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The Present Perfect Tense

1. Всегда обозначает действие в прошлом, которое началось в неопределенный момент в прошлом.


2. Недавнее прошлое.

Глаг. “to have” в соответ. форме + past participle (если неправ. глаг.- an irregular verb) или глаг. с оконч. –ed
(если прав. глаг. – a regular verb)

Example
I have seen this movie before. (irregular verb)
She has written a story. (irregular verb)
We have booked our hotel rooms. (regular verb)

Отрицание (Negative Form)


I have not seen this movie before.
She hasn’t written a story.

Вопросы
Вспомогат глаг. - “have”
Example
Have you seen my keys?
What have you done tonight?

Употребление (Usage)
1. События недавнего прошлого, которые имеют отношение к данному разговору.
I have lost my dictionary. I have been really sick lately.
2. Выражение пережитого опыта говорящего.
I have been to New York many times.
3. Выражение достижений.
I have finished my homework.
4. Незаконченное действие, которое ожидается, что оно закончится.
Jamie has not arrived yet.
5. Несколько повторных действий, совершенных в разное время.
They have missed the morning train about five times.
6. События, начатые в прошлом, и этот промежуток времени из прошлого все еще длится.
Children have read three books this month.
7. Событие из прошлого, когда время вообще не упоминается.
Jane has started to sing again.
Сигнальные обстоятельства времени

Never, ever, already, yet, not yet, just, for, since, this week (this month, etc.), lately, recently, tonight, today.

 I've played tennis 3 times already this week and it's only Thursday!
 I have just called her cell phone.
 She's been back to Korea twice already this year and she's going again next week!
 Sorry, I've seen that movie already. I don't want to see it again.
 I've lived in Germany since 1986.
 She's had a lot of bad luck recently.
 I haven't seen my mother for 2 months.
 No, you can't use the bathroom. You haven't finished the exercise yet.
 She hasn't called me lately. Do you think she's sick?
 Have you ever seen a ghost?
 Has he lived here all his life?
 Has the postman been here yet?

НО!
“last year” – в прошлом году (the Simple Past)
“in the last year” – в "течение" прошлого года, за время прошлого года (the Present Perfect)

**Note

Иногда обстоятельства неопределенного времени могут быть использованы в the Simple Past. Тогда с точки
зрения разказчика действие уже совершилось в определенное время до момента разговора.

Example

I had a nice breakfast this morning.


(Если разговор происходит вечером, то утреннее время уже закочилось и сегодня больше не повторится).
The Past Perfect Tense

1. Обозначает действие, которое произошло до рассматриваемого события. (The past perfect refers to a
time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the
past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one happened first.
The past perfect tense is for talking about something that happened before something else.)

Example
Event A Event B
John had gone out when I arrived in the office.
Event A Event B
I had saved my document before the computer crashed.
Event B Event A
When they arrived we had already started cooking.
Event B Event A
He was very tired because he hadn't slept well.

2. Показывает, что что-то произошло до определенного времени в прошлом.


Example:

 She had established her company before 2008.


 He had never played football until last week.
 They had gotten engaged before last year.
 I had fallen asleep before eight o'clock.
 She had met him before the party.

3. Most often, the reason to write a verb in the past perfect tense is to show that it happened before other
actions in the same sentence that are described by verbs in the simple past tense. **Writing an entire
paragraph with every verb in the past perfect tense is unusual.
4. Используется, чтобы показать недовольство прошлыми событиями

 We wished we had purchased the winning ticket.


 I wished I had told the truth.
 She wished she had seen her friend.
 The boy wished he had asked another question.

Глаг. “had” + past participle (если неправ. глаг.- an irregular verb) или глаг. с оконч. –ed (если прав. глаг. – a
regular verb)

Отрицание (Negative Form)


I had not seen this movie before last week.
She hadn’t written a story.

Вопросы
Вспомогат глаг. - “had”
Example
Had they gone out?
What had she seen?

When Not to Use the Past Perfect

Don’t use the past perfect when you’re not trying to convey some sequence of events. If your friends asked what
you did after you discovered the graffiti, they would be confused if you said:

I had cleaned it off the door.

They’d likely be wondering what happened next because using the past perfect implies that your action of cleaning
the door occurred before something else happened, but you don’t say what that something else is. The “something
else” doesn’t always have to be explicitly mentioned, but context needs to make it clear. In this case there’s no
context, so the past perfect doesn’t make sense.

More Examples of the Past Perfect Tense

 I had never seen such a beautiful sunset before I went to the island.
 We were not able to stay overnight at the hotel since we had not reserved a room in advance.
 She had never been to the symphony before last night.
 Marc knew Philadelphia so well because he had lived there for five years.
 He understood the math test because he had been tutored all week.
 I did not have any cash because I had lost my purse.
 I had been to Mexico before I turned 16.
 Before he did his homework, he had stayed after school for help.
 She had lived in California before moving to Texas.
 The cat had chased the bird before it flew out of the yard.
 We had just called home when my mom texted us about returning the car.
 She had visited several doctors before she found out what the problem with her hand was.

The time expressions already, for, since, and yet may be used in the past perfect simple, as they are in the present
perfect simple. Remember the following rules for using other time expressions:

 Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until before using the past perfect simple.
Ex: After she had moved out, I found her notes./ I didn’t say anything until she had finished talking.
 Use before, when, by the time before the past simple:
Ex. Before I knew it, she had run out the door. / By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new.

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