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is a form of non-verbal communication, which consists of body posture,

gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements. Humans send and interpret such signals

Borg attests that human communication consists of 93 percent body language and paralinguistic
cues, while only 7% of communication consists of words themselves[1]; however, Albert
Mehrabian, the researcher whose 1960s work is the source of these statistics, has stated that this
is a misunderstanding of the findings[2] (see Misinterpretation of Mehrabian's rule). Others assert
that "Research has suggested that between 60 and 70 percent of all meaning is derived from
nonverbal behavior."[3]

Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it
may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, relaxed state, pleasure, amusement, and
intoxication, among many other cues.


Ê 1 Understanding body language

‘ 1.1 Physical expression
Ê 2 How prevalent is non-verbal communication in humans?
Ê 3 Body language and space
Ê  Unintentional gestures
Ê - References
Ê 6 External links


The technique of "reading" people is used frequently. For example, the idea of mirroring body
language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews. Mirroring the body language of
someone else indicates that they are understood.[O  ]

Body language signals may have a goal other than communication. Both people would keep this
in mind. Observers limit the weight they place on non-verbal cues. Signalers clarify their signals
to indicate the biological origin of their actions. Examples would include yawning (sleepyness),
showing lack of interest (sexual interest/survival interest), attempts to change the topic (fight or
flight drivers).


Physical expressions like waving, pointing, touching and slouching are all forms of nonverbal
communication. The study of body movement and expression is known as kinesics. Humans
move their bodies when communicating because, as research has shown[O  ], it helps
"ease the mental effort when communication is difficult." Physical expressions reveal many
things about the person using them. For example, gestures can emphasize a point or relay a
message, posture can reveal boredom or great interest, and touch can convey encouragement or

Ê One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when a person   
      .[O  ] This can indicate that a person is putting up an
unconscious barrier between themselves and others. It can also indicate that the person's
arms are cold, which would be clarified by rubbing the arms or huddling. When the
overall situation is amicable, it can mean that a person is thinking deeply about what is
being discussed. But in a serious or confrontational situation, it can mean that a person is
expressing opposition. This is especially so if the person is leaning away from the
speaker. A harsh or blank facial expression often indicates outright hostility.
Ê ãonsistent eye contact can indicate that a person is thinking positively of what the
speaker is saying. It can also mean that the other person doesn't trust the speaker enough
to "take his eyes off" the speaker. Lack of eye contact can indicate negativity. On the
other hand, individuals with anxiety disorders are often unable to make eye contact
without discomfort. Eye contact can also be a secondary and misleading gesture because
cultural norms about it vary widely. If a person is looking at you, but is making the arms-
across-chest signal, the eye contact could be indicative that something is bothering the
person, and that he wants to talk about it. Or if while making direct eye contact, a person
is fiddling with something, even while directly looking at you, it could indicate the
attention is elsewhere. Also, there are three standard areas that a person will look which
represent different states of being. If the person looks from one eye to the other then to
the forehead, it is a sign that they are taking an authoritative position. If they move from
one eye to the other then to the nose, that signals that they are engaging in what they
consider to be a "level conversation" with neither party holding superiority. The last case
is from one eye to the other and then down to the lips. This is a strong indication of
romantic feelings.[O  ]
Ê *isbelief is often indicated by averted gaze, or by touching the ear or scratching the chin.
When a person is not being convinced by what someone is saying, the attention
invariably wanders, and the eyes will stare away for an extended period.[O  ]
Ê Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side, or by the eyes looking straight at the
speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. A head tilt may also indicate a sore neck or
Amblyopia, and unfocused eyes may indicate ocular problems in the listener.[O  ]
Ê Interest can be indicated through posture or extended eye contact, such as standing and
listening properly.[O  ]
Ê *eceit or the act of withholding information can sometimes be indicated by touching the
face during conversation. Excessive blinking is a well-known indicator of someone who
is lying. Recently, evidence has surfaced that the absence of blinking can also represent
lying as a more reliable factor than excessive blinking. [1]

Some people use and understand body language differently, or not at all.[O  ] Interpreting
their gestures and facial expressions (or lack thereof) in the context of normal body language
usually leads to misunderstandings and misinterpretations (especially if body language is given
priority over spoken language). It should also be stated that people from different cultures can
interpret body language in different ways.


Some researchers[@ ] put the level of nonverbal communication as high as 80 percent of all
communication when it could be at around -0-6- percent. *ifferent studies have found differing
amounts, with some studies showing that facial communication is believed .3 times more often
than verbal meaning, and another finding that verbal communication in a flat tone is  times
more likely to be understood than a pure facial expression.[O  ] Albert Mehrabian is noted
for finding a 7%-38%---% rule, supposedly denoting how much communication was conferred
by words, tone, and body language. However he was only referring to cases of expressing
feelings or attitudes.

ë  c    

Interpersonal space refers to the psychological "bubble" that we can imagine exists when
someone is standing too close to us. Research has revealed that there are four different zones of
interpersonal space. The first zone is called intimate distance and ranges from touching to about
eighteen inches (6 cm) apart. Intimate distance is the space around us that we reserve for lovers,
children, as well as close family members and friends. The second zone is called personal
distance and begins about an arm's length away; starting around eighteen inches (6 cm) from
our person and ending about four feet (122 cm) away. We use personal distance in conversations
with friends, to chat with associates, and in group discussions. The third zone of interpersonal
space is called social distance and is the area that ranges from four to eight feet (1.2 m - 2. m)
away from you. Social distance is reserved for strangers, newly formed groups, and new
acquaintances. The fourth identified zone of space is public distance and includes anything more
than eight feet (2. m) away from you. This zone is used for speeches, lectures, and theater;
essentially, public distance is that range reserved for larger audiences.[-]

Recently, there has been huge interest in studying human behavioral clues that could be useful
for developing an interactive and adaptive human-machine system. Unintentional human
gestures such as making an eye rub, a chin rest, a lip touch, a nose itch, a head scratch, an ear
scratch, crossing arms, and a finger lock have been found conveying some useful information in
specific context. Some researchers[@ ] have tried to extract such gestures in a specific context of
educational applications.[O  ] In poker games, such gestures are referred to as "tells" and
are useful to players for detecting deception or behavioral patterns in an opponent.