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LOADING ON SLAB:-

DEAD LOAD:

Depth of slab= d

Unit weight of reinforced concrete= 25 KN/m3

- IS 875 (Part-I) Table 1

Load of 1m of RCC slab= 25xd KN/m3

2

Unit weight of cement concrete= 24 KN/m3

- IS 875 (Part –I) Table 1

Load of 1m2 of cement concrete finish= 0.0625x24= 1.5KN/m2

Dead load due to partition wall= 1 KN/m2

- IS 875 (Part – II) 3.1.2

LIVE LOAD

In

Residential buildings = 2 KN/m2,Educational buildings = 3 KN/m2,Business

and office buildings = 2.5 KN/m2,Mercantile buildings = 4 KN/m2,Industrial

buildings = 2.5 KN/m2- -IS 875(Part –II) Table –1

TOTAL LOAD = DL + LL

When simply supported slabs do not have adequate provision to resist torsion

at corners and to prevent the corners from lifting, maximum moments per unit width

are given by the following equation:

Mx=α x × w lx2

My= α y × wlx2

lx = effective length of shorter span

ly = effective length of longer span

α x and α y are coefficients

- IS 456 Table 23

Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete

- SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44

RESTRAINED SLABS:

When the corners of a slab are prevented from lifting, the slab may be

designed as follows-

The maximum moments per unit width are given by the following

equation:

Mx=α x × w lx2

My= α y × wlx2

lx = effective length of shorter span

ly = effective length of longer span

Mx and My = moments on strips of unit width spanning lx and

ly respectively

2

- IS 456 Table 22

Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete

- SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44

When ly/lx > 2 the slabs are to be designed as one-way slabs.

- IS 456 C.1.11

Maximum bending moments at critical sections are computed using bending

moment coefficients given in

Table 7 – IS 456

For a balanced design

Mu = 0.138× σ ck× bd2

effective depth = d

= √{Mu/ (0.138× σ ck× b)}

Area of steel is given by

Mu= 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)}

At= Mu/[0.87× σ y× {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)}]

The maximum shear force occurs at the first interior support in the end span

Nominal shear stress τ v=Vu/bd

Percent of tension steel,

τ c=100× As/bd; τ c’ =kτ c ; k= factor

The code permits in solid slabs thinner than 300mm an increase in shear

strength by a factor k - IS 456 39.2.1.1

Check τ c’> τ v

φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.2M1/V + L0)

M1 = 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)}

The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance

and U- hook must be provided.

The slab is checked for deflection

L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ

α = basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m

- IS 456 22.2.1a

β = a factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for

spans greater than 10m= 10/span in meters -IS 456 22.2.1b

γ =a factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension

reinforcement -IS 456 fig 3

δ = a factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement

- IS 456 fig 4

λ = a factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web

width to the flange width

- IS 456 fig 5

3

LOADING ON BEAM:

The loads on beams supporting solid slabs spanning in two

directions at right angles and supporting uniformly distributed loads, may be

assumed to be in accordance with-

- IS 456; 23.5 & Fig 6

SLAB LOAD-

Section of beam: -

Depth = d

Breadth = b

Unit weight of RCC = 25 KN/m3

Therefore self weight of beam = weight of 1m length of beam = 25bd

WALL LOAD

Thickness of wall = D mm

Height of wall= h

Unit weight of brick wall = 19KN/m3

Therefore load due to wall

=Weight per meter length of wall

= 19hD

SLAB LOAD

Unit weight of slab 1= W1

Unit weight of slab 2= W2

Length of slab 1 supported by the beam = l1

Length of slab 2 supported by the beam = l2

Total slab load= (W1l1+W2l2)/2

Total uniformly distributed load on beam= 25bd + 19hD + (W1l1+W2l2)/2

CONCENTRATED LOAD

This is the load due to cross beam

Length of cross beam supported = l1

Beam load of cross beam = w1

Total cross beam load = w1l1

Length of wall supported = l2

Wall load of cross wall= w2

Total cross wall load= l2w2

Total concentrated load = w1l1 + w2l2

ANALYSIS OF BEAM

BENDING MOMENT

Length of beam = l

Uniformly distributed load =w

Bending moment due to UDL =M = wl2/10 -IS 456; Table 7

Concentrated load = W

Bending moment due to concentrated load = Wl/10 -IS 456; Table 7

TOTAL BENDING MOMENT = MUDL + MCONC + MWIND or SEISMIC

SHEAR FORCE

Shear force due to UDL = 0.6wl

4

TOTAL SHEAR FORCE = SUDL + SCONC + SWIND or SEISMIC

DESIGN OF BEAM:

Beams can be designed as singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections.

Total bending moment = M

Factor of safety = F

Design bending moment Mu = M× F

Section proposed

Breadth = b

Depth = D

Cover depth = D’

Effective depth d= D-D’

Calculate Mu/bd2

For Mu/bd2<Mulim/bd2

For different values of fy

pt is obtained -SP-16, Table 1-Table 4

For different values of Mu/bd2, and D’/d

pt and pc are obtained. -SP-16, Table 45 ..

Compressive reinforcement Asc = pc × bd/100

Total shear force = S

Factor of safety = F

Design shear force Vu = S × F

Design shear strength of concrete = τ c -IS456, Table 13; SP16, Table 61

The nominal shear strength is calculated by the following equation:

τ v = Vu/bd

where,

Vu is the shear force

When,

τ v > τ c,

Shear capacity of concrete section = τ cbd

Shear reinforcement should be provided for carrying shear

Vus = Vu - τ cbd -SP16 , Table 62, Table 63

τ v ≤ τ cmax -SP16, Table J

φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.2M1/V + L0)

M1 = 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)}

5

The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance

and U- hook must be provided.

The beam is checked for deflection

L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ

α = Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m

- IS 456 22.2.1a

β = A factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for spans greater than

10m

= 10/span in meters

- IS 456 22.2.1b

γ =A factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension reinforcement

- IS 456 fig 3

δ = A factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement

- IS 456 fig 4

λ = A factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web width to the

flange width

- IS 456 fig 5

6

LOADING ON COLUMN:

SELF WEIGHT

The self-weight of columns can be obtained by the following formula:

P= N× W

Where,

N= no. of floors

W = weight of column per floor

= wbDh

Where,

w = unit weight of reinforced cement concrete

b = breadth of column

D = depth of column

h = height of a floor

The load acting on a column transferred by the beams connected to the

column can be given by the following formula:

P1= N1× W1× (L1+L2+L3+L4)/2

Where,

N1= number of floors

W1 = self weight of beam

L1 = length of beam 1

L2 = length of beam 2

L3 = length of beam 3

L4 = length of beam 4

The load acting on the column due to the walls supported by the beams

attached to the column is given by the formula:

P2 = N2× (W1L1+W2L2+W3L3+W4L4)

Where,

N2 = number of floors

W1 = self weight of wall 1

L1 = length of wall 1

W2 = self weight of wall 2

L2 = length of wall 2

W3 = self weight of wall 3

L3 = length of wall 3

W4 = self weight of wall 4

L4 = length of wall 4

The load acting on the column due to the floor slabs of various floors attached

to it is given by:

P3 = N3× (S1L1L2 + S2L2L3 + S3L3L4 + S4L4L1)

Where,

N3 = number of floors

S1 = self weight of slab 1

7

S2 = self weight of slab 2

L2× L3 = area of slab BC

S3 = self weight of slab 3

L3× L4 = area of slab CD

S4 = self weight of slab 4

L4× L1 = area of slab DA

BENDING MOMENT:

A nominal bending moment considering an eccentricity of 2cms can be

considered.

i.e. BM = 2 × W /100

where,

W = axial load acting on the column

Bending moments in external columns and internal columns supporting an

arrangement of beams and loading not approximately symmetrical should be

calculated and provided for.

In the absence of more accurate methods of analysis for computing bending

moments in columns following formulae can be used:

For external columns:

Moments at foot of upper column =

BM = Me × Ku/ (KL + KU + Kb1)

Moments at head of lower column

BM = Me × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1)

For internal columns:

Moments at foot of upper column

BM = Mes × KU/ (KL + KU + Kb1 +Kb2)

Moments at head of lower column

BM = Mes × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1 + Kb2)

Where,

Me = bending moment at the end of the beam

Mes = maximum difference between the moments at the ends of

the two beams framing into opposite sides of the column

KU = stiffness of the upper column

= M.I. of the upper column / Length of the column

KL = stiffness of the lower column

Kb1 = stiffness of the beam on one side of the column

Kb2 = stiffness of the beam on the other side of the column

The equation for the moment at head of the lower

column can be used for columns in a topmost storey by

taking KU as zero.

Design bending moment =

Mu = F × BM

Where,

F = factor of safety

8

AXIAL LOAD

Design axial load=

Pu= F × W

Mu/ bd2

D’/D

Where,

D’ = cover to reinforcement

D = depth of the column

From the chart we get

p/fck ; where,

p = reinforcement percentage

fck = strength of concrete

- SP 16, Chart 27 ….

As = p × b × D / 100

LATERAL TIES:

1. The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties should not be less than

one-fourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case

less than 5 mm.

2. The pitch of the lateral ties should not exceed the following distances:

a. The least lateral dimension of the compression member

b. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal

reinforcement bar to be tied, and

c. Forty eight times the diameter of the lateral ties.

- IS 456; 25.5.3.2

FOOTING:

Foundations maybe broadly classified into shallow foundation and deep

foundation respectively. A foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to or lesser than

its width. In case of deep foundations the depth is greater than its width. Commonly

only shallow foundations are used for small buildings.

SHALLOW FOUNDATION

a. Wall footing

b. Isolated footing

c. Combined footing

d. Raft footing

WALL FOOTING:

In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked:

a) Soil pressure beneath footing

b) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or

shear stress

c) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment

d) Development length

We consider a span equal to 1m length for the footing.

Load per meter of footing W = P + F

9

Where,

P = load of wall per meter

F = load of footing per meter

Width of footing required D = W / Pr

Where,

Pr = effective soil pressure

Footing width provided = D’

Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/D’

As the wall is built of masonry, the bending moment has to be calculated

halfway between the middle and edge of the wall. -IS 456; 33.2.3

Thus,

BM= P(B/2 – b/4)2/2

Design bending moment

Effective depth required d1 = √(F× BM/0.148× fck× b)

Area of steel is given by the formula:

BM = 0.87× fy× Ast× (d – fyAst/fckb)

Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d

from the face of the wall:

V= P{(B-b)/2 – d}

Where,

b = width of wall

d = effective depth of footing

Percentage of tensile steel

pt = 100 Ast / bd

Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table

- IS 456; Table 13

τ c = P{(B-b)/2 – d}/(1000× d)

For development of reinforcement, the embedment required is,

Ld = (0.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd)

Therefore,

φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0.87fy

where,

φ = diameter of reinforcement bar

τ bd = design bond stress - IS 456; 25.2.1.1

Ld = development length

fy = strength of steel reinforcement used -IS 456; 25.2.1

ISOLATED FOOTINGS:

In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked:

e) Soil pressure beneath footing

f) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or

shear stress

g) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment

10

i) Development length

Load on footing W = P + F

Where,

P = load of column

F = load of footing

Area of footing required A = W / Pr

Where,

Pr = effective soil pressure

Footing area provided = L× B

Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/(L× B)

As the footing is under a column, the bending moment has to be calculated at

the face of the column. - IS 456; 33.2.3

Thus,

BM1= Pu× L(B – d/2)2/2

BM2= Pu× B(L – d/2)2/2

Bmmax= maximum of BM1 and BM2

Design bending moment =Mu =F× BMmax

Effective depth required d1 = √(Mu/0.138× fck× b)

Area of steel is given by the formula:

BM = 0.87× fy× Ast× (d1 – fyAst/fckb)

For development of reinforcement, the embedment required is,

Ld = (0.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd)

Therefore,

φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0.87fy

where,

φ = Diameter of reinforcement bar

τ bd = design bond stress -IS 456; 25.2.1.1

Ld = development length

fy = strength of steel reinforcement used- IS 456; 25.2.1

Actual embedment provided from the face of the column =

Ld’ = (B-D)/2 – dc

Where,

B = shorter dimension of the footing

D = greater dimension of the column

dc = depth of reinforcement cover

Ld’ ≥ Ld

a) SHEAR ONE-WAY ACTION

Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d

from the face of the column:

V= Pu× L{(B-b)/2 – d2}

Where,

b = width of column

11

consideration

Nominal shear stress τ v = V/bd

Percentage of tensile steel

pt = 100 Ast/bd2

Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table

- IS 456; Table 13

τ c ≥ τ v

b) SHEAR TWO WAY ACTION:

The critical section is taken at a distance equal to d/2 distance away from the

face of the column.

The shear force is given by:

V= Pu× {L× B - (B-0.5b)× (L-0.5D)}

Nominal shear stress τ v = V/b0d

Shear strength of concrete:

τ c’ =ksτ c

Where,

ks = 0.5 + β c ;ks ≤ 1

Where,

β c = length of shorter side of column /length of longer

side of column

τ c= 0.25√fck -IS 456; 30.6, 33.2.4

PUNCHING SHEAR CONSIDERATION:

Depth from punching shear consideration:

d = P/{2× (b+D)}

LOAD TRANSFER FROM COLUMN TO FOOTING:

Nominal bearing stress in the column concrete:

σ br = Pu / Ac

Where,

Pu = load transferred from the column

Ac = area of the column

Allowable bearing stress σ br’= 0.45σ ck

If σ br>σ br’

Then, the column load cannot be transferred by bearing alone

Excess load:

Pu’ = (σ br - σ br’)× Ac

Required area of steel:

Asb = Pu’/(0.67× fy)

Minimum Asb = 0.5% of Ac

These bars are to be provided as dowels. These dowels are to be developed

above and below the junction of column and footing.

Ld for compression:

Ld’ = σ sφ /4τ bd

Available vertical length L1 for anchorage:

L1 = d –dc -2φ m -φ

L1≥ Ld’

Where,

d = depth of footing

12

φ m = diameter of main reinforcement in footing

φ = Diameter of dowel bars

GENERAL NOTES

1) All the footings should be laid at least 1.5m below the ground level.

2) The design has been done by LIMIT STATE METHOD.

3) All the columns should be joined at ground level by a tie beam to avoid

differential settlement. The specifications of the tie beam are given in the

reinforcement schedule.

4) The codes used are IS-456, IS-875, IS-2911, SP-34, and SP-16.

5) In case of addition or alteration design of building;

i) The beams and slabs are redesigned only for the additional portion.

ii) It is to be considered that the columns and footings are found to be safe

structurally for further construction, considering that primary settlement

has already occurred and only secondary settlement is left, unless

otherwise mentioned.

6) Incase wherever pile foundation is advised,

i) Bored piles of length ≥ 15m are to be used.

ii) Piles should be embedded ≥ 150mm in the pile cap.

iii) Beyond the exterior piles the pile cap should extend ≥ 150mm.

7) The specifications for steel and concrete to be used are Fe250, Fe415, and M20

unless otherwise mentioned.

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