment experience. The upgrade process is straightforward. • For more information about installing and configuring a DNS server.Upgrading Active Directory Domains to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 AD DS Domains Upgrading your network operating system requires minimal network configuration and typically has a low impact on user operations.

In this guide • • Checklist: Preupgrade Tasks Assign Appropriate Credentials • Introduce a Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 • • • • • • Determine Supported Software Upgrades Assess Hardware Requirements Determine Domain Controller Upgrade Order Develop a Test Plan for Your Domain Upgrade Process Determine Service Pack Levels Back Up Domain Data 7 . you can maintain your current network and domain configuration while improving the security. and the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domains and forest will be operating at the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 functional level. For more information about advanced AD DS features for AD DS functional levels. Although your objectives might not require other significant changes to your existing environment. In addition. Planning to Upgrade Active Directory Domains To plan the upgrade of your Active Directory domains. scalability. see Enabling Advanced Features for AD DS. You might find opportunities for increased efficiencies and cost savings that you can incorporate into your upgrade process. complete the tasks in Checklist: Preupgrade Tasks. the operating system upgrade is an opportune time to review your existing Active Directory design. Before you upgrade your Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domains. site topology. review your business objectives and decide how they relate to your existing Active Directory infrastructure. including your Active Directory logical structure. When the domain upgrade process is complete. all domain controllers will be running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2.Overview of Upgrading Active Directory Domains By upgrading your network operating system. At the Windows Server 2008 R2 forest functional level. and manageability of your network infrastructure. and domain controller capacity. ensure that you test your upgrade process in a lab and pilot program. you can take advantage of all the advanced AD DS features.

Back up your Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domain data Assess Hardware Requirements Determine Domain Controller Upgrade Order Develop a Test Plan for Your Domain Upgrade Process Determine Service Pack Levels Back Up Domain Data 8 . That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Identify the editions of Determine Supported Windows 2000 or Software Upgrades Windows Server 2003 that are running in your environment. If a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic. return to this checklist after you review the conceptual topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks. Introduce a newly installed member Introduce a Member Server server into the forest. Determine the order in which you will upgrade your domain controllers before you begin the domain upgrade process. Review and document the existing hardware configuration of each domain controller that you plan to upgrade. Then determine if you can upgrade these editions or if you must perform a complete reinstallation for each. Develop a test plan for your domain upgrade process. Checklist: Preupgrade Tasks Task Reference Assign appropriate credentials to Assign Appropriate the users who are responsible for Credentials preparing the forest and domain for an Active Directory upgrade.• Resolve Upgrade and Application Compatibility Problems Checklist: Preupgrade Tasks Complete the tasks in this checklist in the order in which they are presented. Determine service pack levels.

The following groups are members of the Builtin\Administrators group by default: • The Enterprise Admins group is a member of Builtin\Administrators in the forest root domain and in each regional domain in the forest. Resolve Upgrade and Application Compatibility Problems Assign Appropriate Credentials Assign appropriate credentials to the users who are responsible for preparing the forest and domain for an Active Directory upgrade. Resolve upgrade and application compatibility problems.Task Reference before you begin the upgrade. In addition. depending on the domain membership of the servers. • The Domain Admins group is a member of Builtin\Administrators on member servers in their domain. The following table shows the credentials that are required to upgrade servers. the security context can affect the ability of an administrator to complete the upgrade of domain controllers. Members of the Builtin\Administrators group can upgrade the operating system and install software on a computer. The adprep /domainprep command requires a user account that is a member of the Domain Admins group in the targeted domain. and Domain Admins groups. The adprep /forestprep command requires a user account that is a member of the Schema Admins. The adprep /rodcprep command requires a user account that is a member of the Enterprise Admins group. • The Domain Admins group is a member of Builtin\Administrators in their domain. Credential Domain controller in forest root domain Member server in forest root domain Domain controller in regional domain Member server in regional domain Enterprise Admins in forest root domain Domain Admins in forest root domain Builtin\Administrators in forest root domain Domain Admins in 9 . Enterprise Admins.

4. and then click Add/Remove snap-in. and then click Add. verify that the user who will perform the upgrade is a member in one of the groups that has the necessary rights assigned. verify that Local Computer appears in the Group Policy Object box. Click File. 6. In the Available snap-ins dialog box. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. 3. In the console tree. 5. navigate to the Local Computer Policy\Computer Configuration\Policies\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment folder.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. and then click OK. 10 . In the details pane. select Group Policy Management Editor. The policies are named identically to the user rights listed above. type mmc. 2. Membership in the local Administrator account. In the Run dialog box.microsoft.Credential Domain controller in forest root domain Member server in forest root domain Domain controller in regional domain Member server in regional domain regional domain Builtin\Administrators in regional domain You also need to ensure that the administrator who is upgrading the domain controllers has the following rights: • • • • Backup files and directories (SE_BACKUP_NAME) Modify firmware environment values (SE_SYSTEM_ENVIRONMENT_NAME) Restore files and directories (SE_RESTORE_NAME) Shut down the system (SE_SHUTDOWN_NAME) The setup program cannot run properly if these rights are not defined or if they are disabled by a domain Group Policy setting on the computer. and then click Finish. On the Welcome to the Group Policy Wizard page. To verify if user rights assignments are disabled by a domain Group Policy setting 1. or equivalent. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. Assign the appropriate credentials in advance to allow both Active Directory domain upgrade testing and deployment to proceed without unexpected security delays.

perform an in-place upgrade of this Windows Server 2003 operating system to a Windows Server 2008 operating system. As an alternative.Introduce a Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 You can upgrade your Active Directory environment in the following ways: • Introduce newly installed domain controllers that run Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 into the forest.microsoft. you cannot upgrade this computer to Windows Server 2008 R2. and then click Allow connections from computers running any version of Remote 11 . Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. Enter the computer name. and then retire or upgrade all existing domain controllers. Enter a strong administrator password. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Insert the operating system DVD into the DVD drive. you must first perform an in-place upgrade of a Windows 2000 operating system to a Windows Server 2003 operating system. If your server is running an x64-based version of Windows Server 2003. If your server is running an x86-based version of Windows Server 2003.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. If you perform an inplace upgrade of the existing domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 in the forest to Windows Server 2008 R2. or equivalent. and then select the option to install the operating system. Use the NTFS file system to format the partitions. The information in this guide also applies to Windows Server 2008 R2. Then. click Configure Remote Desktop. • Perform an in-place upgrade of all existing domain controllers. you can use an unattended installation method. static IP address. To install Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 1. Membership in the local Administrator account. Use the following procedure to introduce a member server that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 into your environment. Enable Remote Desktop to enable administrators to log on remotely. if necessary. remember that Windows Server 2008 R2 is an x64-based operating system. To enable Remote Desktop. in Server Manager. and subnet mask that are specified by your design. Important If you want to upgrade the operating system of a Windows 2000 domain controller to Windows Server 2008. A direct Windows 2000–to– Windows Server 2008 operating system upgrade is not supported. 3. you can successfully perform an in-place upgrade of this computer's operating system to Windows Server 2008 R2. 2.

Windows 2000 editions Upgrade to Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition Upgrade to Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition Upgrade to Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Advanced Server Windows 2000 Datacenter Server 12 .Desktop (less secure) or Allow connections only from computers running Remote Desktop with Network Level Authentication (more secure). You can introduce this member server to any domain in the forest. introduce the member server into the forest root domain. The following table lists Windows 2000 editions and indicates what editions can be upgraded directly to each edition of Windows Server 2003. you must perform an in-place upgrade of all existing domain controllers running Windows 2000 in the forest to domain controllers running Windows Server 2003. Then. if your forest root domain is a dedicated root. After you prepare your forest and domains for the upgrade (see Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade). perform an in-place upgrade of those domain controllers to Windows Server 2008. A direct in-place upgrade of a Windows 2000 edition to a Windows Server 2008 edition is not supported. Placing this member server into a dedicated root domain has the lowest impact on your environment because users generally do not log on to a dedicated forest root domain. Determine Supported Software Upgrades Identify the editions of Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 that are running in your environment. user authentications are minimal. determine if you can upgrade these editions or if you must perform complete operating system reinstallations. However. install AD DS on the new member server (see Install Active Directory Domain Services on the Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2). Therefore. Then. Important To upgrade Windows 2000 Active Directory domains to Windows Server 2008 Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) domains.

you cannot upgrade this computer to Windows Server 2008 R2. If you perform an in-place upgrade of the existing domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 in the forest to Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information about supported upgrade options. you can successfully perform an in-place upgrade of this computer's operating system to Windows Server 2008 R2. If your server is running an x86-based version of Windows Server 2003. Notes With the exception of Windows Server 2008 editions for Itanium-Based Systems. If your server is running an x64-based version of Windows Server 2003. upgrades from 32-bit to 64-bit (and from 64-bit to 32-bit) are not supported. remember that Windows Server 2008 R2 is an x64based operating system. 13 . The information in this guide also applies to Windows Server 2008 R2.The following table lists Windows Server 2003 editions and indicates what editions can be upgraded directly to each edition of Windows Server 2008. However. see Supported in-place upgrade paths. this table applies equally to 32-bit and 64-bit Windows Server 2008 editions.

You can retain domain controllers that 14 .Windows Server 2003 editions Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 Standard Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Upgrade to Windows Server 2008 Datacenter • Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition with Service Pack 1 (SP1) • Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition with Service Pack 2 (SP2) • Windows Server 2003 R2 Standard Edition • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition with SP1 • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition with SP2 • Windows Server 2003 R2 Enterprise Edition • Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition with SP1 • Windows Server 2003 Datacenter Edition with SP2 • Windows Server 2003 R2 Datacenter Edition Assess Hardware Requirements Review and document the existing hardware configuration of each domain controller that you plan to upgrade. Use this information to identify the domain controllers in your environment that you can upgrade and the domain controllers that do not meet the hardware requirements necessary to run Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2.

SYSVOL. • On the drive containing the AD DS log files. a Windows 2000–based domain controller meets the requirements to be upgraded to Windows Server 2008 as long as it has adequate disk space. Available space must equal at least 10 percent of your existing database size or at least 250 megabytes (MB).exe places the Active Directory database and log files under %Windir%. provide at least 1. a domain controller requires available free disk space for the Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) database. for the Setup process.4 gigabytes (GB) of storage for each 1. with the sizes listed in the following table.do not meet the necessary hardware requirements to serve as rollback servers if you must roll back your deployment. provide at least 500 MB of available space. Dcpromo. • On the drive containing the SYSVOL shared folder.000 users.dit. Disk space requirements for upgrading to Windows Server 2008 The upgrade process from Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2008 requires free disk space for the new operating system image. provide 0.000 users and 5. in which case. By default. and for any installed server roles. provide at least 500 MB of available space. For example. their size is included in the free disk space requirements for the %Windir% folder. For the domain controller role. suppose that you have the following resources located on the %WinDir% volume. NTDS. the volume or volumes that host the following resources also have specific free disk space requirements: • • • • Application Data (%AppData%) Program Files (%ProgramFiles%) Users Data (%SystemDrive%\Documents and Settings) Windows Directory (%WinDir%) The free space on the %WinDir% volume must be equal or greater than the current size of the resources listed above and their subordinate folders when they are located on the %WinDir% volume. whichever is greater. In most cases. provide a minimum of 4 GB of disk space for each domain controller that hosts domain A and provide a minimum of 2 GB of disk space for each domain controller that hosts domain B. 15 . AD DS log files. For example. At minimum. Use the following guidelines to determine how much disk space to allot for your AD DS installation: • On the drive that will contain the AD DS database. An error is logged when the domain controller role detects insufficient disk space to perform the upgrade. • On the drive containing the operating system files. and the operating system. for a forest with two domains (domain A and domain B) with 10.000 users.25 GB to 2 GB of available space. to run setup. Additional disk space information may appear in the compatibility report that Setup displays. respectively.

the Ntds. all attributes are kept on deleted objects. it is moved and not copied. After the upgrade. More disk space is required as more object deletions occur. Finally. In a production Windows Server 2008 R2 domain at Microsoft. then the hosting volume or volumes must only contain additional free space equal to at least 10 percent of the current database size or 250 MB. whichever is greater. Therefore. the database increases in size at the following moments: • After Windows Server 2008 R2 adprep /forestprep completes and the first Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controller is installed. With this configuration.25 GB or greater. the space that was reserved for the copied resources will be returned to the file system. Disk space requirements for upgrading to Windows Server 2008 R2 The Active Directory database. if the Active Directory database is hosted outside any of the folders above.dit database file and all the log files are temporarily copied over to the quarantine location and then copied back to their original location. the free space on the volume that hosts the log files must be at least 50 MB. the free space on the %WinDir% volume must be equal to 1. this is why additional free space is required for those resources. it does not require any additional free space. • The Active Directory Recycle Bin Windows Server 2008 R2 preserves attributes on deleted objects for the Recycle object lifetime. Although the SYSVOL directory is also under %WinDir% (that is. NTDS. For Active Directory Recycle Bin. However.25 GB In this example. isRecycled. Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers add two new indices on the large link table.Resource Size Application Data (%AppData%) Program Files (%ProgramFiles%) Users Data (%SystemDrive%\Documents and Settings) Windows Directory (%WinDir%) Total size 100 MB 100 MB 50 MB 1 GB 1.dit. there is a new indexed attribute. • After the Active Directory Recycle Bin is enabled. the Active Directory Recycle Bin feature increased the size of the AD DS database by an additional 15 to 20 percent of the 16 . A default installation of Active Directory in Windows Server 2003 has the Active Directory database and log files under %WinDir%\NTDS. whose value is set for all deleted objects. on Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers can be larger than in previous versions of Windows for the following reasons: • • The "partial merge" feature is disabled on Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers. %WinDir%\SYSVOL).

An in-place upgrade of a domain controller to Windows Server 2008 R2 requires sufficient disk space for the upgrade process to copy the following folders: • • • • • • • • • %SystemRoot% %ProgramFiles% %SystemDrive%\Program Files %ProgramFiles(x86)% %SystemDrive%\build %SystemDrive%\InstalledRepository %ProfilesFolder% %ProgramData% %SystemDrive%\Documents and Settings The following table shows the test results for an upgrade of a domain controller from Windows Server 2008 to Windows Server 2008 R2. Ntds. Free space (GB) on the system drive Result Ntds.dit location Ntds. but there is not enough space to copy Windows setup files. <i> In this scenario. 1 In this scenario.old folder to the Windows folder.dit is located on the same drive as the system.dit is located on a different drive than the system. the disk meets the minimum free-space requirements for the Windows files to be installed.original database size. and Ntds. The compatibility report warns the user that the amount of free space meets the minimum requirements and that the upgrade process would take longer.dit does not have to be copied from the Windows. In this table: • <i> = 15 GB (the minimum amount of free space on a Windows hard drive that Windows setup requires) • The original size of Ntds. Additional space requirements depend on the size and count of the objects that are recycled. The upgrade is blocked at the compatibility report. using the default deletedObjectLifetime and recycledObjectLifetime values of 180 days.dit does not have to be copied from the Windows. but it is out of %windir%.old folder to the Windows folder.dit was 5 GB. The compatibility report finds there is not enough space to copy Windows files. 17 . Ntds.

Windows Server 2008 R2 is not able to locate Ntds.old folder to the Windows folder. The domain controller is upgraded successfully. which causes the upgrade to copy it from the Windows.dit location Free space (GB) on the system drive Result The domain controller is upgraded successfully. Ntds. Ntds. but it is out of %windir%.dit because the database was not copied to the new operating system. This last step fails because there is not enough space on the disk to fit Ntds.dit is located on the default folder: %windir%\ntds\ <i> + 1 In this scenario. Err 0xc00002ec = STATUS_DS_INIT_FAILURE_CONSOLE The domain controller is rolled back to Windows Server 2008 successfully. You can use the recovery console to diagnose the system further. which causes the compatibility report to be bypassed. ERROR_CODE: (NTSTATUS) 0xc00002ec Directory Services could not start because of the following error: %hs Error Status: 0x %x. On its first start.dit is located under the Windows folder. Ntds. The compatibility report warns the user that the amount of free space meets the minimum requirements and that the upgrade process would take longer.dit is located on the same drive as the system. 18 . the disk meets the minimum free-space requirements for the Windows Files to be installed.dit. which causes an error and forces the computer to roll back to the previous operating system. and Ntds. the disk meets the minimum free-space requirements for the Windows Files to be installed.old folder to the Windows folder.dit does not have to be copied from the Windows. <i> In this scenario.Ntds. However. Click OK to shut down the system.

19 . and then open DSSUPWN_2. • Continue upgrading domain controllers or retiring domain controllers that you no longer want to keep in your infrastructure. For a worksheet to assist in documenting your domain controller information. upgrade the operating system on the domain controller that holds the primary domain controller (PDC) emulator operations master role. the domain in which the domain controller will be located. • In each domain. Use a domain controller documentation table to document information about each domain controller in the forest.microsoft. you can independently upgrade each domain within a forest that has multiple domains.exe). Download Job_Aids_Designing_and_Deploying_Directory_and_Security_Services. see Job Aids for Windows Server 2003 Deployment Kit (http://go. are performed on the PDC emulator only if it is running Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. IP address. until the domain upgrade is complete. record the order in which you will upgrade the operating system on each domain controller. Record the name. the Enterprise Read-Only Domain Controllers group is created when the first read-only domain controller (RODC) is added to the domain.zip. or transfer the role to a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. For example. It may be preferable to upgrade the PDC emulator for that reason. and the operations master roles held by each domain controller before and after the upgrade. Similarly. such as creation of the Enterprise Read-Only Domain Controllers group. Notes This order for upgrading or adding new domain controllers is a recommendation only. If the PDC emulator is not upgraded. you can begin upgrading domain controllers in a child domain before you upgrade domain controllers in the root domain of the same forest. but it is not a requirement. Some tasks. It is safe to upgrade the domain controllers holding any operations master role at any time in the upgrade process. One possible order for upgrading domain controllers is as follows: • Install Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on a member server that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in the forest root domain by using the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (Dcpromo.com/fwlink/?LinkID=102558).doc.Determine Domain Controller Upgrade Order Determine the order in which you will upgrade your domain controllers before you begin the domain upgrade process. Finally.

microsoft. For more information about installing tools to test domain controllers. see How to Administer Microsoft Windows Client and Server Computers Locally and Remotely (http://go. tests for successful Active Directory connectivity and functionality.exe Checks replication %systemroot%\Windows\System32 consistency and Note monitors both inbound This tool is added to the server as part and outbound of the AD DS installation.exe %systemroot%\Windows\System32 Note This tool is added to the server as part of the AD DS installation. Diagnoses the state of domain controllers in a forest or enterprise.Develop a Test Plan for Your Domain Upgrade Process It is important to develop a plan for testing your domain upgrade procedures throughout the upgrade process.exe Provides the properties %systemroot%\Windows\System32 of Domain Name Note System (DNS) servers. replication partners. Dcdiag. and returns the results as passed or failed. and resource 20 . Dnscmd.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177813). Before you begin. Displays replication status of inbound replication partners and directory partitions. Queries and checks the status of trusts and can forcibly shut down domain controllers. test your existing domain controllers to ensure that they are functioning properly. This tool is added to the server as part zones.exe Nltest. Tool/log file Description Location Repadmin. Continue to test your domain controllers throughout the process to verify that Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) replication is consistent and successful. The following table lists the tools and log files to use in your test plan. %systemroot%\Windows\System32 Note This tool is added to the server as part of the AD DS installation. Provides domain controller location capabilities.

microsoft. see Help and Support for Windows Server 2008. 21 . or equivalent. Adsiedit. Membership in the local Administrator account.log and Dcpromo.exe %systemroot%\Windows\System32 Note This tool is added to the server as part of the AD DS installation. For more information about support tools for Windows. of the AD DS installation.log Provides a detailed progress report of the forest and domain preparation process. Provides a detailed progress report of the Active Directory installation. Determine Service Pack Levels Before preparing your infrastructure for upgrade. A Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in that acts as a low-level editor for AD DS and allows you to view.Tool/log file Description Location records.log %systemroot%\Windows\debug Note These logs are added to the server as part of the AD DS installation.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. %SystemRoot%\Windows\Debug\ADPrep\Logs Dcpromoui. Use the repadmin/showattr command to perform an inventory of the operating system and service pack revision level on all domain controllers in a particular domain. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. delete. all Windows 2000–based domain controllers in the forest must be running Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 (SP4). and move objects and attributes within the directory. Adprep. Includes information regarding replication and services in addition to applicable error messages. add. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go.

Upgrade domain controllers to the appropriate service pack as necessary.operatingSystemServicePack The following text is sample output from this command: DN: CN=NA-DC-01. type the following command at the command line of a computer that has the support tools for Windows Server 2008 installed.624 Note The repadmin /showattr command does not show any hotfixes that might be installed on a domain controller. 22 .0 (6001) 1> operatingSystemServicePack: Service Pack 1.operatingSystemVersion. Parameter Description repadmin /showattr Displays the attributes on an object.operatingSystemVersion. and then press ENTER: repadmin /showattr <domain_controller_in_target_domain> ncobj:domain: /filter:"(&(objectcategory=computer)(primaryGroupID=516))” /subtree /atts:operatingSystem.OU=Domain Controllers. Specifies the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the domain controller. and operating system service pack. operating system version.operatingSystemServicePack to display the object's operating system. domain_controller_in_target_domain /filter:"(&(objectcategory=computer)(primaryGroupID=516))” /subtree Filters the output /atts:operatingSystem. v.To determine the operating system and service pack revision level on all domain controllers • For each domain in the forest.DC=com 1> operatingSystem: Windows Server 2008 Standard 1> operatingSystemVersion: 6.DC=company.

Develop a recovery plan to use if some portion of your domain upgrade process fails. • Test all backup media to ensure that the data can be restored successfully. You can use EFS to encrypt data files to prevent unauthorized access. Important Store backup media in a secure offsite location designated by (and accessible to) the upgrade team before you begin the upgrade process. ensure successful replication between two domain controllers in each domain. we highly recommend that you export and back up the private key of the Encrypting File System (EFS) recovery agent. and approve the recovery plan. including System State data. see article 241201 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. see Known Issues for Upgrades to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. ensuring that all team members review. A successful recovery plan includes the following: • Step-by-step instructions that enable the upgrade team to restore normal operations to the organization. At a minimum. standard cryptographic algorithms. EFS is a component of the NTFS file system that enables transparent encryption and decryption of files by using advanced. • Back up two domain controllers in each domain in the forest.Back Up Domain Data Back up your domain data before you begin the upgrade. complete the following steps: • To allow for fault tolerance. Note If you plan to retire or upgrade the first promoted domain controllers of your Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 domains.microsoft. 23 . For more information. This task varies based on the operations and procedures that already exist in your environment.com/fwlink/? LinkId=114578). Resolve Upgrade and Application Compatibility Problems For more information about upgrades to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. agree on. • An approval process.

You must remove the Windows 2000 Administration Tools Pack before upgrading to Windows Server 2003. For more information about deploying DFS. For more information about configuring optional registry parameters for the Boot Information Negotiation Layer (BINL) service. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. When using a Windows 2000–based Windows Deployment Services server in your Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain. For more information about Windows 2000 administration tools and upgrade issues.com/fwlink/?LinkID=27928). configure the Windows 2000–based Windows Deployment Services servers in your environment to point to a domain controller running Windows 2000. see article 235979 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. To identify potential upgrade and compatibility problems • At the command line. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. Membership in the local Administrator account. Two application compatibility problems you might need to resolve include the following: • Distributed File System (DFS) root shares are not supported if they are hosted on a file allocation table (FAT) partition. To prevent this error from occurring when creating machine accounts. DFS root shares must be located on NTFS partitions with no files or directories under the DFS link. or equivalent.com/fwlink/?LinkId=106488). and then press ENTER: 24 . connect to the I386 directory at your installation source. use the Winnt32.microsoft. you might receive the following error when using the Client Installation Wizard: " Unable to create or Modify Computer account" Error: 00004E4F This error occurs because Windows Server 2003 creates machine account objects differently from Windows 2000.exe command-line tool with the /checkupgradeonly parameter to identify potential upgrade problems such as inadequate hardware resources or compatibility problems. see Designing and Deploying File Servers (http://go.Known issues for upgrading to Windows Server 2003 Before upgrading a server to Windows Server 2003. • Windows 2000–based computers running Windows Deployment Services might cause errors in a Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain. see article 304718 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft.microsoft.microsoft. type the following command. In Windows Server 2003.com/fwlink/?LinkId=106490). This is done by adding the DefaultServer registry parameter to the Windows 2000–based Windows Deployment Services servers.

return to this checklist after you review the conceptual topic so that you can proceed with the remaining tasks. Performing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains To upgrade your Active Directory domains.winnt32 /checkupgradeonly Parameter Description winnt32 /checkupgradeonly Checks your computer for upgrade compatibility with products in the Windows Server 2003 family. Checklist: Upgrade Tasks Task Reference Prepare your Active Directory infrastructure for upgrade. complete the tasks in Checklist: Upgrade Tasks. Install Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on a member server that runs Windows Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade Install Active Directory Domain Services on the Member Server That Runs 25 . If a reference link takes you to a conceptual topic. In this guide • • Checklist: Upgrade Tasks Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade • Install Active Directory Domain Services on the Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 • • • • Upgrade Existing Domain Controllers Modify Default Security Policies Update Group Policy Permissions Perform Clean-up Tasks Checklist: Upgrade Tasks Complete the tasks in this checklist in the order in which they are presented.

exe to Support AD DS. see Run Adprep commands. For more information about running Adprep. and test the schema updates in a lab environment to ensure that they will not conflict with any applications that run in your environment. if you plan to install them. • Prepare each domain where you want to install a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 by running adprep /domainprep /gpprep. Update Group Policy permissions.exe to Support AD DS and Windows Server 2008 R2: Appendix of Changes to Adprep.Task Reference Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 in the forest root domain. Modify default security policies as needed. Perform clean-up tasks.exe performs in Windows Server 2008. by running adprep /rodcprep. • Prepare the forest for read-only domain controllers (RODCs). Upgrade existing domain controllers.exe. 26 . There should not be any conflicts if your applications use RFC-compliant object and attribute definitions. Important Review the list of operations that Adprep. Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Upgrade Existing Domain Controllers Modify Default Security Policies Update Group Policy Permissions Perform Clean-up Tasks Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade Preparing your Active Directory infrastructure for upgrade includes the following tasks: • Prepare the forest schema by running adprep /foretsprep. see Windows Server 2008: Appendix of Changes to Adprep. Note This step is required only if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains. For a list of specific operations that are performed when you update the Active Directory schema.

exe.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. select the Active Directory Domain Services check box. 4. 5. On the Confirm Installation Selections page. and then click Next. 3. On the Select Server Roles page. In this case.exe). which you can access in Server Manager. the member server will become a domain controller. • Click Start. You can install AD DS on any member server that meets the domain controller hardware requirements. and then click Next. 6. review the information on the Before You Begin page. The member server should be located in the forest root domain.exe). review the information on the Active Directory Domain Services page. click Close this wizard and launch the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (dcpromo. Membership in the local Administrator account. If necessary. The Windows UI provides two wizards that guide you through the installation process for AD DS. Click Start. 2. run the following command at a command prompt before you start to install AD DS: net user Administrator password/passwordreq:yes Replace password with a strong password. In Roles Summary. the local Administrator password might be blank or it might not be required. You can install AD DS using the Windows user interface (UI).exe). Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. which you can access in either of the following ways: • When you complete the steps in the Add Roles Wizard. To install AD DS on a member server by using the Windows interface 1.microsoft. and then click Next. and then click OK. 27 . If necessary. 7. The other wizard is the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (Dcpromo. One wizard is the Add Roles Wizard. type dcpromo. click Add Roles. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. click the link to start the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard.Install Active Directory Domain Services on the Member Server That Runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Install Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on a member server that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 by using the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (Dcpromo. click Run. or equivalent. and then click Server Manager. Depending on the operating system installation options that you selected for the computer. After you install AD DS successfully. click Install. On the Installation Results page.

click My current logged on credentials or click Alternate credentials. or specify the Password Replication Policy (PRP) for an RODC as part of the installation of the additional domain controller. 14. click Next. click Existing forest. 9. review the warning about the default security settings for Windows Server 2008 domain controllers.8. click Yes and disregard the message. On the Select a Site page. To install an additional domain controller. 12. you must be a member of the Enterprise Admins group or the Domain Admins group. and then click Next. click Add a domain controller to an existing domain. and then click Set. and it enables global catalog search functionality. This option is not selected by default. If you do not want the domain controller to be a DNS server. click Next. If you want to install from media. On the Choose a Deployment Configuration page. On the Welcome to the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard page. It adds the global catalog. When you are finished providing credentials. Under Specify the account credentials to use to perform the installation. 11. 13. • Read-only domain controller. select a site from the list or select the option to install the domain controller in the site that corresponds to its IP address. make the following selections. identify the source domain controller for AD DS replication. • Global Catalog: This option is selected by default. In this case. and then click Next: • DNS server: This option is selected by default so that your domain controller can function as a DNS server. If you are installing an additional domain controller in either the forest root domain or a tree root domain. clear this option. select the domain of the new domain controller. On the Network Credentials page. On the Operating System Compatibility page. Note If you select the option to install DNS server. It makes the additional domain controller read only. 15. you might receive a message that indicates that a DNS delegation for the DNS server could not be created and that you should manually create a DNS delegation to the DNS server to ensure reliable name resolution. provide the user name and password for an account that can install the additional domain controller. On the Additional Domain Controller Options page. On the Select a Domain page. you do not have to create the DNS delegation. and then click Next. 10. If you selected Use advanced mode installation on the Welcome page. read-only directory partitions to the domain controller. and then click Next. In the Windows Security dialog box. click Use advanced mode installation. and then click Next. You can provide the location of installation media to be used 28 . the Install from Media page appears. type the name of any existing domain in the forest where you plan to install the additional domain controller.

and then click Next. Upgrade Existing Domain Controllers When you upgrade the operating system on domain controllers. see Installing AD DS From Media. On the Location for Database. 18. click Next to install AD DS. and then click Save. If you do not choose to install from media. On the Directory Services Restore Mode Administrator Password page. and SYSVOL page. the computer immediately assumes the role of domain controller after the final restart of the computer. review your selections. On the Summary page. For information about using this method to install the domain controller. click Export settings.exe). For information about installing AD DS by using a command line or an answer file. and then click Next. type and confirm the restore mode password. You can either select the Reboot on completion check box to have the server restart automatically or you can restart the server to complete the AD DS installation when you are prompted to do so. 21. type or browse to the volume and folder locations for the database file. 19. For backup and recovery efficiency. click Finish. if necessary. 16. Type the name for your answer file. To save the settings that you have selected to an answer file that you can use to automate subsequent Active Directory operations. When you are sure that your selections are accurate. Click Let the wizard choose an appropriate domain controller or click Use this specific domain controller to specify a domain controller that you want to provide as a source for replication to create the new domain controller. On the Completing the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard page. If you selected Use advanced mode installation on the Welcome page. the directory service log files. 29 . 20. 17. or you can have all the replication done over the network. Click Back to change any selections. It is not necessary to install Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) by using the Active Directory Domain Services Installation Wizard (Dcpromo.to create the domain controller and configure AD DS. This password must be used to start AD DS in Directory Service Restore Mode (DSRM) for tasks that must be performed offline. and then click Next. all data will be replicated from this source domain controller. Note that some data will be replicated over the network even if you install from media. Windows Server Backup backs up the directory service by volume. store these files on separate volumes that do not contain applications or other nondirectory files. Log Files. see Installing an Additional Domain Controller. the Source Domain Controller page appears. and the system volume (SYSVOL) files.

Then. Unattended upgrade You can also perform an unattended upgrade by using an answer file. insert the Windows Server 2003 operating system CD on the domain controller.microsoft. A direct Windows 2000–to–Windows Server 2008 operating system upgrade is not supported.0' encoding='utf-8'?> <unattend xmlns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:unattend" xmlns:wcm="http://schemas.exe command-line tool.txt file.com/WMIConfig/2002/State"> <settings pass="specialize" wasPassProcessed="true"> 30 . If you want to perform an in-place upgrade of the existing domain controllers running Windows Server 2003 in the forest to Windows Server 2008 R2. you must first perform an in-place upgrade of a Windows 2000 operating system to a Windows Server 2003 operating system. Here is a sample of an answer file that can be used to perform an unattended upgrade to Windows Server 2008: <?xml version='1.com/fwlink/?LinkID=66066). Instructions for creating an answer file for an Active Directory installation are located in the Deploy. if the Windows Server 2003 media are shared over the network. see "Step 2: Building an Answer File" in the Windows Vista Deployment Step-by-Step Guide (http://go. run the Winnt32. run the Setup. open Ref.cab file in the Support\Tools folder on the Windows Server 2003 operating system CD. if the operating system installation media are shared over the network. To initiate the installation of the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system on a Windows Server 2003–based domain controller. Important The information in this guide also applies to Windows Server 2008 R2.microsoft. Or. If your server is running an x86-based version of Windows Server 2003.chm to access the Unattend.Important If you want to upgrade the operating system of a Windows 2000 domain controller to Windows Server 2008. For more information about how to create a new answer file. you can successfully perform an in-place upgrade of this computer's operating system to Windows Server 2008 R2. To initiate the installation of the Windows Server 2003 operating system on a Windows 2000– based domain controller. perform an in-place upgrade of this Windows Server 2003 operating system to a Windows Server 2008 operating system.txt in the left pane. insert the operating system DVD on the domain controller. You can also perform an unattended installation of Windows Server 2003. If your server is running an x64-based version of Windows Server 2003. you cannot upgrade this computer to Windows Server 2008 R2. Expand Unattend. remember that Windows Server 2008 R2 is an x64-based operating system. Or.cab file. and then click DCInstall. Inside the Deploy.exe command-line tool.

<component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="amd64"> <ComputerName>Machine Name</ComputerName> </component> </settings> <settings pass="windowsPE" wasPassProcessed="true"> <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="amd64"> <UserData> <ProductKey>Product-Key</ProductKey> <AcceptEula>True</AcceptEula> <FullName>User Name</FullName> <Organization>Organization Name</Organization> </UserData> <ImageInstall> <OSImage> <WillShowUI>Never</WillShowUI> <InstallTo> <DiskID>0</DiskID> <PartitionID>1</PartitionID> </InstallTo> <InstallFrom> <MetaData> <Key>Image/Name</Key> <Value>W2K8S</Value> </MetaData> </InstallFrom> </OSImage> </ImageInstall> <DiskConfiguration> <WillShowUI>Never</WillShowUI> <Disk> <DiskID>0</DiskID> <WillWipeDisk>False</WillWipeDisk> <ModifyPartitions> 31 .

<ModifyPartition> <Order>1</Order> <PartitionID>1</PartitionID> <Letter>C</Letter> <Active>True</Active> </ModifyPartition> </ModifyPartitions> </Disk> </DiskConfiguration> <UpgradeData> <Upgrade>True</Upgrade> </UpgradeData> <Diagnostics> <OptIn>True</OptIn> </Diagnostics> </component> <component name="Microsoft-Windows-International-Core-WinPE" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="amd64"> <UILanguage>EN-US</UILanguage> </component> </settings> <settings pass="oobeSystem" wasPassProcessed="true"> <component name="Microsoft-Windows-Shell-Setup" publicKeyToken="31bf3856ad364e35" language="neutral" versionScope="nonSxS" processorArchitecture="amd64"> <UserAccounts> <DomainAccounts> <DomainAccountList> <Domain>Domain Name</Domain> <DomainAccount> <Name>Administrator</Name> <Group>Administrators</Group> </DomainAccount> </DomainAccountList> </DomainAccounts> 32 .

microsoft. run the following command at a command prompt before you start to install AD DS: net user Administrator password/passwordreq:yes 33 . the local Administrator password might be blank or it might not be required. Membership in the local Administrator account. use the following procedure to perform an unattended upgrade of a Windows Server 2003–based domain controller. or equivalent.</UserAccounts> <AutoLogon> <Enabled>True</Enabled> <Domain>Domain Name</Domain> <Username>User Name</Username> <Password>User Password</Password> <LogonCount>9999</LogonCount> </AutoLogon> <FirstLogonCommands> <SynchronousCommand> <Order>1</Order> <CommandLine>Command To Execute</CommandLine> <Description>"RunOnceItem0"</Description> </SynchronousCommand> <SynchronousCommand> <Order>2</Order> <CommandLine>Command To Execute</CommandLine> <Description>"Post Install Command Execute"</Description> </SynchronousCommand> </FirstLogonCommands> <OOBE> <SkipMachineOOBE>True</SkipMachineOOBE> <SkipUserOOBE>True</SkipUserOOBE> </OOBE> </component> </settings> </unattend> After you create the answer file. In this case. Depending on the operating system installation options that you selected for the computer. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. is the minimum required to complete this procedure.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477.

Replace password with a strong password. To perform an in-place domain controller upgrade by using an answer file 1. At the command prompt, type the following: setup.exe /unattend:"path to the answer file" 2. Press ENTER.

Modify Default Security Policies
To increase security, domain controllers that run Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 require (by default) that all client computers attempting to authenticate to them perform Server Message Block (SMB) packet signing and secure channel signing. If your production environment includes client computers that run platforms that do not support SMB packet signing (for example, Microsoft Windows NT® 4.0 with Service Pack 2 (SP2)) or if it includes client computers that run platforms that do not support secure channel signing (for example, Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 3 (SP3)), you might have to modify default security policies to ensure that client computers running older versions of the Windows operating system or non-Microsoft operating systems will be able to access domain resources in the upgraded domain. Note By modifying the settings of the default security policies, you are weakening the default security policies in your environment. Therefore, we recommend that you upgrade your Windows–based client computers as soon as possible. After all client computers in your environment are running versions of Windows that support SMB packet signing and secure channel signing, you can re-enable default security policies to increase security. To configure a domain controller to not require SMB packet signing or secure channel signing, disable the following settings in the Default Domain Controllers Policy: • • Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always) Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always)

Back up the Default Domain Controllers Policy Group Policy object (GPO) before you modify it. Use the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) to back up the GPO so that it can be restored, if necessary. Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477.

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To disable SMB packet signing enforcement based domain controllers 1. To open GPMC, click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then click OK. 2. In the console tree, right-click Default Domain Controllers Policy in Domains\Current Domain Name\Group Policy objects\Default Domain Controllers Policy, and then click Edit. 3. In the Group Policy Management Editor window, in the console tree, go to Computer Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Local Policies/Security Options. 4. In the details pane, double-click Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always). 5. Verify that the Define this policy setting check box is selected, click Disabled to prevent SMB packet signing from being required, and then click OK. To apply the Group Policy change immediately, either restart the domain controller or open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press ENTER:
gpupdate /force

Note Modifying these settings in the Domain Controllers container will change the Default Domain Controllers Policy. Policy changes that you make here will be replicated to all other domain controllers in the domain. Therefore, you only have to modify these policies one time to affect the Default Domain Controllers Policy on all domain controllers. Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. To disable secure channel signing enforcement on domain controllers 1. To open GPMC, click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then click OK. 2. In the console tree, right-click Default Domain Controllers Policy in Domains/Current Domain Name/Group Policy objects/Default Domain Controllers Policy, and then click Edit. 3. In the Group Policy Management Editor window, in the console tree, go to Computer Configuration/Policies/Windows Settings/Security Settings/Local Policies/Security Options. 4. In the details pane, double-click Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always), click Disabled to prevent secure channel signing from being required, and then click OK. To apply the Group Policy change immediately, either restart the domain controller or open a command prompt, type the following command, and then press ENTER:

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gpupdate /force

Note Modifying these settings in the Domain Controllers container will change the Default Domain Controllers Policy. Policy changes that you make here will be replicated to all other domain controllers in the domain. Therefore, you only have to modify these policies one time to affect the Default Domain Controllers Policy on all domain controllers. For more information about SMB packet signing and secure channel signing, see Appendix A: Background Information for Upgrading Active Directory Domains. By default, domain controllers that run Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 also prohibit clients running non-Microsoft operating systems or Windows NT 4.0 operating systems to establish security channels using weak Windows NT 4.0 style cryptography algorithms. Any security channel dependent operation that is initiated by clients running older versions of the Windows operating system or non-Microsoft operating systems that do not support strong cryptographic algorithms will fail against a Windows Server 2008-based domain controller. Until you are able to upgrade all of the clients in your infrastructure, you can temporarily relax this requirement by modifying the following default domain policy setting on your domain controllers: • Allow cryptography algorithms compatible with Windows NT 4.0 Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. To allow cryptography algorithms that are compatible with Windows NT 4.0 1. To open GPMC, click Start, click Run, type gpmc.msc, and then click OK. 2. In the console tree, right-click Default Domain Controllers Policy in Domains/Current Domain Name/Group Policy objects/Default Domain Controllers Policy, and then click Edit. 3. In the Group Policy Management Editor window, in the console tree, go to Computer Configuration/Administrative Templates: Policy definitions (ADMX files) retrieved from the local machine/System/Net Logon. 4. In the details pane, double-click Allow cryptography algorithms compatible with Windows NT 4.0, and then click Enabled. Note By default, the Not Configured option is selected, but, programmatically, after you upgrade a server to Windows Server 2008 domain controller status, this policy is set to Disabled. To apply the Group Policy change immediately, either restart the domain controller or open command line, type the following command, and then press ENTER:
gpupdate /force

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if the domain was upgraded from Windows 2000. Therefore. see Effects of netlogon cryptographic support changes in Windows Server 2008 (http://go. To download GPMC sample scripts (including GrantPermissionOnAllGPOs.com/fwlink/?LinkId=106342).com/fwlink/?LinkId=106380).wsf). Note The procedure in this topic is required only if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains. To perform the simulation across domains.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. type the following. For more information. Membership in Domain Admins. the Enterprise Domain Controllers group will automatically have read access to all newly created GPOs and all GPOs that were created before the upgrade. you only have to modify these policies one time to affect the Default Domain Controllers Policy on all domain controllers. After the download is complete. To update permissions on all GPOs in a domain 1. This script will update the permissions on all GPOs in the domain. The GPMC detects this when you click a GPO. or equivalent. To solve this problem. Policy changes that are made here will be replicated to all other domain controllers in the domain. For more information about additional security policy changes in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2. see Group Policy Management Console Sample Scripts (http://go.Note Modifying these settings in the Domain Controllers container will change the Default Domain Controllers Policy. Update Group Policy Permissions Group Policy Modeling is a feature of the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) that simulates the resultant set of policy for a particular configuration.microsoft.microsoft. %programfiles%\Microsoft Group Policy\GPMC Sample Scripts folder will be created. use the sample script named GrantPermissionOnAllGPOs. If you are upgrading Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domains or creating a new domain with domain controllers that run Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2.microsoft. the service must have read access to all Group Policy objects (GPOs) in the forest.wsf that is provided with the GPMC. At a command prompt. and then press ENTER: 37 . The simulation is performed by a service that runs on domain controllers. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. and then it notifies the user that the Enterprise Domain Controllers group does not have read access to all GPOs in this domain. However. the Enterprise Domain Controllers group will not have read access to any existing GPOs that were created before the upgrade. see Secure default settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2.

For more information. If a group or user is already granted a permission type that is higher than the new permission type. If you are upgrading a Windows 2000 domain controller to Windows Server 2008 (which requires an in-place upgrade from Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003. Note This task is relevant only when you are performing an in-place upgrade from Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003. • Create a new System State backup for at least two domain controllers in your environment. see the AD DS Backup and Recovery Step-by-Step Guide (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkID=106343). and you do not specify Replace.microsoft. perform the tasks in Checklist: PostUpgrade Tasks. For more information about backing up AD DS. we recommend that you perform this task after your domain controller is upgraded to Windows Server 2003. Type the following.microsoft. perform an offline defragmentation of the database on each upgraded domain controller. Perform Clean-up Tasks After upgrading your Active Directory infrastructure to Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).com/fwlink/?LinkID=93077). no change is made. including service packs and hotfixes. Be sure to label all backup tapes with the operating system version that the domain controller is running. This reduces the size of AD DS on the file system by up to 40 percent. followed by an in-place upgrade from Windows Server 2003 to Windows Server 2008). reduces the memory footprint. see Compact the directory database file (offline defragmentation) (http://go.cd /d %programfiles%\Microsoft Group Policy\GPMC Sample Scripts 2. and then press ENTER: Cscript GrantPermissionOnAllGPOs.wsf “Enterprise Domain Controllers” /permission:read /domain:DNSDomainName /Replace Using the Replace switch removes existing permissions for the group or user before making the change. Completing the Upgrade of Active Directory Domains To complete the upgrade of your Active Directory domains. 38 . perform the following clean-up operations: • After the security descriptor propagator has finished building the single-instance store. and updates pages in the database to the new format.

In this guide • • • • • Checklist: Post-Upgrade Tasks Raise the Functional Levels of Domains and Forests Move DNS Data into DNS Application Directory Partitions Redirect Users and Computers Complete the Upgrade Checklist: Post-Upgrade Tasks Complete the tasks in this checklist in the order in which they are presented. if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains. you might choose to move your DNS zones into the newly created DNS application directory partitions. Note Raise the Functional Levels of Domains and Forests Move DNS Data into DNS Application Directory Partitions Redirect Users and Computers 39 . Redirect users and computers to organizational units (OUs). Checklist: Post-Upgrade Tasks Task Reference Raise the functional levels of domains and forests to enable all advanced features of Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). your DNS zones have already been stored in the DNS application directory partitions. Move Domain Name System (DNS) zones into DNS application directory partitions. However. If you are upgrading Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domains. Note This step is optional.

For more information about the Active Directory Recycle Bin. This will automatically raise the functional level of all domains to Windows Server 2008 R2. 40 . Use the following procedure to raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008. raise the functional level of your forest to Windows Server 2008 R2. to Windows Server 2003. Complete the Upgrade Raise the Functional Levels of Domains and Forests To enable all Windows Server 2008 advanced features in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). This will automatically raise the functional level of all domains to Windows Server 2008. If the forest functional level is set to Windows Server 2008 R2. To enable all Windows Server 2008 R2 advanced AD DS features. see Active Directory Recycle Bin Step-by-Step Guide (http://go. You can lower the forest functional level only from Windows Server 2008 R2 to Windows Server 2008. A Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain OU structure will remain the same after the upgrade is complete. for example.com/fwlink/?LinkId=133971). Important After you set the forest functional level to a certain value. with one exception: when you raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008 R2 and if Active Directory Recycle Bin is not enabled. you have the option of rolling the forest functional level back to Windows Server 2008.Task Reference The procedures described in this section are required only if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains. Complete the upgrade. it cannot be rolled back. raise the functional level of your forest to Windows Server 2008.microsoft. Caution Do not raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008 R2 if you have or will have any domain controllers running Windows Server 2008 or earlier. you cannot roll back or lower the forest functional level.

In the console tree. In Select an available forest functional level.microsoft. click Windows Server 2008. However. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. your Domain Name System (DNS) zones have already been stored in the DNS application directory partitions. To raise the forest functional level 1. you can use application directory partitions for Active Directory–integrated DNS zones. if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains. or equivalent. If you are upgrading Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domains. Click Start. For each domain in the forest. • To raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008. click Windows Server 2008 R2. click Windows Server 2003. For more information about Windows Server 2008 advanced AD DS features.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. 41 . click Administrative Tools. After completing the upgrade of all Windows 2000–based domain controllers in the forest. Move DNS Data into DNS Application Directory Partitions Note The procedures in this topic are optional. To reduce replication traffic and the amount of data stored in the global catalog. move the DNS zones that you want to replicate to all DNS servers in the domain to the domain-wide DNS application directory partition. Open the Active Directory Domains and Trusts snap-in. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. 2. and then click Raise. see Enabling Advanced Features for AD DS. do one of the following: • To raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2003.Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins. and then click Raise. ForestDnsZones. • To raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2008 R2. and then click Active Directory Domains and Trusts. you might choose to move your DNS zones into the newly created DNS application directory partitions. and then click Raise. Move the DNS zones that you want to replicate to all DNS servers in the forest to the forest-wide DNS application directory partition. You can do this by changing the replication scope of the DNS zones. and then click Raise Forest Functional Level. DomainDnsZones. move the Active Directory–integrated DNS data on all DNS servers from the domain partition into the newly created DNS application directory partitions. right-click Active Directory Domains and Trusts. 3.

or equivalent. make sure that the domain naming operations master is hosted on at least a Windows Server 2003– based version domain controller. and then click DNS to open DNS Manager. and then click DNS to open the DNS Manager. Right-click the _msdcs. and then click OK. On a domain controller that hosts a DNS server in a particular domain. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. Right-click the DNS zone that uses the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) of the Active Directory domain. and then click Properties. 42 . Click To all DNS servers in this domain:<domain_name>.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. click Administrative Tools. 4.com/fwlink/?LinkId=93656). and then click Properties. click Start.forest_root_domain is moved with the forest root domain zone to the domain-wide application directory partition. you do not need to perform this procedure because the DNS data that is stored in the _msdcs.forest_root_domain zone is not present as a separate zone on your DNS server. 2. and then click OK. To change the replication scope of the _msdcs. 4. click Start. Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins. 2. DomainDnsZones. Click the Change button next to Replication: All DNS servers in this forest. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. see Appendix A: Background Information for Upgrading Active Directory Domains. Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins. Click To all DNS servers in this forest:<forest_name>.Important Before you attempt to move DNS data to an application directory partition. To change the replication scope of the domain-wide DNS zone by using a DNS application directory partition 1. If the _msdcs. Note For more information about DNS and application directory partitions.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477.<forest_root_domain> DNS zone. click Administrative Tools. or equivalent. Click the Change button next to Replication: All DNS servers in this domain. 3.microsoft. 3.microsoft. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. For more information. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go.forest_root_domain DNS zone by using a DNS application directory partition 1.microsoft. On a domain controller that hosts a DNS server in the forest root domain. see Deploying Domain Name System (DNS) (http://go.

For more information about creating an OU design. The default CN=Users and CN=Computers containers that are created when AD DS is installed are not OUs. making them easier to manage.com/fwlink/?LinkId=83477. In the console tree. We recommend that administrators who upgrade Windows 2000–based domain controllers redirect the well-known path for the CN=Users and CN=Computers containers to an OU that is specified by the administrator so that Group Policy can be applied to containers hosting newly created objects. click Start. Examples of these earlier versions include the net user and net computer commands. computer accounts.microsoft. by default. Objects in the default containers are more difficult to manage because Group Policy cannot be applied directly to them. To open the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in. When the domain functional level has been raised to Windows Server 2003. and then double-click Active Directory Users and Computers. you can redirect the default CN=Users and CN=Computers containers to OUs that you specify so that each can support Group Policy. For backward-compatibility reasons. For this reason. Use the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in to create an OU container to which you will redirect user objects that were created with earlier versions of UI and command-line management tools: a. see Designing the Logical Structure for Windows Server 2008 AD DS [LH]. administrators are not allowed to create these objects in either the CN=Computers container or the CN=User container. Review details about using the appropriate accounts and group memberships at http://go. Important The CN=Users and CN=Computers containers are computer-protected objects. Membership in Domain Admins or Enterprise Admins. you can rename these objects. b. the net group command. right-click the domain name. or the netdom add command where the /ou parameter is either not specified or not supported. is the minimum required to complete this procedure. However. you cannot (and must not) remove them. 43 . and security groups that are created by using earlier versions of user interface (UI) and command-line management tools do not allow administrators to specify a target OU. click Control Panel. double-click Administrative Tools. or equivalent. New user accounts. A Windows Server 2003 Active Directory domain organizational unit (OU) structure will remain the same after the upgrade is complete. To redirect the CN=Users container 1.Redirect Users and Computers Note The procedures in this topic are required only if you are upgrading Windows 2000 Active Directory domains.

c. where <newuserou> is the name of the new user OU. c.DC=<domainname>. • Verify that all service (SRV). To open Active Directory Users and Computers.dc=com Complete the Upgrade Complete the following tasks to finalize the process: • Review. update. change to the System32 folder by typing: cd %systemroot%\system32 3. and then double-click Active Directory Users and Computers. Type the name of the OU. Type the following. and then click Organizational Unit. d.dc=com To redirect the CN=Computers container 1. Point to New. and <domainname> is the name of the domain: redirusr ou=<newuserou>. 2. Point to New. click Control Panel. At the command line. alias (CNAME). In the console tree. change to the System32 folder by typing: cd %systemroot%\system32 3. click Start. 44 . and document the domain architecture to reflect any changes that you made during the domain upgrade process. Use the Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in to create an OU container to which you will redirect computer objects that were created with earlier versions of UI and command-line management tools. and <domainname> is the name of the domain: redircmp ou=<newcomputerou>. • Verify Windows Firewall status.DC=<domainname>. and host (A) resource records have been registered in Domain Name System (DNS). • Verify that the NETLOGON and SYSVOL shared folders exist and that the File Replication Service (FRS) or Distributed File Service (DFS) Replication is functioning without error by checking Event Viewer. where <newcomputerou> is the name of the new computer OU. and then click Organizational Unit. double-click Administrative Tools. d. right-click the domain name. Type the following. 2. a. At the command line. b. • Verify that Group Policy is being applied successfully by checking the application log in Event Viewer for Event ID 1704. Type the name of the OU.

• For more information about deploying Distributed File System (DFS). see Enabling Advanced Features for AD DS. see article 235979 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkID=102558).microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=106490).microsoft. you will have completed the in-place upgrade process.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=135993). • For more information about configuring optional registry parameters for the Boot Information Negotiation Layer (BINL) service. the firewall will remain off after the upgrade unless you turn it on using the Windows Firewall control panel.microsoft. see Read-Only Domain Controller Planning and Deployment Guide (http://go. • For more information about read-only domain controllers (RODCs). if you upgrade a Windows Server 2003 computer that had Windows Firewall turned off. see Job Aids for Windows Server 2003 Deployment Kit (http://go. see article 304718 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. Download Job_Aids_Planning_Testing_and_Piloting_Deployment_Projects. • For a worksheet to assist you in documenting your domain controller information.microsoft.zip and open DSSUPWN_2. Finding Additional Information About Upgrading Active Directory Domains You can find the following documentation about Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) on the Windows Server 2003 and Windows Server 2008 TechCenter Web sites: • For more information about advanced AD DS features that are related to AD DS functional levels.com/fwlink/?LinkID=27928). Using a monitoring solution (such as Microsoft Operations Manager (MOM)) to monitor distributed Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS)—and the services that it relies on—helps maintain consistent directory data and a consistent level of service throughout the forest. After these tasks have been completed successfully.Important Although the default behavior for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 is that Windows Firewall is turned on. • For more information about Windows 2000 administration tools and upgrade issues. 45 . • Continuously monitor your domain controllers and Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS).doc. see Designing and Deploying File Servers (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkID=106488).

The Windows Server 2008 R2 versions of Adprep are 64-bit and 32-bit (Adprep32. see Installing a New Forest (http://go.exe tool provides.microsoft. Active Directory preparation tool To prepare Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 forests and domains for upgrade. • For more information. see the AD DS Backup and Recovery Step-by-Step Guide (http://go. or for the introduction of a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2.• For more information about Windows Services for UNIX 2. become familiar with some important issues that affect the upgrade process.exe). • For more information about DNS. • For information about installing AD DS by using a command line or an answer file.exe is located in the \sources\adprep folder of the Windows Server 2008 operating system DVD and in the \support\adprep folder of the Windows Server 2008 R2 operating system DVD. see article 293783 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft. you must use the Active Directory preparation tool (Adprep. Adprep. see Effects of netlogon cryptographic support changes in Windows Server 2008 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=93656).microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=106317).microsoft. see Designing the Logical Structure for Windows Server 2008 AD DS [LH]. • For more information about creating an organizational unit (OU) design. Adprep. • For more information about backing up AD DS.0 application compatibility issues and the hotfix installation file. Appendix A: Background Information for Upgrading Active Directory Domains Before you begin the process of upgrading your Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 Active Directory environment to Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS). These operations include the following: • Extending your current schema with new schema information that the Adprep. while preserving previous schema modifications in your environment • Resetting permissions on containers and objects throughout the directory for improved security and interoperability • Copying administrative tools to manage Windows Server 2008 domains to the local computer 46 . see Deploying Domain Name System (DNS) (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkId=101704).microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=106343).com/fwlink/?LinkID=93077).exe prepares the forests and domains for an upgrade to AD DS by performing a collection of operations. see Compact the directory database file (offline defragmentation) (http://go.exe). • For more information.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164558).

client computers find an LDAP server by querying DNS for a record of the form: _ldap. Windows Server 2008.exe to prepare your environment.For more information about using Adprep. you can take advantage of application directory partitions. DNS attempts to create the partitions every time that the service starts.<DnsDomainName> Where <Service> is the service requested. see Prepare Your Infrastructure for Upgrade. In a Windows Server 2008 network. A workstation that is logging on to a Windows Server 2008–based domain queries DNS for service (SRV) resource records in the general form: _<Service>. and the domain naming operations master is also running Windows Server 2003. Windows Server 2008. or Windows Server 2008 R2. therefore. The following DNS-specific application directory partitions are created during AD DS installation: • ForestDnsZones—A forest-wide application directory partition that is shared by all DNS servers in the same forest • DomainDnsZones—Domain-wide application directory partitions for each DNS server in the same domain Service (SRV) resource records A Windows Server 2008–based domain controller Net Logon service uses dynamic updates to register service (SRV) resource records in the DNS database. Windows Server 2008. or Windows Server 2008 R2. AD DS servers offer the LDAP service over the TCP protocol. The creation and deletion of application directory partitions (including the default DNS application directory partitions) requires the domain naming master role holder to reside on a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2003. Application directory partitions for DNS Application directory partitions provide storage for application-specific data that can be replicated to a specific set of domain controllers in the same forest. This service (SRV) resource record is used to map the name of a service (such as the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) service) to the DNS computer name of a server that offers that service. or Windows Server 2008 R2._tcp. an LDAP resource record locates a domain controller._<Protocol>. <Protocol> is the protocol requested. you can use application directory partitions to store Domain Name System (DNS) data on Windows Server 2003–based domain controllers. DNS-specific application directory partitions are automatically created in the forest and in each domain when the DNS Server service is installed on new or upgraded domain controllers.<DnsDomainName> The service and protocol strings require an underscore ( _ ) prefix to prevent potential Note 47 . If you have at least one domain controller in your forest running Windows Server 2003. If application directory partition creation fails during AD DS installation. and <DnsDomainName> is the fully qualified DNS name of the AD DS domain. For example.

_msdcs. Moving the Active Directory–integrated DNS zones into the domain and forest-wide application directory partitions provides the following benefits: 48 .<domain_name> subdomain: _Service. the Net Logon service (in addition to the standard _Service. For a newly created domain controller to participate in replication. In addition. "pdc" (primary domain controller).forest_root_domain subdomain. move the _msdcs. including two domain controllers from the same domain.forest_root_domain already exists in your Windows 2000 environment. Kerberos. it must be able to register its forest-wide records in DNS._Protocol.This format is applicable for implementations of LDAP servers other than Windows Server 2008– based domain controllers and also possible implementations of LDAP directory services that employ global catalog servers other than servers running Windows Server 2008. To accommodate the location of domain controllers by server type or by GUID (abbreviated "dctype"). The alias (CNAME) resource records are used by the replication system to locate replication partners. For example.DcTyle. and the gc service (SRV) resource records are used by client computers to look up global catalog servers. all domain controllers in the forest register alias (CNAME) and LDAP. To facilitate location of Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers. "gc" (global catalog). and gc service (SRV) resource records in the _msdcs.domain_name subdomain This Microsoft-specific subdomain allows location of domain controllers that have Windows Server 2008–specific roles in the domain. Some organizations running Windows 2000 Active Directory have already created an _msdcs.<domain_name> subdomain. we recommend that you move the zone to the ForestDnsZones application directory partition after all domain controllers in the forest are upgraded.<DnsDomainName> format records) also registers service (SRV) resource records that identify the well-known server-type pseudonyms "dc" (domain controller).forest_root_domain zone and define its replication scope so that it is replicated to all DNS servers in the forest.<domain_name> zone to the DomainDnsZones application directory partition for that domain.forest_root_domain to help client computers locate domain controllers more efficiently. Windows Server 2008– based domain controllers register service (SRV) resource records in the following form in the _msdcs. For this reason.forest_root_domain subdomain The _msdcs.forest_root_domain subdomain need to be available for replication and global catalog lookups. For any two domain controllers to replicate with each other. Therefore.forest_root_domain subdomain stores forest-wide resource records that are of interest to client computers and domain controllers from all parts of the forest. the DNS servers that are authoritative for the _msdcs. we recommend that you create a separate _msdcs. If an _msdcs. and other domain controllers must be able to look up these records. for each domain in the forest.<DnsDomainName> _msdcs. This subdomain also allows location of domain controllers by the globally unique identifier (GUID) when a domain has been renamed. _msdcs._Protocol. they must be able to look up forest-wide locator records. and "domains" (GUID) as prefixes in the _msdcs.

That is. Also. the replication frequency of AD DS is changed to the Windows Server 2003default setting of 15/3. see Move DNS Data into DNS Application Directory Partitions.• Because the forest-wide application directory partition can replicate outside a specified domain. • Domain-wide replication can be targeted to minimize replication traffic because administrators can specify which of the domain controllers running the DNS Server service can receive the DNS zone data. wellknown. However. upgrade your Windows 2000–based domain to Windows Server 2003. some new group memberships are established. and raise the forest functional level to Windows Server 2003 to take advantage of the 15/3 intrasite replication frequency. you do not have to use DNS zone transfer to replicate the zone file information to DNS servers that are outside the domain. Intrasite replication frequency Windows 2000–based domain controllers that are upgraded maintain their default intrasite replication frequency of 300/30. That is. When the forest functional level is raised to Windows Server 2003. For more information about using application directory partitions to store DNS data. and because moving the _msdcs. • Forest-wide replication can be targeted to minimize replication traffic because DNS data is no longer replicated to the global catalog.forest_root_domain into the forest-wide application directory partition replicates it to all domain controllers in the forest that are running the DNS Server service. the setting does not change to the 15/3 default setting in Windows Server 2003 after you complete the upgrade. If 49 . • DNS records located on global catalog servers in the forest are removed. changes will replicate to all domain controllers in the same site 15 seconds after a change is made—with a 3-second offset before notifying the next domain controller. Important Do not modify the default 300/30 intrasite replication frequency on Windows 2000–based domain controllers. If you modified the 300/30 default replication frequency setting in Windows 2000. any changes that are made to AD DS replicate to all other domain controllers in the same site 5 minutes (300 seconds) after a change is made—with a 30-second offset before notifying the next domain controller—until the forest functional level is raised to Windows Server 2003. Instead. New groups and new group memberships that are created after upgrading the PDC After you upgrade the Windows 2000–based domain controller holding the role of the primary domain controller (PDC) emulator operations master (also known as flexible single master operations or FSMO) in each domain in the forest to Windows Server 2003. a new installation of Windows Server 2003 will always use the 15/3 intrasite replication frequency setting. and built-in groups are created. minimizing the amount of information replicated with the global catalog. several new.

the Anonymous Logon group and the Authenticated Users group are also added to the Pre– Windows 2000 Compatible Access group. or after you move the PDC emulator operations master role to a Windows Server 2008-based domain controller. or after you add a read-only domain controller (RODC) to your domain. • The Enterprise Domain Controllers group is added to the Windows Authorization Access group. The new. • The Network Servers group is added to the Performance Monitoring alias. the following new well-known and built-in groups are created: • • • • Builtin\IIS_IUSRS Builtin\Cryptographic Operators Allowed RODC Password Replication Group Denied RODC Password Replication Group 50 . well-known. and built-in groups include the following: • • • • • • • • • Builtin\Remote Desktop Users Builtin\Network Configuration Operators Performance Monitor Users Performance Log Users Builtin\Incoming Forest Trust Builders Builtin\Performance Monitoring Users Builtin\Performance Logging Users Builtin\Windows Authorization Access Group Builtin\Terminal Server License Servers The newly established group memberships include the following: • If the Everyone group is in the Pre–Windows 2000 Compatible Access group. the following additional security principals are created: • • • • • • • LocalService NetworkService NTLM Authentication Other Organization Remote Interactive Logon SChannel Authentication This Organization After you upgrade the Windows Server 2003–based domain controller holding the role of the PDC emulator master in each domain in the forest to Windows Server 2008. these groups will be created when the role is transferred.you transfer the PDC emulator operations master role to a Windows Server 2003–based or a Windows Server 2008–based domain controller instead of upgrading it. when upgrading the Windows 2000–based domain controller that holds the role of the PDC emulator master in the forest root domain. In addition.

51 .• • • • • • Read-only Domain Controllers Builtin\Event Log Readers Enterprise Read-only Domain Controllers (created only on the forest root domain) Builtin\Certificate Service DCOM Access IUSR security principal added to the Builtin\IIS_IUSRS group The following groups added to the Denied RODC Password Replication Group: • • • • • • • • Group Policy Creator Owners Domain Admins Cert Publishers Domain Controllers Krbtgt Enterprise Admins Schema Admins Read-only Domain Controllers The newly established group memberships are: • Network Service security principal added to Builtin\Performance Log Users • Also. and built-in groups and newly established group memberships mentioned above will be created. you might have to temporarily disable these security policies during the upgrade process. Security policy considerations when upgrading from Windows 2000 to Windows Server 2003 Server Message Block (SMB) packet signing and secure channel signing are security policies that are enabled by default on Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers. wellknown. additional security principals are created in the forest root domain: • • • IUSR Owner Rights Well-Known-Security-Id-System security principal is renamed to System Note If you move the PDC emulator master role from a Windows 2000–based domain controller to a Windows Server 2008-based domain controller. all the new. To allow client computers running earlier versions of Windows to communicate with domain controllers running Windows Server 2008. the following new.

Secure channel signing is required by default on Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers. upgrade these client computers to a later version of the operating system or service pack. it uses the computer account password to create a secure channel with a domain controller for its domain. To ensure successful authentication. which is then verified by the receiving party. see Modify Default Security Policies. These client computers will not be able to establish communications with a Windows Server 2008–based domain controller. do not support SMB packet signing. Each time the computer starts. you can allow them to be authenticated by configuring SMB packet signing on all Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers so that SMB packet signing is allowed but not required. if you cannot upgrade your client computers. To ensure successful communication. Client computers running Windows NT 4. all client computers must enable secure channel signing and encryption. Secure channel signing and encryption When a computer becomes a member of a domain. This secure channel is used to ensure secure communications between a domain member and a domain controller for its domain. For more information about configuring secure channel signing on Windows Server 2003–based domain controllers.0 with Service Pack 3 (SP3) or earlier installed do not support secure channel signing. all client computers are required to have SMB packet signing enabled. or particular nonMicrosoft operating systems. Client computers running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 2 (SP2) or earlier. Server-side SMB signing is required by default on Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers.SMB packet signing SMB packet signing is a security mechanism that protects the data integrity of SMB traffic between client computers and servers. that is. see Modify Default Security Policies. and it prevents malicious software attacks by providing a form of mutual authentication. These client computers will not be able to authenticate to a Windows Server 2008–based domain controller. However. However. a computer account is created. For more information about configuring SMB packet signing on Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers. This is done by placing a digital security signature into each SMB packet. 52 . that is. you must disable secure channel signing on all Windows Server 2008–based domain controllers so that the traffic passing through the secure channel is not required to be signed or encrypted. if you cannot upgrade your client computers. upgrade these client computers to a later version of the operating system or service pack.

and how to prepare for deployment. and other virtualization software Administration.Microsoft Support Quick Start for Adding Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 Domain Controllers to Existing Domains This topic explains the process for upgrading domain controllers to Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. server. This topic includes links to related information about the upgrade process. VMWARE. Operating system What’s new Windows Server 2008 For information about each feature. remote administration. and application interoperability Secure default settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Virtualized domain controllers on Hyper-V. and cross-version administration • Configuring the Windows Time service for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 • • • • • Known issues for upgrades to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Verifications you can make and recommended hotfixes you can install before you begin Run Adprep commands Upgrade domain controllers Troubleshooting errors What’s new in AD DS in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 The following table has links to more information about new features and functionality in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. see Changes in Functionality from Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1) to Windows Server 2008 53 . This information is based on the experience of the Microsoft Customer Service and Support team. special considerations. • • • • • • • • What’s new in AD DS in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 System requirements for installing Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Supported in-place upgrade paths Functional level features and requirements Client.

For example.microsoft. Windows Server 2008 R2 For information about each feature. Some functionality that was available in previous versions of Windows Server is deprecated in Windows Server 2008. For information about specific features in AD DS in Windows Server 2008 R2.com).Operating system What’s new (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164414).exe does not allow the creation of a domain that has a single-label Domain Name System (DNS) name.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=139655). see Active Directory Domain Services Role (http://go. In Windows Server 2008 R2. see Changes in Functionality from Windows Server 2008 to Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.microsoft. and how to prepare for deployment.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164410). 54 .exe. Dcpromo. The Browser Service is disabled by default in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164416). the check box to install a DNS server is not available in Dcpromo. If you try to promote an additional domain controller in a domain that has a single-label DNS name (such as contoso. see What's New in Active Directory Domain Services (http://go. For more information.microsoft. see article 947057 in the Microsoft Knowledge base (http://go. Upgrading Windows Server 2003 domain controllers in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 single-label domains is supported. For information about specific features in Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) in Windows Server 2008. instead of contoso. special considerations. SMTP Replication is removed by default.com/fwlink/?LinkID=139049). Promoting additional Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers into existing single-label DNS domains is supported.

see Deprecated Features for Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.microsoft. when it is enabled.microsoft. see Disk space and component location issues in Known Issues for Installing and Removing AD DS (http://go. For disk-space requirements for AD DS in Windows Server 2008 R2. see “System Requirements” in Installing Windows Server 2008 (http://go.microsoft. For disk-space requirements for AD DS in Windows Server 2008. see Installing Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.microsoft. 55 . System requirements for installing Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 For system requirements for Windows Server 2008.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164423).com/fwlink/?LinkId=164421). The AD DS database (Ntds.microsoft. for the following reasons: • There are changes in the online defragmentation process on Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers.com/fwlink/?LinkID=160341). • Windows Server 2008 R2 Adprep /forestprep adds two new indices on the large link table.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177815).dit) on Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers can be larger than in previous versions of Windows.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164423).com/fwlink/?LinkId=164418).Operating system What’s new Windows Server 2008 R2 does not support MSMQ in domain mode for Windows NT 4 and Windows 2000 MSMQ clients running against Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers that have no Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 domain controllers in the same environment.microsoft. preserves attributes on deleted objects for the recycled object lifetime. For more information about other known issues for AD DS. For system requirements for Windows Server 2008 R2. see Disk space and component location issues in Known Issues for Installing and Removing AD DS (http://go. • The Windows Server 2008 R2 Active Directory Recycle Bin feature. see Known Issues for Installing and Removing AD DS (http://go. For more information about other functionality in Windows Server 2003 that is deprecated in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2.

IP address.microsoft. In a production Windows Server 2008 R2 domain at Microsoft. For example.com/fwlink/?LinkID=154894). use the metadata cleanup method in Windows Server 2008 and remove DNS and Windows Internet Name Service (WINS) records for the original role holder. For more information. If you want to migrate the AD DS server role. see “Supported upgrade paths” in Installing Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164553). computer name. not counting the Active Directory Recycle Bin.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164555).microsoft. or if you have made configuration changes. using the default deletedObjectLifetime and recycledObjectLifetime values of 180 days. Windows Server 2008. check for sufficient free disk space on the partitions that host the AD DS database and log files. refer to this article if you want to ensure that the new server has the same IP address or server name as the legacy server. see “Supported upgrade paths” in Guide for Upgrading to Windows Server 2008 (http://go. and supporting configuration state. For upgrades to Windows Server 2008 R2. If you replace domain controllers.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177812). DNS server roles. see AD DS and DNS Server Migration: Migrating the AD DS and DNS Server Roles (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=146616). or Windows Server 2008 R2 offsets that increase. While Windows Server 2008 R2 additions increase the database size. Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers are estimated to be 10 percent larger than Windows Server 2008 domain controllers.microsoft. Functional level features and requirements Features that are enabled for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain and forest functional levels are documented in Understanding Domain and Forest Functionality (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkID=160341) and Windows Server 2008 R2 Upgrade Paths (http://go. Domain and forest functional level requirements 56 .The Active Directory database on a Windows Server 2008 domain controller that is promoted into a Windows 2000 domain should be a size that is similar to the size of the Active Directory databases on the Windows 2000 domain controllers. see Cleaning metadata of removed writable domain controllers in Appendix A: Forest Recovery Procedures (http://go. Windows Server 2003 R2. the Active Directory Recycle Bin feature increased the database size by an additional 15 to 20 percent of the original AD DS database size. Supported in-place upgrade paths For upgrades to Windows Server 2008. such as registry changes or file-based DNS zones. Additional space requirements depend on the size and count of the objects that can be recycled. If an in-place upgrade to Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 rolls back silently to the previous operating system version. the addition of a single-instance store that is supported by domain controllers that run Windows Server 2003. from an existing server to a new Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 destination server. on the legacy DNS server and you want them retained on the new DNS server.microsoft.

and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers in the same domain or forest without any functional-level requirement. Windows Server 2003. and Windows 7 client computers are fully compatible with writable Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers.com/fwlink/?LinkID=133779). therefore. and application interoperability • Windows NT 4. Client. compared to Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 domain controllers. In 57 . • Adprep /rodcprep does not have any functional-level requirements. • For more information about which versions of Microsoft Exchange Server can interoperate with different versions of Windows. Windows Server 2008. For member-computer interoperability with RODCs. server.microsoft. Windows Vista. • You can install Windows 2000. see Exchange Server Supportability Matrix (http://go.microsoft.for the deployment of Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers are as follows: • Adprep /forestprep does not have any domain or forest functional level requirements. it does not work with RODCs. Encryption type or policy AllowNT4Crypt o Windows Server 200 8 default Disabled Windows Server 2008 R 2 default Disabled Comment Third-party Server Message Block (SMB) clients may be incompatible with the secure default settings on Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers. see Applications That Are Known to Work with RODCs (http://go.microsoft. Exchange Server requires a writable domain controller. • Windows 2000. • For installation of a read-only domain controller (RODC). • For a list of applications that are compatible with RODCs. see Known Issues for Deploying RODCs (http://go. Secure default settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers have the following secure default settings.0 computers cannot be joined to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domains or domain controllers. the forest functional level must be Windows Server 2003 or higher. • Adprep /domainprep requires a Windows 2000 native or higher domain functional level in each target domain. Windows Server 2003.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164418).com/fwlink/?LinkID=165034). Windows XP.

For information about other virtualization software. System Center Virtual Machine Manager enforces this for Hyper-V. Article 976918 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft.microsoft. This action causes an update sequence number (USN) rollback that can result in permanent inconsistencies between domain controller databases.com/fwlink/?LinkId=178251) Enabled Disabled Virtualized domain controllers on Hyper-V™. • For more considerations about running domain controllers in virtual machines. remote administration. these settings can be relaxed to allow interoperability at the expense of security. see article 942564 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. and crossversion administration The following changes have been made to local and remote administration tools for the Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 operating systems. • Configure virtualized domain controllers to synchronize with a time source in accordance with the recommendations for your hosting software.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=141292).microsoft. read Running Domain Controllers in Hyper-V (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkId=164558). • All physical-to-virtual (P2V) conversions for domain controller role computers should be done in offline mode.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177717) See Microsoft Security Advisory (937811) (http://go. VMware. Administration. For more information.all cases. DES CBT/Extended Protection for Integrated Authentication LMv2 Enabled N/A Disabled Enabled Article 977321 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft. and other virtualization software Regardless of the virtual host software product that you are using.com/fwlink/? LinkId=178251). Specific requirements include the following: • Do not stop or pause domain controllers.microsoft.microsoft. see article 888794 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. 58 .com/fwlink/?LinkId=164559) and article 976918 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkID=139651) for special requirements related to running virtualized domain controllers. see the vendor documentation. • Do not restore snapshots of domain controller role computers.

click Customize. In the Customize Start Menu dialog box.MSI). For more information. 2. • Additional steps are required to make the administration tools that RSAT installs appear in the Start menu of Windows Vista computers. by Server Manager also locally installs all GUI and command-line tools that you can use to administer that role. 59 . Click OK. For example. see Installing Remote Server Administration Tools (http://go. 4. and Resource Kit tools have been consolidated into a single collection called Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). see How to Administer Microsoft Windows Client and Server Computers Locally and Remotely (http://go. Instead of copying the tools. the administrative tools only install and run correctly on the operating system versions with which they were released. which you can obtaine from the Microsoft Download Center. and then click Properties. tools that are copied from the Windows Server 2008 operating system disk to Windows Vista will not work. such as Active Directory Domain Services. To display the administration tools on the Start menu 1. Support Tools (SUPPTOOLS. Configuring the Windows Time service for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Make sure that you have the following domain controller roles configured properly to synchronize the Windows Time service (W32time). Right-click Start. To install tools locally to manage other server roles. click Add Features in Server Manager. For more information. On the Start Menu tab. see the following procedure. For example. x86-based (32-bit) and x64-based (64-bit) versions of administration tools were released.MSI).• The installation of a server role. scroll down to System administrative tools. • The GUI and command-line tools that were formerly in the Administrative Tools Pack (ADMINPACK.microsoft. the Windows Server 2008 administration tools install and run only on Windows Vista client computers and Windows Server 2008 server computers. and then click Display on the All Programs menu and the Start menu. download the correct version of RSAT for the client computers that you use to administer servers.com/fwlink/?LinkID=153624). • As 64-bit hardware and operating systems became more popular. Administration tools whose files are copied from the server operating system disk will generally not execute on the corresponding client operating system and are not supported. 3.microsoft. As a general rule. For these additional steps.com/fwlink/?LinkId=177813).

com>.com/fwlink/? LinkId=178255). Finally. Microsoft recommend that you add time-rollback protection on Windows Server 2003 domain controllers by using Group Policy. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers added time-rollback protection to help prevent domain controllers from adopting bad time. consult the vendor. For more information.microsoft. see article 884776 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkId=91969).0x08 • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProvider s\NtpClient\SpecialPollInterval (REG_DWORD) = 900 (decimal) • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config\MaxPo sPhaseCorrection (REG_DWORD): 2a300 (hexadecimal) or 172800 (decimal) • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config\MaxNe gPhaseCorrection (REG_DWORD): 2a300 (hexadecimal) or 172800 (decimal) For domain-joined host computers: • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32time\Config\MinPol lInterval (REG_DWORD): 6 (decimal) • 60 .windows. .The forest-root primary domain controller (PDC) on a physical computer should synchronize time from a reliable external time source. For more information. such as time. All other domain controllers that are installed on physical hardware or Hyper-V should use the default domain hierarchy (no configuration change required). see Configure the Windows Time service on the PDC emulator (http://go. For domain controllers running on non-Microsoft virtualization software. making sure that you have the policy detail fixes in place before you do. time on workgroup and domain-joined virtual host computers should be configured as follows: For workgroup host computers: • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\services\W32Time\Parameters\T YPE (REG_SZ) = NTP • HKLM\system\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\TimeProviders\NtpServer (REG_DWORD) = <fully qualified host name of time server.microsoft.

then disable EDNS using the command:dnscmd /Config /EnableEDnsProbes 0 Verifications you can make and recommended hotfixes you can install before you begin 1.com/fwlink/?LinkID=147380).com/fwlink/?LinkID=139330) Extension mechanisms for DNS (EDNS) are enabled by default on Windows Server 2008 R2. see Cleaning metadata of removed writable domain controllers in 61 . or Windows Server 2008 fail after those DNS servers are upgraded or replaced with DNS servers that run Windows Server 2008 R2. should be removed from their respective domains. Be healthy (Run dcdiag /v to see if there are any problems. Windows Server 2003.microsoft. Syntax.microsoft. If you notice queries that used to work on DNS servers that run Windows 2000.HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32time\Config\MaxPol lInterval (REG_DWORD): 10 (decimal) • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config\MaxPo sPhaseCorrection (REG_DWORD): 2a300 (hexadecimal) or 172800 (decimal) • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\W32Time\Config\MaxNe gPhaseCorrection (REG_DWORD): 2a300 (hexadecimal) or 172800 (decimal) Known issues for upgrades to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 Read the following release notes for more information about specific issues that can affect these versions of Windows Server: Release notes for Windows Server 2008 (http://go. Have successfully inbound-replicated and outbound-replicated all locally held Active Directory partitions (repadmin /showrepl * /csv viewed in Excel). see “CSV Format” in Repadmin Requirements. Metadata for stale or nonexistent domain controllers. d.microsoft. For more information. b.com/fwlink/?LinkID=99299) Release notes for Windows Server 2008 R2 (http://go. e. or queries that the old DNS servers can resolve cannot be resolved by Windows Server 2008 R2 DNS servers.) c. or domain controllers that cannot be made to replicate. and Parameter Descriptions (http://go. Have successfully inbound-replicated and outbound-replicated SYSVOL. For more information. Be online. All domain controllers in the forest should meet the following conditions: a.

For Windows Server 2008 R2: If Active Directory Management Tool (ADMT) 3. see Secure default settings in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. i.com/fwlink/? LinkID=164553).com/fwlink/?LinkId=164586).microsoft. In addition. Description Microsoft Knowledge Base article Service pack 62 .Appendix A: Forest Recovery Procedures (http://go. For more information about disk-space requirements for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. If you are deploying RODCs.microsoft. Check for incompatibilities with secure defaults in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows NT 4. review article 944043 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft.microsoft.1 before the upgrade.0 domain controllers are not permitted in this functional level. For upgrades to either Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes updates from Windows Server 2008 SP2. 3. see System requirements for installing Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2. For more information. g.microsoft. or you can install the service pack that includes it. As of September 2009. otherwise.1 cannot be installed on Windows Server 2008 R2 computers. For information about obtaining the latest service pack. Have sufficient free disk space to accommodate the upgrade.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164585) and see Installing Windows Server 2008 with Service Pack 2 (http://go. iii.com/fwlink/? LinkID=47290) or see article 968849 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.dit files on Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers so that hard drives and partitions that host Active Directory files can be sized properly on physical and virtual domain controllers. ii. All domains must be at the Windows 2000 native functional level or higher to run adprep /domainprep. The task for administrators is to accurately forecast the immediate and long-term growth for Ntds.com/fwlink/?LinkID=122974). see Windows Update (http://go. To make sure that you have all of the latest updates. You can install a hotfix individually. create integrated installation media (“slipstream”) by adding the latest service pack and hotfixes for your operating system. f.1 is installed on Windows Server 2008 computers that are being upgraded in-place to Windows Server 2008 R2. remove ADMT 3. 2. see article 968849 in the Microsoft Knowledge base (http://go. it cannot be uninstalled. the latest service pack for Windows Server 2008 is Service Pack 2 (SP2).microsoft. The following table lists hotfixes for Windows Server 2008. ADMT 3. a. Download the latest service pack and relevant hotfixes that apply to your Active Directory forest before you deploy Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164585) for download information. Download and install the hotfixes on the Windows computers and scenarios that apply to your computing environment.

microsoft.Domain controllers that are configured to use the Japanese language locale EFS file access encrypted on a Windows Server 2003 file server upgraded to Windows Server 2008 Records on Windows Server 2008 secondary DNS server are deleted following zone transfer Use root hints if no forwarders are available Setting Locale info in GPP causes Event Log and dependent services to fail.microsoft.” the Windows Event Log Service.com/fwlink/? LinkId=164590) 2001154 (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkId=164588) 948690 (http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=165960).com/fwlink/? LinkId=164591) 974266 (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkID=165035) Windows Server 2008 SP2 Synchronize the Directory Services Restore Mode (DSRM) Administrator password with a domain 961320 (http://go.microsoft. Group Policy Preferences rerelease 949189 (http://go.microsoft. To be included in Windows Server 2008 SP3 949360 957579 (http://go. GPMC Filter fix If you use devolution to resolve DNS names (instead of suffix search list). task Scheduler Service fail to start.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=178224) Windows Server 2008 SP2 Windows Server 2008 SP2 943729 (http://go.microsoft. DNS Server Service.com/fwlink/? LinkID=106115) Windows Server 2008 SP2 Not included in any Windows Server 2008 Service Pack Windows Server 2008 SP2 953317 (http://go.microsoft. If you change “Regional Option – User Locale – enabled.com/fwlink/? LinkId=165959) For prevention and resolution. apply the DNS devolution hotfix.com/fwlink/? LinkId=177814) 63 . see 951430 (http://go.microsoft.

user account The following table lists hotfixes for Windows Server 2008 R2.com/fwlink/? LinkId=178225) Comment [The article will include a hotfix. click the taskbar clock.microsoft. Description Windows Server 2008 R2 Dynamic DNS updates to BIND servers log NETLOGON event 5774 with error status 9502 Event ID 1202 logged with status 0x534 if security policy modified Microsoft Knowledge Base article 2002490 (http://go. click the link to open the date and time control panel.microsoft.com/fwlink/? LinkId=165961) Hotfix is in progress. 2002034 64 .com/fwlink/? LinkId=178226) Deploying the first Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controller in an existing Active Directory forest may temporarily halt Active Directory replication to strict-mode destination domain controllers. Also scheduled for Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1. If the clock fly-out indicates a time zone problem. TimeZoneKeyName registry entry name is corrupt on 64-bit upgrades 2001086 (http://go.microsoft.] 2000705 (http://go. Occurs only on x64based server upgrades in Dynamic DST time zones. To see if your servers are affected.

On the schema master.Run Adprep commands This section describes how to run the following adprep commands. Run the dcdiag /test:knowsofroleholders command. • Windows Server 2008 R2 installation media contain both x86-based (Adprep32. and Windows Server 2008 (for Windows Server 2008 R2) operations masters.exe can be run directly on Windows Server 2000 SP4. see Adprep errors. b.exe. Locate the correct version of Adprep for your upgrade: • The Windows Server 2008 installation media contain one version of adprep. follow the steps in article 255504 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. Log on to the schema operations master with an account that has Enterprise Admins. 65 . that runs on both x86-based and x64-based operations masters. Windows Server 2003 R2. use the replicate now command Dssite. 2. You can also use the repadmin /replicate <name of schema master> <GUID of replication partner> command. By default. Windows Server 2003.microsoft. c. Identify the domain controller that holds the schema operations master role (also known as flexible single master operations or FSMO role) and verify that it has inbound-replicated the schema partition since startup: a. Schema Admins. Adprep.exe) and x64-based (Adprep. If the schema role is assigned to a domain controller with a deleted NTDS settings object.microsoft.exe) versions of adprep in the \support\adprep folder of the Windows Server 2008 R2 installation disk. run the repadmin /showreps command. and Domain Admins credentials in the forest root domain.msc to trigger inbound replication of the schema partition to the schema master. If schema master has inbound-replicated the schema partition since startup. (See Force replication over a connection (http://go. • Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 versions of adprep. or Windows Server 2008 schema versions.com/fwlink/?LinkID=70776) to seize the role to a live domain controller in the forest root domain. • Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 schema updates can be added directly to forests with Windows 2000 Server. continue to the next step. Windows Server 2003. run adprep /rodcprep Run adprep /domainprep /gpprep If you encounter errors when you run an Adprep command. The showreps command returns the globally unique identifier (GUID) of all replication partners of the schema master.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164634)). the built-in administrator account in a forest root domain has these credentials. Add schema changes using adprep /forestprep 1. • • • Add schema changes using adprep /forestprep If you are deploying RODCs. in the \sources\adprep folder Windows Server 2008 installation disk. Otherwise.

Specify the full path to Adprep.exe from the installation media to a local computer or a network share.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164636). For example. run the appropriate version of adprep /forestprep from the Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 installation media. Note Rodcprep will run on any member computer or domain controller in the forest if you are logged on with Enterprise Admin credentials.microsoft.exe file. if the DVD or network path is assigned drive D:. We recommend running adprep /rodcprep on the schema master immediately after adprep /forestprep as a matter of convenience because that operation also requires Enterprise Admins credentials. run the following command: 66 . 3. You can run adprep /rodcprep before or after adprep /domainprep.microsoft. For Windows Server 2008 Rodcprep. specify the full path to Adprep. If you are deploying RODCs for the first time: While still logged on with Enterprise Admins credentials on the schema master.• If you copy Adprep. If you encounter errors. run adprep /rodcprep. see “Forestprep errors” later in this topic. Schema Admin. Proceed to adprep /domainprepprep. If you are deploying RODCs. While you are still logged on to the console of the schema master with an account that has Enterprise Admins. the command to run is as follows: >D:\sources\adprep\adprep /forestprep The syntax for running Windows Server 2008 R2 Adprep on a 64-bit schema master is as follows: <dvd drive letter>:\support\adprep\adprep /forestprep The syntax for running Windows Server 2008 R2 Adprep on a 32-bit. copy the entire adprep folder and provide the full path to the Adprep. Update the forest schema with adprep /forestprep. see Windows Server 2008 R2: Forest-Wide Updates (http://go. For a list of operations that Windows Server 2008 R2 adprep /forestprep performs . and Domain Admin credentials. For example.exe to prevent running another version of Adprep that may be present in the PATH environment variable.com/fwlink/? LinkId=164637). run adprep /rodcprep Run Windows Server 2008 R2 adprep /rodcprep in a forest that has already been prepared with Windows Server 2008 adprep /rodcprep. if you are running the Windows Server 2008 version of Adprep from a DVD drive or network path that is assigned the drive letter D:. see Windows Server 2008: Forest-Wide Updates (http://go. x86-based schema master is as follows: D:\support\adprep\adprep32 /forestprep For a list of operations that Windows Server 2008 adprep /forestprep performs.

run the following command: D:\support\adprep\adprep32 /rodcprep If you encounter errors. 2. 3. If the computer where you run Rodcprep is a 32-bit computer. If the computer where you run Rodcprep is a 64-bit computer. run the following command: D:\support\adprep\adprep /rodcprep 2. use the following syntax: D:\sources\adprep\adprep /domainprep /gpprep For Windows Server 2008 R2: If the infrastructure master is 64-bit. see “Domainprep errors” later in this topic Upgrade domain controllers This section includes the following topics: • Background information about the in-place upgrade process 67 . see “Rodcprep errors” later in this topic. <drive>:\<path>\adprep /domainprep /gpprep For example. Run netdom query fsmo or dcdiag /test:<name of FSMO test> to identify the infrastructure operations master. Run Windows Server 2008 adprep /domainprep /gpprep from the Windows Server 2008 operating system disk using the following syntax: Note You do not have to add the /gpprep parameter in the following command if you already ran it for Windows Server 2003. use the following syntax: D:\support\adprep\adprep32 /domainprep /gpprep If you encounter errors. 4.c:\windows >D:\sources\adprep\adprep /rodcprep For Windows Server 2008 R2: 1. transfer or seize the roles as required. use the following syntax: D:\support\adprep\adprep /domainprep /gpprep If the infrastructure master is 32-bit. Log on to the infrastructure master with an account that has Domain Admins credentials. If operations master roles are assigned to deleted or offline domain controllers. if the DVD or network path is assigned drive D. Run adprep /domainprep /gpprep For each domain that you intend to add Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 domain controllers to: 1.

com/fwlink/?LinkID=154894). read and comply with article 949189 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. see Windows Server 2008 R2 Upgrade Paths (http://go. The reverse is also true. The reverse is also true. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 both auto-install Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). If you have the Japanese language locale installed on Windows Server 2003 domain controllers that are being upgraded in place to Windows Server 2008. with the following exception: x86based operating systems cannot be upgraded in place to x64-based versions of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 (which supports only the x64-based architecture). Do not arbitrarily disable or remove IPv6. For more information about supported and unsupported upgrades. A writeable domain controller cannot be upgraded to be an RODC. Upgrading and promoting new domain controllers into an existing domain Complete the following steps if you are performing either of these in-place upgrades: • Upgrading to Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 from Windows Server 2003 domain controllers • Upgrading to Windows Server 2008 R2 from Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2003 or domain controllers 1. consider the following: Computers running Windows 2000 Server cannot be upgraded in place to Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2. The forest functional level must be Windows Server 2003 or higher. 68 .• • • Upgrading and promoting new domain controllers into an existing domain Post-installation tasks Fixes to install after AD DS installation Background information about the in-place upgrade process When you upgrade existing domain controllers or promote new domain controllers into existing domains. To promote RODCs: • • The adprep[32] /rodcprep command must have completed successfully.com/fwlink/? LinkID=164588).microsoft. A server that runs the full installation of Windows Server 2008 R2 cannot be upgraded to be a server that runs a Server Core installation of Windows Server 2008 R2. In-place upgrades from Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2003 R2 to Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 are supported.microsoft. • A writable (or “full”) domain controller that runs Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 must exist in the target domain.

1 before the upgrade.exe. Consider installing the following fixes after the in-place upgrade unless they are integrated into your installation media: • If you are installing Windows Server 2008. then make sure that DC1 has outbound replicated object information about DC2 to other domain controllers before you retire DC1. This problem does not apply to domain controllers that are upgraded to Windows Server 2008 R2. 6. 5.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164591).microsoft. uninstall ADMT 3. make sure that object information about the newly promoted domain controllers (the computer account in the domain partition and the NTDS Settings object in the configuration partition) has outbound replicated to a sufficient number of domain controllers that are remaining in the forest before you retire the only domain controller in the forest that has that object information.microsoft. Read article 942564 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.1 is installed on a Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 domain controller that is being upgraded to Windows Server 2008 R2. 7. 8. Complete the following steps if you are performing an in-place upgrade of Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2 writable domain controllers into existing Windows 2000 Server. install Service Pack 2 (SP2). If you have remotely encrypted Encrypting File System (EFS) files on Windows Server 2003 computers that are being upgraded in place to Windows Server 2008. See article 957579 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. This is particularly an issue where the helper domain controllers used by newly promoted domain controllers are rapidly demoted before outbound reapplication takes place. • If you use devolution (as opposed to suffix search lists) to resolve DNS queries for single-label and non-fully-qualified DNS names. When promoting new domain controllers. 69 .com/fwlink/? LinkId=166140). 3. If the Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) version 3.microsoft. see Dcpromo errors. download the July 2009 update to article 943729 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.com/fwlink/?LinkID=106115). read and comply with article 948690 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. Windows Server 2008 R2 includes Windows Server 2008 SP2 fixes. For example. 4. Run <dvd or network path>:\setup. • Download the fix for a GPMC filter bug in article 949360 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base.2.com/fwlink/? LinkID=164558) and consider the right setting for the AllowNT4Cryto policy for your environment.exe fails. Windows Server 2003 or Windows Server 2008 domains: 1. download the DNS devolution fix. if you promote DC2 and use DC1 as the helper domain controller. Verify that the target domain is at the Windows 2000 native domain functional level or higher. • If you are using Group Policy Preferences on Windows Vista or Windows Server 2008 computers. If dcpromo.

From the Windows Start menu. Windows Server 2008 domains. The hotfix should be installed immediately after promotion and before the first boot into normal mode. Do the following if you are performing an in-place upgrade of Windows Server 2008 RODCs into existing Windows Server 2003 domains. see Configure the forest root PDC with an external time source (http://go. 3. or domains that have a mix of those operating systems: 1.exe (or install the Active Directory Domain Services Role in Server Manager.microsoft. 4. read and comply with article 949189 in the Microsoft Knowledge base (http://go. Note It is impossible to provide an exhaustive list of hotfixes. install the following hotfixes.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164588). Restoring snapshots that were created by imaging software is not supported on domain controllers. 2. see the list of Dcpromo errors at the end of this topic. run Dcpromo. see the Microsoft Knowledge Base. • Enable delete protection on organizational units (OUs) and other strategic containers to prevent accidental deletions. 3. Fixes to install after AD DS installation After installation of AD DS. 5. Hotfix Windows Server 2008 Windows Server 2008 Windows 70 . read article 942564 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. If an error message indicates that access is denied.2. The following is a list of fixes that are available in October 2009.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164558) consider the right setting for AllowNT4Cryto for your environment. For more information. and then run Dcpromo). If the option to install RODC is not available and the error message indicates that there is no Windows Server 2008 in the domain. If you encounter an error. If the option to install RODC is not available in Dcpromo. • Use only Active Directory–aware backup applications to restore domain controllers or roll back the contents of AD DS. When the AllowNT4Crytpo page appears. verify that a Windows Server 2008 domain controller exists in the domain and that it is accessible on the network to the RODC that you are promoting.microsoft.microsoft. verify that the forest functional level is Windows Server 2003 or higher. Post-installation tasks For all domain controllers: • Configure the forest root PDC with an external time source. If you are promoting Windows Server 2008 domain controllers that are configured to use the Japanese language.com/fwlink/? LinkId=91969).

• If the error message says “Adprep was unable to extend the schema” or “Adprep failed to verify whether the schema master has completed a replication cycle after last reboot.microsoft. search site:Microsoft.microsoft.microsoft. • Read article 944043 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.microsoft. This fix is not required on Windows Server 2008 R2 writable domain controllers. install the hotfix in article 953392 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. and rodcprep commands.active_directory (http://go. domainprep.com/fwlink/? LinkID=122974).com/fwlink/?LinkId=166141) • Discussions in microsoft. and install the corrective fixes on the Windows client and server computers that are affected by the scenarios that are listed in the Knowledge Base article. Troubleshooting errors This section describes errors in Adprep.com/fwlink/?LinkID=150337) on all Windows Server 2008 writable domain controllers.com: “error description” or post your problem to the following community sites: • Directory Services Directory Services (http://go. see the Microsoft Knowledge Base. Forestprep errors • If an error message indicates that the schema operations master is assigned to a deleted domain controller.exe and Dcpromo.public.windows.SP1 (RTM) Article 949360: GPMC filter bug Article 957959: DNS devolution fix Article 943729: GPP rerelease Article 949189: Japanese Language Locale For RODCs: Yes Yes Yes Yes SP2 No Yes Yes No Server 2008 R2 No No No No • If you are deploying RODCs.com/fwlink/?LinkId=166142) Adprep errors These sections describe errors for the forestprep.exe. If you encounter an error that is not covered.server.” verify that the schema master has inbound-replicated the schema partition since the reboot. See 71 .

• If the error message says ”An attribute with the same link identifier already exists. verify that /forestprep has 72 .com/fwlink/?LinkID=140285).microsoft. 2. If the error message says “Adprep detected that the domain is not in native mode.exe (http://go. and run the repadmin /syncall command. The schema is not upgraded.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=166190).com/fwlink/?LinkId=164668). see Adprep was unable to complete because the call back function failed in Running Adprep. run a query for the error message that is enclosed in quotation marks at Microsoft Help and Support (http://go.microsoft.dit. 3.” see Adprep was unable to complete because the call back function failed in Running Adprep.microsoft.microsoft. • If the error message says “The callback function failed.com/fwlink/?LinkID=141249).microsoft. you must first prepare the forest using ""adprep /forestprep""… ". • If the error message says “There is a schema conflict with Exchange 2000. For all other error messages. If the error message indicates that the callback function failed. and SYSVOL.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164669).com/fwlink/? LinkID=56290).microsoft. and then rerun Rodcprep until it runs successfully.com/fwlink/? LinkID=56290). Ntds. Domainprep errors 1. Rodcprep errors 1. • For all other error messages.com/fwlink/? LinkID=56290). If the upgrade rolls back without any onscreen error or recorded error in a debug log.microsoft.exe (http://go. If an error message says "To install a domain controller into this Active Directory forest.vbs script in the same article. run the Fixfsmo. Dcpromo errors 1. see article 314649 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. run a query for the error message that is enclosed in quotation marks at Microsoft Help and Support (http://go. If Rodcprep fails with the error message “Adprep could not contact a replica for partition <distinguished name for the forest-wide or domain-wide DNS application partition>” that is documented in article 949257 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go.” see article 969307 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. 2.” see Raise the domain functional level (http://go. 2.microsoft.microsoft. For all other error messages.com/fwlink/?LinkID=164669).Force a replication event with all partners in Forcing Replication (http://go.”. verify that you have sufficient free disk space on the volumes that are hosting %systemdrive. run a query for the error message that is enclosed in quotation marks at Microsoft Help and Support (http://go.com/fwlink/? LinkId=164670).

11. you must first prepare the forest using ""adprep /domainprep""…” and verify that /domainprep has been run and that the helper domain controller has inbound-replicated /domainprep changes.exe (http://go. If the system is unable to share SYSVOL. For more information. 9.been run and that the helper domain controller has inbound-replicated /forestprep changes. 7. 4. 73 .” or “You will not be able to install a writable domain controller at this time because the RID master <domain controller name> is offline. If you see the logging event <unable to obtain local RID pool>. d. If an error message says "To install a domain controller into this Active Directory domain..microsoft.microsoft. Do you want to continue?”.. try another helper domain controller. If an error message says “You cannot install an additional domain controller at this time because the RID master <domain controller name> is offline. see Running adprep. 3. 6. If the current role holder is the only live domain controller in the domain but its copy of Active Directory refers to domain controllers that no longer exist. If a warning indicates that there is no static IP address configured for an IPv6 address on a Windows Server 2008 domain controller.com/fwlink/?LinkId=164418).exe cannot discover another Microsoft DNS server in the domain. see Running adprep. If the check box for installing the DNS Server role is unavailable. If the distinguished name path that is returned from the command in the previous step is mangled or assigned to a deleted domain controller. remove the stale metadata for those domain controllers and reboot the live domain controller and retry promotion." see the Microsoft Knowledge Base.. see the Microsoft Knowledge Base. Run NETDOM QUERY FSMO or DCDIAG /TEST:<name of FSMO test> b.com/fwlink/?LinkID=142597).exe (http://go.” see Known Issues for Installing and Removing AD DS (http://go. see the Microsoft Knowledge Base. click Yes and complete the wizard. If you see the error message “A delegation for this DNS Server cannot be created because the authoritative parent zone cannot be found…. If you see the error message “The DNS zone could not be created. remove the metadata for that domain controller and seize the role to a live domain controller that hosts a writable copy of the domain partition. 5. 8. a.com/fwlink/? LinkID=142597). c. Verify that RID master role is assigned to a live domain controller that has successfully inbound replicated the domain directory partition since boot from at least one other domain controller in the same domain. complete the following steps to recover.” delete the stale machine account and verify that the helper domain controller has inbound-replicated that deletion. either the Active Directory domain has a single-label DNS name or Dcpromo.microsoft. As an alternative. For more information. 10. If an error message says “the specified user already exists.

If Dcpromo fails with an error message that says “Failed to modify the necessary properties for the machine account. For more information. Access is denied”.com/fwlink/?LinkId=166198). make sure that administrators are granted the Enable computer and user accounts to be trusted for delegation permission in Default Domain Controllers Policy and that the policy has been linked to the Domain Controllers OU.microsoft. see article 232070 in the Microsoft Knowledge Base (http://go. Also make sure that the helper domain controller’s machine account resides in the Domain Controllers OU and that it has successfully applied policy.12. 74 .