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# 1

Depth of slab= d
Unit weight of reinforced concrete= 25 KN/m3
- IS 875 (Part-I) Table 1
Load of 1m of RCC slab= 25xd KN/m3
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## Depth of finish= 0.0625m

Unit weight of cement concrete= 24 KN/m3
- IS 875 (Part –I) Table 1
Load of 1m2 of cement concrete finish= 0.0625x24= 1.5KN/m2
- IS 875 (Part – II) 3.1.2

In
Residential buildings = 2 KN/m2,Educational buildings = 3 KN/m2,Business
and office buildings = 2.5 KN/m2,Mercantile buildings = 4 KN/m2,Industrial
buildings = 2.5 KN/m2- -IS 875(Part –II) Table –1

TOTAL LOAD = DL + LL

## SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLABS:

When simply supported slabs do not have adequate provision to resist torsion
at corners and to prevent the corners from lifting, maximum moments per unit width
are given by the following equation:

Mx=α x × w lx2
My= α y × wlx2
lx = effective length of shorter span
ly = effective length of longer span
α x and α y are coefficients
- IS 456 Table 23
Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete
- SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44
RESTRAINED SLABS:
When the corners of a slab are prevented from lifting, the slab may be
designed as follows-
The maximum moments per unit width are given by the following
equation:
Mx=α x × w lx2
My= α y × wlx2
lx = effective length of shorter span
ly = effective length of longer span
Mx and My = moments on strips of unit width spanning lx and
ly respectively
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## α x and α y are coefficients

- IS 456 Table 22
Reinforcement obtained from table in Design aid for reinforced concrete
- SP 16 Table 5 to Table 44

## ONE WAY SLABS:

When ly/lx > 2 the slabs are to be designed as one-way slabs.
- IS 456 C.1.11
Maximum bending moments at critical sections are computed using bending
moment coefficients given in
Table 7 – IS 456
For a balanced design
Mu = 0.138× σ ck× bd2
effective depth = d
= √{Mu/ (0.138× σ ck× b)}
Area of steel is given by
Mu= 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)}
At= Mu/[0.87× σ y× {d-(σ yAt/σ ckb)}]

## CHECK FOR SHEAR:

The maximum shear force occurs at the first interior support in the end span
Nominal shear stress τ v=Vu/bd
Percent of tension steel,
τ c=100× As/bd; τ c’ =kτ c ; k= factor
The code permits in solid slabs thinner than 300mm an increase in shear
strength by a factor k - IS 456 39.2.1.1
Check τ c’> τ v

## CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH:

φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.2M1/V + L0)
M1 = 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)}
The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance
and U- hook must be provided.

## CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:

The slab is checked for deflection
L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ
α = basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m
- IS 456 22.2.1a
β = a factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for
spans greater than 10m= 10/span in meters -IS 456 22.2.1b
γ =a factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension
reinforcement -IS 456 fig 3
δ = a factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement
- IS 456 fig 4
λ = a factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web
width to the flange width
- IS 456 fig 5
3

The loads on beams supporting solid slabs spanning in two
directions at right angles and supporting uniformly distributed loads, may be
assumed to be in accordance with-
- IS 456; 23.5 & Fig 6

Section of beam: -
Depth = d
Unit weight of RCC = 25 KN/m3
Therefore self weight of beam = weight of 1m length of beam = 25bd
Thickness of wall = D mm
Height of wall= h
Unit weight of brick wall = 19KN/m3
=Weight per meter length of wall
= 19hD
Unit weight of slab 1= W1
Unit weight of slab 2= W2
Length of slab 1 supported by the beam = l1
Length of slab 2 supported by the beam = l2
Total uniformly distributed load on beam= 25bd + 19hD + (W1l1+W2l2)/2
This is the load due to cross beam
Length of cross beam supported = l1
Beam load of cross beam = w1
Total cross beam load = w1l1
Length of wall supported = l2
Wall load of cross wall= w2
Total concentrated load = w1l1 + w2l2

ANALYSIS OF BEAM

BENDING MOMENT
Length of beam = l
Bending moment due to UDL =M = wl2/10 -IS 456; Table 7
Bending moment due to concentrated load = Wl/10 -IS 456; Table 7
TOTAL BENDING MOMENT = MUDL + MCONC + MWIND or SEISMIC

SHEAR FORCE
Shear force due to UDL = 0.6wl
4

## Shear force due to concentrated load = 0.6W -IS 456; Table 7

TOTAL SHEAR FORCE = SUDL + SCONC + SWIND or SEISMIC

DESIGN OF BEAM:
Beams can be designed as singly reinforced and doubly reinforced sections.

## DESIGN BENDING MOMENT

Total bending moment = M
Factor of safety = F
Design bending moment Mu = M× F
Section proposed
Depth = D
Cover depth = D’
Effective depth d= D-D’
Calculate Mu/bd2
For Mu/bd2<Mulim/bd2
For different values of fy
pt is obtained -SP-16, Table 1-Table 4

## For Mu/bd2>Mulim/ bd2

For different values of Mu/bd2, and D’/d
pt and pc are obtained. -SP-16, Table 45 ..

## Tensile reinforcement Ast = pt × bd/100

Compressive reinforcement Asc = pc × bd/100

## DESIGN SHEAR FORCE:

Total shear force = S
Factor of safety = F
Design shear force Vu = S × F
Design shear strength of concrete = τ c -IS456, Table 13; SP16, Table 61
The nominal shear strength is calculated by the following equation:
τ v = Vu/bd
where,
Vu is the shear force
When,
τ v > τ c,
Shear capacity of concrete section = τ cbd
Shear reinforcement should be provided for carrying shear
Vus = Vu - τ cbd -SP16 , Table 62, Table 63

## CHECK FOR MAXIMUM SHEAR:

τ v ≤ τ cmax -SP16, Table J

## CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH:

φ < 4τ bd/σ s× (1.2M1/V + L0)
M1 = 0.87× σ y× At {d-(σ yAt /σ ckb)}
5

The bars must be embedded into the support by at least Ld/3 distance
and U- hook must be provided.

## CHECK FOR DEFLECTION:

The beam is checked for deflection
L/d ≤ α β γ δ λ
α = Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10m
- IS 456 22.2.1a
β = A factor which accounts for correction in the values of α for spans greater than
10m
= 10/span in meters
- IS 456 22.2.1b
γ =A factor which depends on the area and type of steel for tension reinforcement
- IS 456 fig 3
δ = A factor which depends on the area of compression reinforcement
- IS 456 fig 4
λ = A factor for flanged beams which depends on the ratio of web width to the
flange width
- IS 456 fig 5
6

SELF WEIGHT
The self-weight of columns can be obtained by the following formula:
P= N× W
Where,
N= no. of floors
W = weight of column per floor
= wbDh
Where,
w = unit weight of reinforced cement concrete
D = depth of column
h = height of a floor

The load acting on a column transferred by the beams connected to the
column can be given by the following formula:
P1= N1× W1× (L1+L2+L3+L4)/2
Where,
N1= number of floors
W1 = self weight of beam
L1 = length of beam 1
L2 = length of beam 2
L3 = length of beam 3
L4 = length of beam 4

The load acting on the column due to the walls supported by the beams
attached to the column is given by the formula:
P2 = N2× (W1L1+W2L2+W3L3+W4L4)
Where,
N2 = number of floors
W1 = self weight of wall 1
L1 = length of wall 1
W2 = self weight of wall 2
L2 = length of wall 2
W3 = self weight of wall 3
L3 = length of wall 3
W4 = self weight of wall 4
L4 = length of wall 4

The load acting on the column due to the floor slabs of various floors attached
to it is given by:
P3 = N3× (S1L1L2 + S2L2L3 + S3L3L4 + S4L4L1)
Where,
N3 = number of floors
S1 = self weight of slab 1
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## L1× L2 = area of slab AB

S2 = self weight of slab 2
L2× L3 = area of slab BC
S3 = self weight of slab 3
L3× L4 = area of slab CD
S4 = self weight of slab 4
L4× L1 = area of slab DA

## ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF COLUMN:

BENDING MOMENT:
A nominal bending moment considering an eccentricity of 2cms can be
considered.
i.e. BM = 2 × W /100
where,
W = axial load acting on the column
Bending moments in external columns and internal columns supporting an
calculated and provided for.
In the absence of more accurate methods of analysis for computing bending
moments in columns following formulae can be used:
For external columns:
Moments at foot of upper column =
BM = Me × Ku/ (KL + KU + Kb1)
Moments at head of lower column
BM = Me × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1)
For internal columns:
Moments at foot of upper column
BM = Mes × KU/ (KL + KU + Kb1 +Kb2)
Moments at head of lower column
BM = Mes × KL/ (KL + KU + Kb1 + Kb2)
Where,
Me = bending moment at the end of the beam
Mes = maximum difference between the moments at the ends of
the two beams framing into opposite sides of the column
KU = stiffness of the upper column
= M.I. of the upper column / Length of the column
KL = stiffness of the lower column
Kb1 = stiffness of the beam on one side of the column
Kb2 = stiffness of the beam on the other side of the column
The equation for the moment at head of the lower
column can be used for columns in a topmost storey by
taking KU as zero.
Design bending moment =
Mu = F × BM
Where,
F = factor of safety
8

Pu= F × W

## We calculate Pu/ fck bd

Mu/ bd2
D’/D
Where,
D’ = cover to reinforcement
D = depth of the column
From the chart we get
p/fck ; where,
p = reinforcement percentage
fck = strength of concrete
- SP 16, Chart 27 ….
As = p × b × D / 100

LATERAL TIES:
1. The diameter of the polygonal links or lateral ties should not be less than
one-fourth of the diameter of the largest longitudinal bar, and in no case
less than 5 mm.
2. The pitch of the lateral ties should not exceed the following distances:
a. The least lateral dimension of the compression member
b. Sixteen times the smallest diameter of the longitudinal
reinforcement bar to be tied, and
c. Forty eight times the diameter of the lateral ties.
- IS 456; 25.5.3.2

FOOTING:
Foundations maybe broadly classified into shallow foundation and deep
foundation respectively. A foundation is shallow if its depth is equal to or lesser than
its width. In case of deep foundations the depth is greater than its width. Commonly
only shallow foundations are used for small buildings.

SHALLOW FOUNDATION
a. Wall footing
b. Isolated footing
c. Combined footing
d. Raft footing

WALL FOOTING:
In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked:
a) Soil pressure beneath footing
b) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or
shear stress
c) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment
d) Development length
We consider a span equal to 1m length for the footing.
Load per meter of footing W = P + F
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Where,
P = load of wall per meter
F = load of footing per meter
Width of footing required D = W / Pr
Where,
Pr = effective soil pressure
Footing width provided = D’
Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/D’

## DEPTH FROM BENDING MOMENT CONSIDERATION:

As the wall is built of masonry, the bending moment has to be calculated
halfway between the middle and edge of the wall. -IS 456; 33.2.3
Thus,
BM= P(B/2 – b/4)2/2
Design bending moment
Effective depth required d1 = √(F× BM/0.148× fck× b)
Area of steel is given by the formula:
BM = 0.87× fy× Ast× (d – fyAst/fckb)

## DEPTH FROM SHEAR FORCE CONSIDERATION:

Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d
from the face of the wall:
V= P{(B-b)/2 – d}
Where,
b = width of wall
d = effective depth of footing
Percentage of tensile steel
pt = 100 Ast / bd
Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table
- IS 456; Table 13
τ c = P{(B-b)/2 – d}/(1000× d)

## CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH:

For development of reinforcement, the embedment required is,
Ld = (0.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd)
Therefore,
φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0.87fy
where,
φ = diameter of reinforcement bar
τ bd = design bond stress - IS 456; 25.2.1.1
Ld = development length
fy = strength of steel reinforcement used -IS 456; 25.2.1

ISOLATED FOOTINGS:
In designing such a footing the following stresses are to be checked:
e) Soil pressure beneath footing
f) Thickness from the point of view of diagonal tension or
shear stress
g) Thickness from the point of view of bending moment
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## h) Thickness from the point of view of punching shear

i) Development length
Load on footing W = P + F
Where,
Area of footing required A = W / Pr
Where,
Pr = effective soil pressure
Footing area provided = L× B
Net upward soil pressure Prn = W/(L× B)

## DEPTH FROM BENDING MOMENT CONSIDERATION:

As the footing is under a column, the bending moment has to be calculated at
the face of the column. - IS 456; 33.2.3
Thus,
BM1= Pu× L(B – d/2)2/2
BM2= Pu× B(L – d/2)2/2
Bmmax= maximum of BM1 and BM2
Design bending moment =Mu =F× BMmax
Effective depth required d1 = √(Mu/0.138× fck× b)
Area of steel is given by the formula:
BM = 0.87× fy× Ast× (d1 – fyAst/fckb)

## CHECK FOR DEVELOPMENT LENGTH:

For development of reinforcement, the embedment required is,
Ld = (0.87× fy× φ ) / (4× τ bd)
Therefore,
φ ≤ 4× τ bd × Ld/0.87fy
where,
φ = Diameter of reinforcement bar
τ bd = design bond stress -IS 456; 25.2.1.1
Ld = development length
fy = strength of steel reinforcement used- IS 456; 25.2.1
Actual embedment provided from the face of the column =
Ld’ = (B-D)/2 – dc
Where,
B = shorter dimension of the footing
D = greater dimension of the column
dc = depth of reinforcement cover
Ld’ ≥ Ld

## DEPTH FROM SHEAR FORCE CONSIDERATION:

a) SHEAR ONE-WAY ACTION
Shear force will be checked at a distance equal to the depth of the footing d
from the face of the column:
V= Pu× L{(B-b)/2 – d2}
Where,
b = width of column
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## d2 = effective depth of footing from shear one way action

consideration
Nominal shear stress τ v = V/bd
Percentage of tensile steel
pt = 100 Ast/bd2
Design shear stress τ c is obtained from the table
- IS 456; Table 13
τ c ≥ τ v
b) SHEAR TWO WAY ACTION:
The critical section is taken at a distance equal to d/2 distance away from the
face of the column.
The shear force is given by:
V= Pu× {L× B - (B-0.5b)× (L-0.5D)}
Nominal shear stress τ v = V/b0d
Shear strength of concrete:
τ c’ =ksτ c
Where,
ks = 0.5 + β c ;ks ≤ 1
Where,
β c = length of shorter side of column /length of longer
side of column
τ c= 0.25√fck -IS 456; 30.6, 33.2.4
PUNCHING SHEAR CONSIDERATION:
Depth from punching shear consideration:
d = P/{2× (b+D)}
LOAD TRANSFER FROM COLUMN TO FOOTING:
Nominal bearing stress in the column concrete:
σ br = Pu / Ac
Where,
Pu = load transferred from the column
Ac = area of the column
Allowable bearing stress σ br’= 0.45σ ck
If σ br>σ br’
Then, the column load cannot be transferred by bearing alone
Pu’ = (σ br - σ br’)× Ac
Required area of steel:
Asb = Pu’/(0.67× fy)
Minimum Asb = 0.5% of Ac
These bars are to be provided as dowels. These dowels are to be developed
above and below the junction of column and footing.
Ld for compression:
Ld’ = σ sφ /4τ bd
Available vertical length L1 for anchorage:
L1 = d –dc -2φ m -φ
L1≥ Ld’
Where,
d = depth of footing
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## dc= cover depth of footing

φ m = diameter of main reinforcement in footing
φ = Diameter of dowel bars
GENERAL NOTES
1) All the footings should be laid at least 1.5m below the ground level.
2) The design has been done by LIMIT STATE METHOD.
3) All the columns should be joined at ground level by a tie beam to avoid
differential settlement. The specifications of the tie beam are given in the
reinforcement schedule.
4) The codes used are IS-456, IS-875, IS-2911, SP-34, and SP-16.
5) In case of addition or alteration design of building;
i) The beams and slabs are redesigned only for the additional portion.
ii) It is to be considered that the columns and footings are found to be safe
structurally for further construction, considering that primary settlement
has already occurred and only secondary settlement is left, unless
otherwise mentioned.
6) Incase wherever pile foundation is advised,
i) Bored piles of length ≥ 15m are to be used.
ii) Piles should be embedded ≥ 150mm in the pile cap.
iii) Beyond the exterior piles the pile cap should extend ≥ 150mm.
7) The specifications for steel and concrete to be used are Fe250, Fe415, and M20
unless otherwise mentioned.