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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM

Everybody has learned their language since they were children, especially their mother
tongue. The process occurs naturally and properly with a view to communicate in society
environment. Listening ability in English as foreign language also plays an important role
in building communication skill. As we all know, communication is a part of human‟s
daily activities. Through communication by using language, we can share our ideas and
througt with other people. In that way, a smooth interaction between people can take
place. In line with the more sophosticated world, we are demanded to be able to
communicate not only by using our mother tongue but also by using a foreign language,
especially English which obviously more difficult to do since we have a limitation of
knowledge about foreign language. On the other hand as an international language,
English is used to communicate information, chiefly in science and technology. Thus, the
government has sattled English as one of the compulsory subjects to study at school,
from basic until highest. It is hoped that the students will be able to communicate in
English. As the foreign language in our country, English is widely taught for the first
time at elementary school. The teaching at the level aims to give knowledge of the basic
English to students and it will be developed when they are in the junior and senior high
school. Teaching listening is one of the duties that has to be conducted by teachers of
English to improve the students‟ listening ability in English. Listening is a skill that tends
to get neglected for various reasons. Among other things are: 1. The feeling among
language teachers that this skill is automatically acquired by the learner as he learns to
speak the language. 2. Listening is not given serious attention the fact that incompetence
in it is easy to hide through nodding and shaking of the head, which may give the
impression of understanding even there is none. 3. Audio lingual courses give the
impression that they are teaching listening when in fact teaching other . In School Base
Curriculum 2006, there are some competention standards and basic competentions which
have to be reach by students in learning English. In the ninth grade of junior high school,
for listening skill, the students have to understand the meaning in simple oral
transactional and interpersonal conversation to interact in dialy context as competention
standard. The basic competention is to respond the meaning in simple oral transactional
and interpersonal conversation accuratly, fluently, and pitchly in dialy life context about
asking and giving certainment, adoubtment, asking repeatment, attention, and admiration.

The indicators of the learning process of these competention standards and basic
competentions are the students can: 1. Understand the speech about asking and giving
certainment, adoubtment, asking repeatment, attention, and admiration. 2. Mention the
meaning of the sentences or words about asking and giving certainment, adoubtment,
asking repeatment, attention, and admiration. 3. Show the words that is spoken by other
person about asking and giving certainment, adoubtment, asking repeatment, attention,
and admiration. It is also necessary to mention that listening is one of the items on some
language tests is reason enough to be taught beside the enjoyable activities a learner may
indulge in the target language – such as listening to the radio, listening to the English
song and watching movies – demand that the learner exercise this skill. In learning
English sometimes the students are bored with certain teaching atmosphere. There are
varios techniques used for teaching language skills: Listening, Speaking, Writing and
Reading. There are also various medias used for teaching English and improve their
listening skill which could make the students feel interest to the learning process and
enjoy it, such as pictures, sound of musics, English songs, and also English movies.
Wacthing English movies as media in teaching English helps sensitivity to students‟
sense of hearing. The influence of watching English movies is

improving students‟ listening skill. Many children and teenage like movies so much, and
it could make the learning process easier. They will be interested and happy to learn
English and watching English movies can improve their listening skill. Concerning the
facts above, it is expected that research on teaching listening can offer an alternative in
providing the technique in teaching listening, motivating the students to learn English and
can be useful for those who are interested in teaching listening.

1.2 REASON FOR CHOOSING TOPIC

Listening is one of aspects in learning foreign language, including English. For many
students, listening is a difficult skill to be improved. So that, teacher have to get right
method and right media in improving students‟ listening skill. English movie is one of
medias which is very good to be used to improve students‟ listening skill. It could help
sensitivity to students‟ sense of hearing. The influence of watching English movies is
improving students‟ listening skill. Many teenage students like movies, including at
SMPN 6 Darangdan – Purwakarta. To get accurate result about the effect of English
movie to improve students‟ listening skill, the writer has choosen the title
“WATCHING ENGLISH MOVIES TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ LISTENING SKILL
(A Pre-Experiment Study at The Ninth Grade Students of SMPN 6 Darangdan)”.

1.3 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The writer has limited the paper to the effectiveness of watching English movies in
improving students‟ listening skill to the ninth grade students of junior high school.

1.4 RESEARCH PROBLEM

Organ (1965 : 28) states: stating a problem clearly is that the representation of problem
which gives direction about what to do. Until we state the problem clearly, we have few
clues are adequate. The writer sees some problems that appear in using English movies as
media to improve students‟ listening skill. Here she states three main problems, they are:
1. Is watching English movie able to improve student‟s listening skill? 2. Is watching
English movie effective to students‟ listening skill? 3. Is using English movies in
improving students‟ listening skill significant?

1.5 HYPOTHESIS
Relating to Hatch and Fahradi in research and statistic design for applied liguistics,
hypotesis is a tentative statement about the outcome of research. Based on the problem
stated the writer proposes the hyphotesis that watching English movie is able to improve
the students‟ listening skill.

1.6 AIM OF THE STUDY

Considering the problems above, the study is oriented towards the following aims: 1. To
find out the effectiviness of Watching English to improve the students‟ listening skill. 2.
To find out the significance level of watching English movie to improve the students‟
listening skill. 3. To find out using English movies in improving students‟ listening skill
significant.

1.7 METHOD AND PROCEDURE OF THE RESEARCH

In order to achieve the aim of the research, the writer used PreExperimental method.
“Pre-experimental design are not really considered model experiments because they do
not account for extraneous variables which may have influenced

the results. The internal validity of such a design is also questionable. However, they are
easy, useful ways of getting preliminary information on research questions. (Also they
are good example of what you should not do when you carry out certain final research
projects)”. (Hatch and Farhady, 1982:19) The procedure of the research are: 1.
Developing the research instrument 2. Selecting the sample from the population 3. Giving
pre-test to the students 4. Doing treatment, in three steps: a. Pre-listening b. While
listening c. Post-listening 5. Giving post-test 6. Calculating and analysing the test scores
7. Finding and discussing the result of the research

1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE PAPER

The primary contents of the paper are as follows: Chapter I is introduction. The writer
tried to introduce the problem as clearly as possible. It consists of: Background of the
problem, Reason for choosing topic, Limitation of the study, Research problem,
Hypotesis, Aim of the study, Population and samples of

research, Method and procedure of the research, Organization of the paper, and
Clarification of terms. Chapter II is theoretical foundation. In this part the writer tried to
review some related literatures and theories proposed by some experts to support the
research. Chapter III is research methodology. This chapter deals with Kind of research,
Subject of research, Data collecting instrument, and Data processing. Chapter IV is data
analysis. This chapter deals with data analysis and interpretation. Chapter V is conclusion
and sugestion. In this chapter the writer gave the conclusion and sugestion of the
research.

1.10 CLARIFICATION OF TERMS In this study, the writer would like to put
forward the definition of words

used in the study, as follows: 1. Listening is conscious attention to the mesagge of what is
said (Shelagh Rixon:1986). In this paper, what is meant by watching English movies by
students of SMP Negeri 6 Darangdan at the third grade.

2. The English movie is Home Alone 4, Starring Directed by Written by Producer :


Michael Weinberg : Rod Daniel : debra Frank & Steve L. Hayes : Mitch Engel

CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

2.4 LISTENING
2.4.1 The Meaning Of Listening Listening is one of the language skills, in this case,
the writer quoted the definition of listening from: Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia:

“Mendengarkan (memperhatikan) baik-baik apa yang diucapkan atau dibaca orang.”


Oxford Advanced Learner‟s DICTIONARY: To pay attention to somebody/something
that you can hear. To take notice of what somebody says to you so that you follow their
advice or believe them. The listening activities develop a wide variety of listening in
details, and inferring meaning form context. These exercises often require completing an
authentic task while listening, such as taking missing words in completion items, text of
the song, or taking telephone messages. The recordings on the class cassetttes contain
both scripted and unscripted conversation with natural pauses, hesitation and interruption
that occur in real speech. Listening is a very important part of learning English. It could
be seen on the following statement. “The important of listening in language teaching can
hardly be overestimated. Through reception, we internalize linguistic information without
which we could not produce language. In classroom, students always do more listening
than speaking. Listening competence is universally “larger”

than speaking competence. Is it any wonder, then, that is recent years the language
teaching profession has placed a contert emphasis on listening comprehension?” (Brow,
1994:233) “Listening as a major component in language learning and teaching first hit
spotlight in the late 1970s with James Asher‟s (1977) work on Total Physical Response,
in which the role of comprehension was given prominence as learners were given great
quantities of language to listen to before they encouraged to respond orally. Similarly, the
natural Approach recommended a significant “silent period” during which learners were
allowed the security of listening without being forced to go through the anxiety of
speaking before they were “ready” to do so” (Brown, 1994;234)

2.4.2 The Goal of Listening Listening can be characterized as problem solving


activities involving
the formation hypothesis, the drawing of inference, and the resolution of ambiguities and
uncertainties in the input through the generation of “mages” (a set of items: sensory,
emotional, temporal, relational, purposive or verbal in nature) or as Stevick‟s view the
goal of listening is. “…to generate the intended image from the input and react
appropriately…” But, the effect of prior knowledge and context also seem to be
instrumental in listening in listening tests, such as Ommagio says that. “Listener contruct
meaning by recornizing their previously acquired knowledge to accommodate new
information and concept.”

2.4.3 Aims of Listening According to Sheath Rixon (1986;1), the aim of teaching
listening

comprehension is (or should be) to help learners of English cope with listening in real
life, but there is a large varienty of different types of listening in real life. Rixon (1986;2)
mentions some situations in which listening is important, 1. Listening to announcement in
stations, airport etc 2. Listening to the radio 3. Participating in a conversation face to face
4. Watching a film, play or TV 5. Participating in e meeting, seminar or discussion 6.
Taking a part in a lesson 7. Listening to talk or lecture 8. Eavesdropping on other
people‟s conversation 9. Participating in a telephone conversation Rixon (1986;28) also
diferentiates between listening and hearing. There is an every day distinction between
hearing and something and listening to it. Hearing is simply the recognition of sound, as
when we say, “I‟m sorry, I didn‟t hear exactly what you said.” Listening implies some
conscious attention to the message of what is said, as when we say. “Are you listening to
me?”

Rost (199:3) proposes that in order to define listening, we can ask two basic questions:
What are the component skills in listening? And what does a listener do? In terms of the
necessary components, we can list the following: Discriminating between sounds
Recognizing word Identifying grammatical grouping of words Identifying “pragmatic
units” – expressions and sets of utterances which function as whole units to create
meaning Connecting linguistic cues to paralinguistic cues (intonation and stress) and to
non-linguistic cues (gestures and relevant object in the situation) in order to construct
meaning Using background knowledge (what we already know about the content and the
form) and content (what has already been said) to predict and then to confirm meaning
Recalling important words and ideas Rost (1991:4) says, successful listening involves an
integration of these component skills. In this some, listening is a coordination of the
component skills, not the individual skills themselves. This integration of the component
skills, not the individual skills themselves. This integration of these perception skills,
analysis skills and synthesis skills is what we will call a person‟s listening ability.

Rost (1991:4) has also argued that even throught a person may have a good listening
ability, he or she may not always be able to understand messages, some conscious action
is necessary to use this ability effectively in each listening situation. This action that
listener must perform is „cognitive‟ or mental, so it is not possible to view it directly, but
we can see the effect of this action. The underlying action for successful listening is
decision making. The listener must make these kinds of decisions. What kind of situation
is this? What is my plan for listening? What are the important words and units of
meaning? Does the message make sense? Successful listening requires making effective
„real time‟ decisions about these questions. In this sense, listening is primarily a thinking
processthingking about meaning as they listen. The way in which the listener makes these
decisions is what we will call a listening strategy. Rost (1991:70) stated that there are
four principles for developing listening ability:

1. Listening ability develops through face-to-face interaction. By interacting in English,


learner have the chance for new language input and the vhance to check their own
listening ability. Face to face interaction provides stimulation for development of
listening for meaning.

2. Listening develops through focusing on meaning and trying to learn new and important
content in the target languge. By focusing on meaning and real reasions for listening in
English, learners can mobiles both their linguistic and non-linguistic abilities to
understand.

3. Listening ability develops through work on comprehension activities. By focusing on


specific goals for listening. Learners can evaluate their efforts and abilities. By having
well-defined comprehension activities, learners have opprotunities for assessing what
have achieved and revision.

4. Listening ability develops through attention to accuracy and a anlysis of form. By


learning t perceive sounds and words accurately as they work on meaning oriented
activities, our learners can make steady progress. By learning to hear sounds and words
accurately, learners gain confidence in listening for meaning.

2.4.4 Listening is an Internal Process Like reading, listening is an internal process


that cannot be directly

obseved. It‟s rather difficult to say what happens when we listen and understand others.
Ommagio (1986 in Persulessy 1986:3) say that Listening and reading are both highly
complex process that draw on the knowledge of the linguistic code (lnguage form),
cognitive

processing skill (the skill to process in the mind). Schome-based understanding


(background knowledge), and contextual cues both with in and outside the text.

2.4.5 The Step of Listening In general, the teacher has to do the following steps

1. Go first over the instructions with the class, making certain that materials are
understood by all the students.

2. Pronounce the words or phrases at least two times in a clear and distinct voice and at
normal speed.
3. Where the questions precede the text, read the question twice in order to direct the
students‟ attention. Then, read the entire text two times at normal speed. Teacher should
feel free to vary according to the abilities of the students.

4. With longer texts, it is advisable for the teacher to write guide question on the board or
dictate them to the students. The questions should require a understanding of the general
ideas, in the text rather than detailed knowledge. The teacher then reads the text for the
first time.

5. After giving the students enough time to answer the guide questions she/he discuses
the answer with them.

6. The teacher continue with more detailed questions for the students to answer either in
the written or oral modality. Discussion follows the above activity.

7. Other possible related activities for further intensive practice can be carried out such
as: a. Summarize the passage orally b. Formulate questions which the students will ask
their classmates to answer with long or short response. c. Write a short summary at home
The possibilities of using each of the passage included in the text are infinite. Some
suggestions above maybe particularly pertinent for less able students‟ abilities in the
other language skills-speaking, reading, and writing-will also develop. At the some time
they will be able to understand on wide range of topics, which undertake the linguistic
aspects of listening comprehension.

Jack in (Persulessy, 1994:4) mention the model of the listening process includes the
following steps:

1. The listener takes in raw speech and holds an image of it in short-term memory.

2. The type of interactional act or speech event in which the listener is involved is
determined.

3. An attempt is made to organize what was heard into constituents, identifying their
content and function.
4. As constituents are identified, they are used to contruct propositions, grouping the
propositions together to form a coherent message.

5. Script relevant to the other particular situation are recalled.

6. The goals of the speaker are inferred through reference to the situation the script and
the sequential position of the utterance.

7. An illocutionary meaning is assigned to the message.

8. This information is retained and acted upon, and the form in which it was originally
received is deleted.

2.4.6 Decoding Decoding is the process of trying to understand (comprehend) the

meaning of a word, a phrase or a sentence. The processes in decoding


(comprehending/understanding) are: a. Hold the utterance in short term memory. b.
Analyze the utterance, is what is said by any one person says before or after another
person begins to speak or something said or emitted as a vocal sound. For example,
“yeah!” (one word), “have you done your homework?” (one sentence), “you raise me up,
so I can stand a mountain.” (more than one sentence) into segments (chunk). Chunk is
constituent is part of utterance, for example: “Because of the rain he was late.” The
sentence has two chunks (part), because of and I was late. Besides analyze the utterance
also identify: i. Word is meaningful unit of language sounds. A meaningful sound or
combination of sounds that is a unit of language or its representation in a text. ii. Clause
is group of words that contains a subject and a verb. iii. Proposition/prepositional
meaning is basic meaning of sentence/utterance. iv. Concept is meaning of words. v.
Illocutionary meaning is effect of the utterance to the listener/reader. For example: “I am
thirsty” (utterance) has two meanings to show the physical state of the speaker (as
prepositional meaning) and the function of language to request for something to drink (as
illocutionary meaning).
2.4.7 The Difficulties in Listening As you contemplate designing lesson and
techniques that are

exclusively for teaching listening skill, or that have listening components in them, a
number of special characteristic of spoken language need to be taken into consideration.
Second language learners need to pay special attention to such factor because they highly
influence the processing of speech and can often block comprehension if they are not
attended to. In other words, they can make the listening process difficult.

The following characteristics of spoken language are adapted from several sources
(Dunkel, 1991;Richards, 1983;Ur, 1984)

1. Colloquial Language Leaners who have been exposed to standard written English
and/or “text book” language sometimes find it surprising and dificult to deal with
colloquial language. Idioms, slang, reduced forms, shared cultural knowledge are all
manifested at some points in comversations. Colloquialisms appear in both monologues
and dialogues.

2. Rate of delivery Virtually every language learner initially thinks that native speakers
speak too fast! Actually, as Richards (1983 in Brown, 1994) points out: The number and
length of pauses used by speaker is more crucial to comprehension than sheer speed.
Learners will nevertheless eventually need to be able to comprehend language delivered
at varying rates of speed and at times, delivered with few pauses. Unlike reading, where a
person can stop and go back reread something, in listening the hearer may not always
have the opportunity to stop the speaker. Instead, the stream of speech will continue to
flow.

Type

3 a) In each of these items one word is given on the tape: in the answer booklet three
words are printed in ordinary type. (In some tests four words are given and the word on
tape is spoken twice). The tested is required to the spoken word.
b) This type of item is similar to the previous one; this time, however, the words spoken
by the tester occur in the sentences. The four options may then be either printed or
spoken.

c) This item is similar to type 3 a) one word is spoken by the tester (preferable twice).
However, instead of a choice of four words, the tested has in front of him a choice of four
definitions. He has thus to select the correct definition for the words he hears. The test
items described in this section are all useful for diagnostic testing purposes, thus enabling
the teachers to concertrate later on specific pronunciation difficulties.

CHAPTER III

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

CONCLUSION

As we all know, communication is a part of human‟s daily activities. Through


communication by using language, we can share our ideas and througt with other people.
In that way, a smooth interaction between people can take place. As the foreign language
in our country, English is widely taught for the first time at elementary school. The
teaching at the level aims to give knowledge of the basic English to students and it will
be developed when they are in the junior and senior high school. Teaching listening is
one of the duties that has to be conducted by teachers of English to improve the students‟
listening ability in English. It is also necessary to mention that listening is one of the
items on some language tests is reason enough to be taught beside the enjoyable activities
a learner may indulge in the target language – such as listening to the radio, listening to
the English song and watching movies – demand that the learner exercise this skill.

Rost (1991:4) says, successful listening involves an integration of these component skills.
In this some, listening is a coordination of the component skills, not the individual skills
themselves. This integration of the component skills, not the individual skills themselves.
This integration of these perception skills, analysis skills and synthesis skills is what we
will call a person‟s listening ability. Successful listening requires making effective „real
time‟ decisions about these questions. In this sense, listening is primarily a thinking
process-thingking about meaning as they listen. The way in which the listener makes
these decisions is what we will call a listening strategy. Teaching Aids is something
designed to give help in teaching Principally, in teaching and learning process, the
important component in the Instructional Design or Lesson planning. We believe that
these will be helpful for both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning
process to achieve the instructional objectives. Aids are thing that help. Teaching aids is
something designed to give help in teaching, e.g. pictures, realia, rods, dolls, audio
cassettes, video films, games, OHP, etc. The techniques used in teaching listening by
using English movies are phonemes discrimination test. In order to achieve the aim of
research, the writer used Pre-Experimental method. Pre-experimental design are not
really considered model experiments because they do not account for extraneous variable
which may have influenced the results. In this study, the writer took the students of SMP
Negeri 6 Darangdan as population. The samples would be the ninth grade students. There
were three classes and the writer took twenty students randomly from them as the sample
by lottere. The data needed was taken from a test. The test is used to identify the
students‟ achievement. The test is objective test. In the term pairing items consist of 10
items. After observing the data, that is the score of pre-test and post test. The writer
calculating the mark of t-value and at least gives the interpretation of the calculation. The
writer used two groups as the sample, each group consists of 20 students, and the degree
of freedom (df) is 19 for each group. Since the two groups were chosen as representative
subjects. The total df {(Ne-1) + }Nc-1) is 38. The t-observation is 5.894. This t-
observation greater than t-critical (5.894> 1.684). Consequently, it is quite safe to reject
the null hypothesis. It means that the two groups have different scores on the post-test,
and the difference is statistically significant. So, this fact support the claim that students
who were taught listening by using English movies get better scores than those were
taught conventionally. The experimental teaching program can improve the students‟
listening skill effectively (227%) from that what they got in the pre-test, while control
group can improve the students‟ listening skill less than the experimental group (155%).
The conclusion of this research is listen to the English movies contributes the
improvement of students‟ listening skill, makes English lesson live, make change from
the of teacher and text book

SUGGESTION

1. Teachers should try to use English movie in listening lesson, because watching
English movie is one types of listening experience that is interesting.

2. Nowadays, the use of technological aids in the teaching of language such as radio-
cassette, video and television is likely to increase not diminish. So, the writer thinks now
is the time for teachers and students to learn using them.

3. Teachers also should be smart and creative in using English movie in the classroom
because successful language learning depends on the teacher‟s technique to use the
English movie, since the teacher is the fundamental classroom aid to language learning.
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Harmer, Jeremy, (2002), The Practise of English Language Teaching, Harlow: Longman

Hatch, Evelyn and Hossein Farhady, (1982), Research Design and Statistic Bowley

ROWLEY, LONDON, TOKYO: Newbury House Publisher, Inc. Homby, A. S (1985),

The Oxford Learner‟s Dictionary; New York: Oxford University Press. Jean Brewster
and Gail Allis, (2003), The Primary English Teacher‟s Guide, Harlow: Penguin English

Persulessy, G.H. Drs. (1988), Listening Improvement Exercise for Students of English,

Jakarta: Depdikbud Dirjen Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan dan Tenaga


Pendidikan.

Rixon, Shelagh, (1986), Developing Listening Skills, London and Basinstoke


Mac Millan Publisher Ltd. Rost, Michael, (1991), Listening in Action, Prantice Hall
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Tim Penyusun Kamus Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahasa (1988),

Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia; Jakarta: Depdikbud: Balai Pustaka. Yanto, Elih S.,
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