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A technical proposal

José Antonio Domínguez Vázquez, Fernando Martínez Rodrigo, José Miguel Ruiz and Santiago Lorenzo

Matilla

E.T.S.I.I. Valladolid University

Paseo del Cauce s/n, 47011 Valladolid, Spain.

Phone +34 983 42 33 38, fax +34 983 42 33 10, e-mail: josdom@eis.uva.es

1. Introduction

2. Modelling the system.

In this paper we expose a new strategy to deliver the

power of a Photovoltaic (or any other energy source A. Irradiance modelling

of small power) System attached to the main. The We need to know the basic equations of our energy

object of the implementation of a battery of source. In this case, the sun irradiation. In order to

ultracapacitors in the photovoltaic system is to simplify as possible, we can consider irradiation is

convert a variable power delivery to constant power. modelled by a gaussian expression. Next equation 1

This will improve the energy efficiency by two ways. will show the behaviour of daily irradiation, where its

One is to take advantage of the time in which the maximum is 1, and the base is 12 hours wide.

system does not work because the power flow is too

2

low (irradiation). Another advantage is that the output −1 ( x −12 )

power is lower than input power. The last affirmation Gd = 1 ⋅ e

2 σd

is obvious showing the next figure 1:

Equation 1: daily irradiation. σd = 2.65

modulation. This function reaches its maximum at the

half of the year and its supossed about 1000 W/m². In

order to determine the variance we consider the

maximum irradiance of one day. This day must be at

the beginning or at the finish of the year. SO annual

expression for irradiation is:

2

−1 ( x − 4380 )

2 σa

Gd = A ⋅ e

σd = 3000 and A=1.1 kW/m²

Figure 1: Several strategies depending of output

power inverter. Two aleatory variables will simulate the effect of the

1. ____ Input power of the renewable power plant climatology conditions like clouds. The product of

(photovoltaic Panels in this case) these four elements will provides us the annual

irradiance that must verify one condition: its integer

2. .... Output power of inverter P1 must be the measured annual irradiance.

3. __ Output power of inverter P2 such P2<P1

4. ·-·- Output power of inverter P3 such P3<P2<P1

GTotal = Ga × Gd

It’s obvious that input energy integer value can be Equation 3: Total annual irradiance.

obtained by several ways. So we can study which

output power is the best choice for our energy source At this moment we have to adjust some of the values

choosing an the inverter that works the most time in calculated before. Troubles appear considering daily

its best efficiency ratio. irradiation as a Gaussian function, where the maximum

value is reached at one instant only. Actually the

Key words: ultracapacitors, constant output maximum values, specially in summer, are reached

power, equalization during several hours. In order to resolve this problem

we can suppose that there are more sunny hours or where:

that maximum values of irradiance are higher. 1

L

a 0 = ∫ f ( x)dx

L0

......

nπx

L

2

a n = ∫ cos f ( x)dx

L0 L

For Ga: For Gd

a 0 = 0.7346 a0 = 0.2768

a 2 = −0.2926 a2 = −0.4351

a 4 = −0.0382 a4 = 0.2114

a 6 = −0.0168 a6 = −0.0635

Figure 2: Total annual irradiance

ai =odd = 0 ai =odd = 0

2πx 4πx 6πx

GT = a0 a0 + a0 a2 cos

0 1 0 1

+ a0 a4 cos

0 1

+ a00 a61 cos +

L1 L1 L1

+ a20a01 cos + a20a12 cos cos + a20a14 cos cos +

L0 L0 L1 L0 L1

2πx 6πx

+ a 20 a 61 coscos + ....

L0 L1

Figure 3: daily irradiance influenced by a cloudy Equation 5: Total irradiation as a Fourier series

day.

B. Photovoltaic System modelling

Ip Ii

PV Ic Vcc DC/AC

C C

We consider de system showed in the figure 5, where:

− PV represents the Photovoltaic Modules

− C is the ultracapacitors group.

Figure 4: Total annual energy. − Block DC/AC is the inverter.

− Ip is the current from the PV modules, Ii is the

In spite of this small considerations, we are going to input inverter current and Ic is the current that

make a comparison, so the influence is going to affect flow in or out of the ultrcapacitors group.

at every system in the same way. Vcc is the DC voltage.

Now we are going to express every gaussian function We have considered internal resistance of the

as Fourier cosine series in order to obtain an ultracapacitors as a very slow value, so discharge

expression of their integers helping to solve the currents are unappreciated. Other losses like resistance

system equations. wires are unappreciated.[2],[3] Our system will work

between maximum and minimum voltages. We can

General expression is shown in the equation 4: consider two strategies:

n

nπx

f ( x) = a 0 + ∑ a n cos • Searching the Maximum Power Point (MPP) every

L time. We need a DC regulator between PV

Equation 4: General Fourier cosine series. modules and ultracapacitors

• At variable voltage but no MPP searching. We And the solution is:

work around the 10% of the MPP voltage at 1 − BCe CVcc + C

standard conditions. − ln = A∫ GT dt =

C e CVcc

We can calculate how many ultracapacitors have to

be connected in order to reach the DC voltage: L1 2πx L 4πx L 6πx

a 00 a 10 x + a 00 a 12 sen + a 00 a 14 1 sen + a 00 a 61 1 sen +

2π L1 4π L1 6π L1

Vcc max

nº ≥

Vcond max sen 2π − 2π x sen 2π + 2π x

L

L

a 20 a 12 0 sen

2πx

+ a 20 a 12 0 L0 L1 + L0 L1 + .....

Then the maximum dc voltage is limited to: 2π 2π 2π 2π

L0 2π 2π

n º×Vcond max 2 − 2 +

L0 L1 L0 L1

The number of parallel series is limited by the Equation 8: solving DC voltage in charging mode

assumed cost and in a less important level, by the At this moment we have obtained an expression for the

energy and the discharge time at constant power. DC voltage in the ultracapacitors bank. Based on it it’s

Let’s calculate the currents of the system. Firstly Ip, possible to obtain the current that flow by them, instant

current from the PV modules, equation 6. power ant the energy stored in every time.

− e (V oc − V cc )

State 2: Ultracapacitors in discharging mode I i ≠ 0

I p = N ⋅ I SCP ⋅ n p 1 − e mkT

Ic = I p − Ii

N = PVpanels so:

T = Temperature # series P

n p = nº paralell _ cells

Vcc = Vcc max +

C ⋅# parallel ∫I p −

Vcc

dt

Voc = Ouput _ circuit _ voltage where P = Inverter output power

I scp = Short _ Circuit _ Current = C1 ⋅ GT Equation 9: DC voltage in discharging mode

m = parameter In the same way that state 1, we can express

nP

e = electron _ ch arg e D=

C

k = cte.Boltzman

and we will obtain the next differential equation:

Equation 6: Current from PV modules

Clearly: (

Vcc' = AGT 1 − B ⋅ e CVcc − ) D

Vcc

I p = Ic + Ii

Equation 10: DC voltage in charging mode

It`s time to consider that system has two states:

This equation has no analitic solution and we only can

State 1: Ultracapacitors in charging mode: I i = 0 obtain a numeric solution . However we can do a

So: I p = I c simplification that can be good enough for few cycles,

considering small variations of the DC voltage, near to

and: the MPP: that means the consideration of constant

# series voltage. The value taken is the media value of DC

C ⋅# parallel ∫

Vcc = Vcc min + I p dt =

voltage range. In this way the equation can be solved

# series − e (Voc −Vcc )

= integring directly:

Vcc min +

C ⋅# parallel ∫ N ⋅ I SCP ⋅ n

p 1 − e mkT dt

(

Vcc = ∫ (AGT 1 − B ⋅ e CVcc − ) D

( )

)dt = 1 − B ⋅ e CVcc A∫ GT −

Dt

Vcc Vcc

− e (Voc −Vcc )

# series Equation 11:aprox. of DC voltage. Charging mode

Vcc min +

C ⋅# parallel ∫ N ⋅ C1 ⋅ GT ⋅ n p 1 − e mkT dt

This equation 11 is the base to calculate an

Equation 7: DC voltage in state 1, charging mode. aproximation of the current that flow in the

We can express this equation 7 in the next way: ultracapacitors batery discharge, power and energy

stored every time.

(

Vcc' = AGT 1 − B ⋅ e CVcc ) 3. Sizing the system

There are three aspects to consider:

where a) The energy stored by the ultracapacitors is:

# series ⋅ C 1 ⋅ n p ⋅ N The balance of the system is:

A=

C ⋅# parallel Ep = Ec + Ei

− e (Voc ) where:

B=e mkT

Ep= PV input energy and

e Ei=energy extracted by the inverter,

C = mkT

If Ep>Ei the the system will react, lowing the PV charge and discharge the ultracapacitors at

power: constant power.

- Rising the DC voltage or

- Cutting off the PV modules. This situation will 5. Simulations

give a lower performance. We have done simulations of every strategy control in

In order to well know this situation is necessary to Matlab at different conditions. We’ll provide several

analize the irradiance of the placement. This situation graphics of the results. In this abstract we show the

can be in the days with the highest annual irradiance. results in a table

Experimentally we can assure that a good criteria to

choose the output inverter power is the next:

Pi =

# of _ daily _ hours

consider the dead times when the system exceed the

supplied energy. It’s easy to calculate with next

equation. Also it can provides us the minimum and

the maximum time of the inverter working at constant

output power.

1

nC ( ∆V ) 2

Ec 2

Tdes = = ≤ Tmin

Pi Pi

c) The performance of the inverter. We can use a

good approximation if we choose:

≈ 30% Pn ≤ Pi ≤ Pn

An evaluation of these three aspects will provide us a

good idea of the output power.

4. Strategies of control

We present four strategies to control the system. One

of them is a conventional system without

ultracapacitors in order to compare the results with 6. Conclusion

another three strategies using those elements. System 5 provides the best efificiency rate in every

a) System 1: Conventional system: It works at condition, so ultracapcitors can be a good solution to

variable power. Starting at a minimum input increase the production of a Photvoltaic sytem.

power, and including a MPP tracking

b) System 2: Using ultracapacitors at variable

7. References

voltage depending of the ultracapacitors

[1] Bobby Maher, “A Backup Power System Using

characteristics. Inverter works at constant

Ultracapacitors”, september 2004, pags 44-49

ouptput power at its maximum eficiency.

www.powerelectronics.com.

c) System 3: Using ultracapacitors at variable

[2] NESS Capacitor Co. Ltd, several technical datas

voltage. Tracking of the MPP with a DC

[3] MAXWELL Technologies ultracapacitors, several

regulator before the ultracapacitors. Still

technical datas

maximum and minimum working voltages.

[4] L. Zubieta, R. Bonert, “Characterization of double-

Inverter works at constant output power at

layer capacitors for power electronics applications”,

its maximum efficiency.

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, January-

d) System 4: Same at above but inverter works

February 2000, vol. 36, issue. 1, pp. 199-205.

at two different levels: normal level and

upper level for extreme situation (very high

input PV power)

e) System 5: Hybrid strategy. We fix a working

power. When PV system provides more

power , inverter works like a conventional

system. When input power is lower, we

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