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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

TUTORIAL 4 –15:

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN MODELS FOR CYLINDERS:

1. Thick-walled Cylinders

2. Thin-walled Cylinders

THICK-WALL THEORY

Thick-wall theory is developed from the Theory of Elasticity which yields the state of stress as a continuous function of radius over the pressure vessel wall. The state of stress is defined relative to a convenient cylindrical coordinate system:

1. — Tangential Stress

σ

t

2. — Radial Stress

σ

r

3. — Longitudinal Stress

σ

l

Stresses in a cylindrical pressure vessel depend upon the ratio of the inner radius to

r ) rather than the size of the cylinder.

Principal Stresses (

the outer radius (

r

o

/

i

σσσ, , )

123

1. Determined without computation of Mohr’s Circle;

2. Equivalent to cylindrical stresses (

σσσ )

trl

,

,

Applicable for any wall thickness-to-radius ratio.

Cylinder under Pressure

Consider a cylinder, with capped ends, subjected to an internal pressure, p i , and an external pressure, p o ,

σ r σ l σ t σ l σ r σ t
σ
r
σ
l
σ
t
σ
l
σ
r
σ
t
r i p i p o
r
i
p
i
p
o

FIGURE T4-15-1

r

o

Text Eq. refers to Mechanical Engineering Design, 7 th edition text by Joseph Edward Shigley, Charles R. Mischke and Richard G. Budynas; equations and figures with the prefix T refer to the present tutorial.

, cylinder length, l. In general, the stresses in the cylindrical pressure vessel (

can be computed at any radial coordinate value, r, within the wall thickness bounded by

The cylinder geometry is defined by the inside radius,

and the

r

i

the outside radius,

r

o

,

σσσ )

trl

,

,

r and

i

r

o

,

and will be characterized by the ratio of radii,

ζ = r

o

/

r

i

.

These cylindrical

stresses represent the principal stresses and can be computed directly using Eq. 4-50 and 4-52. Thus we do not need to use Mohr’s circle to assess the principal stresses.

Tangential Stress:

σ

t

=

p

i

r

i

2

p

o

2

r

o

r

i

2

2

r

o

(

p

o

p

i

)/

r

2

2 2

r

o

r

i

Radial Stress:

σ

r

=

p

i

r

i

2

p

o

2

r

o

+

r

i

2

2

r

o

(

p

o

p

i

)/

r

2

2 2

r

o

r

i

Longitudinal Stress:

for

for

r

i

r

i

rr

o

rr

o

(Text Eq. 4-50)

(Text Eq. 4-50)

Applicable to cases where the cylinder carries the longitudinal load, such as capped ends.

Only valid far away from end caps where bending, nonlinearities and stress concentrations are not significant.

σ l

=

p r

i

i

2

p

o

2

r

o

2

r

o

r

i

2

Two Mechanical Design Cases

1.

2.

Internal Pressure Only ( External Pressure Only (

p

o

p

i

= 0

= 0

)

)

for

r rr

i

o

(Modified Text Eq. 4-52)

Design Case 1: Internal Pressure Only

Only one case to consider — the critical section which exists at r = r .

i

Substituting

largest value of each stress component is found at the inner surface:

p

o

= 0

into Eqs. (4-50) and incorporating

ζ = r

o

/

r

i

,

the

σ

t (

r

== )

r

i

σ

t

,max

=

p

i

2

r

o

+ r

i

2

ζ

2

+ 1

22

r

o

r

i

i

ζ

2

1

=

p

=

pC

i

ti

(T-1)

where

σ

r

(

C

ti

=

r = r

i

ζ

2

+ 1

2

r

o

+

r

i

2

=

ζ

2

)

=

σ

1

r

,max

22

r

o

r

i

= − p

i

is a function of cylinder geometry only.

Natural Boundary Condition

(T-2)

Longitudinal stress depends upon end conditions:

p C Capped Ends i li σ l = 0 Uncapped Ends 1 C =
p C
Capped Ends
i
li
σ
l =
0
Uncapped Ends
1
C
=
.
li
ζ 2 − 1
σ
(
r =
r
) = 0
r
i
2
2
2 r
2 ζ
o
σ
t (
r =
r
)
=
σ
=−
p
=−
p
i
t
,max
o
22
o
r
r
ζ 2
− 1
o
i
2
2
2 ζ
2 r
o
where,
=
=
.
C to
22
ζ 2
1 r
r
o
i
(
r = r
)
=
σ
= − p
σ r
o
r
,max
o
2
2
2
r
+ r
+ 1
o
i
σ
r
=
r
)
=−
p
=−
p
=−
t (
o
o
22
o
ζ pC
ζ
2
o
ti
r
− r
− 1
o
i
− p C
Capped Ends
o
lo
σ
l =
0 Uncapped Ends

(T-3a)

(T-3b)

where

Design Case 2: External Pressure Only

The critical section is identified by considering the state of stress at two

points on the cylinder:

r = r i and r = r o . Substituting p i = 0 into Text

Eqs. (4-50) for each case:

r = r i

Natural Boundary Condition

=− pC

o

to

(T-4a)

(T-4b)

r = r o

Natural Boundary Condition

(T-5a)

(T-5b)

Longitudinal stress for a closed cylinder now depends upon external pressure and radius while that of an open-ended cylinder remains zero:

(T-6a)

(T-6b)

where

C

lo

=

ζ

2

ζ

2

1

.

Example T4.15.1: Thick-wall Cylinder Analysis

Problem Statement: Consider a cylinder subjected to an external pressure of 150 MPa and an internal pressure of zero. The cylinder has a 25 mm ID and a 50 mm OD, respectively. Assume the cylinder is capped.

Find:

1. the state of stress (

σ

r

,

σ

t

,

σ

l ) at the inner and outer cylinder

surfaces;

2. the Mohr’s Circle plot for the inside and outside cylinder surfaces;

3. the critical section based upon the estimate of

τ max

.

Solution Methodology:

Since we have an external pressure case, we need to compute the state of

stress (

the critical section.

σ

r

,

σ

t

,

σ

l

) at both the inside and outside radius in order to determine

1. As the cylinder is closed and exposed to external pressure only, Eq. (T-6a) may be applied to calculate the longitudinal stress developed. This result represents the average stress across the wall of the pressure vessel and thus may be used for both the inner and outer radii analyses.

2. Assess the radial and tangential stresses using Eqs. (T-4) and (T-5) for the inner and outer radii, respectively.

3. Assess the principal stresses for the inner and outer radii based

upon the magnitudes of (

σ

r

,

σ

t

,

σ

l

) at each radius.

4. Use the principal stresses to calculate the maximum shear stress at each radius.

5. Draw Mohr’s Circle for both states of stress and determine which provides the critical section.

Solution:

1. Longitudinal Stress Calculation:

r

o

=

OD

50 mm

r == ID

i

25 mm

2

2

=

= 25 mm ;

22

Compute the radius ratio, ζ

r o

25 mm

r i

12.5 mm

ζ ==

= 2.0

=

12.5 mm

Then,

C

ζ

2

==

(2)

2

= 1.3333 mm

2

=−

σ

Then, C ζ 2 == (2) 2 = 1.3333 mm 2 =− σ lo ζ 2

lo

ζ

2

1

(

r

)

r

= =

l i

σ

l

(2)

2

(

r

=

r

o

1

)

=−

p

o

ζ

ζ

2

2

1

σσσσ

l

==== −−−−200 MPa

pC

o

lo

=

2

( 150MPa)(1.3333 mm )

2. Radial & Tangential Stress Calculations:

Inner Radius (r = r i )

C

ζ

2

2

2(2)

2

2.6667

to

 

==

ζ

2 1

1

(2)

2

=

2

r

2

σ

( r

=

r

)

=

σ

=−

o

 

t

i

 

t

,max

p

o

2

r

o

r

i

2

=−

pC

o

to

σ (r = r ) =−

t

i

400 MPa

Compressive

=

( 150 MPa)(2.6667)

σ

r

(r = r

i

) = 0

Natural Boundary Condition for p

i

=

0

Outer Radius (r = r o )

C

ti

σ

t

ζ 2 +

1

(2)

2

+

1

1.6667

 
 

==

ζ

2

1

(2)

2

1

=

 

2

r

o

+

r

i

2

( r

=

 

=

=−

 

=−

r

o

)

σ

t

,min

p

o

r

2

r

2

 

o

i

pC

o

ti

=

( 150 MPa)(1.6667)

σ (r

t

====

r

o

σ

(r

r i

====

r

) ==== −−−−250 MPa

)

Compressive

==== −−−−

p

o

==== 150 MPa

Natural Boundary Condition

3. Define Principal Stresses:

Inner Radius (r = r i )

σ 1 = 0 MPa

= σ

r

σ

σ

2

3

=

=

σ

σ

l

t

= − 200 MPa = − 400 MPa

4. Maximum Shear Stress Calculations:

Inner Radius (r = r i )

τ

max

(

r

== r )

i

Outer Radius (r = r o )

σ 1 σ

=

r

= − 150 MPa

σ

2

=

σ

l

= − 200 MPa

σ

3

=

σ

t

= − 250 MPa

σ

1

σ

3

=

0

( 400)

 

2

 

2

= 200 MPa

σ − σ ( − 150) −− ( 250) 1 3 Outer Radius (r =
σ
σ
(
150)
−− ( 250)
1
3
Outer Radius (r = r o )
(
r
== r )
=
= 50 MPa
τ max
o
2
2
5. Mohr’s Circles:
Inner Radius (r = r i )
τ
FIGURE T4-15-2
= 200 MPa
τ max
σ
σ
= -400 MPa
σ 1 = 0 MPa
3
σ
= -200 MPa
2

Outer Radius (r = r o )

τ σ = -200 MPa 2
τ
σ
= -200 MPa
2

FIGURE T4-15-3

σ

3

= -250 MPa

σ

1

= −150 MPa

τ max = 50 MPa

σ 3 = -250 MPa σ 1 = − 150 MPa τ m a x =
σ 3 = -250 MPa σ 1 = − 150 MPa τ m a x =

σ

Critical Section

ττττ

max

( r

====

r

i

) ==== 200 MPa

⇐⇐⇐⇐

Critical Section is at Inside Radius!

THIN-WALL THEORY

Thin-wall theory is developed from a Strength of Materials solution which yields the state of stress as an average over the pressure vessel wall.

Use restricted by wall thickness-to-radius ratio:

According to theory, Thin-wall Theory is justified for

t

1

r

20

In practice, typically use a less conservative rule,

t

1

r

10

State of Stress Definition:

1. Hoop Stress, σ , assumed to be uniform across wall thickness.

t

2. Radial Stress is insignificant compared to tangential stress, thus,

3. Longitudinal Stress,

σ

l

σ

r

0.

Exists for cylinders with capped ends;

Assumed to be uniformly distributed across wall thickness;

This approximation for the longitudinal stress is only valid far away from the end-caps.

4. These cylindrical stresses (

)

are principal stresses (

, can be determined without computation of Mohr’s circle plot.

,

σσσ

trl

σσσ

trl

,

,

Analysis of Cylinder Section

FIGURE T4-15-4

d i t F V 1 F Hoop F Hoop
d
i
t
F V
1
F Hoop
F Hoop

Pressure Acting over Projected Vertical Area

)

which

The internal pressure exerts a vertical force, F V , on the cylinder wall which is

balanced by the tangential hoop stress, F Hoop .

F V

F

=

pA

proj

=

σ

t

A

Hoop

F

y

=

0

=

=

p

{(

stressed

d

i

=

)(1)}

σ

t

=

pd

{( t )(1)}

i

F

V

2

F

Hoop

=

pd

i

Solving for the tangential stress,

σ

t

=

pd

i

2 t

Hoop Stress

=

σ

t

t

2

σ

t

t

(Text Eq. 4-53)

Comparison of state of stress for cylinder under internal pressure verses external

pressure:

Internal Pressure Only

σ

t

σ

r

σ

l

=

=

=

pd

i

t

2

0

pd

i =

σ t

4

t 2

External Pressure Only

σ

t

σ

r

σ

l

=

=

=

pd

o

t

2

0

pd

o

=

σ t

4

t 2

Hoop Stress

By Definition

Capped Case

Hoop Stress

By Definition

Capped Case

(Text Eq.4-55)

Example T4.15.2: Thin-wall Theory Applied to Cylinder Analysis

Problem Statement: Repeat Example T1.1 using the Thin-wall Theory (p o = 150 MPa, p i = 0, ID = 25 mm, OD = 50 mm).

Find: The percent difference of the maximum shear stress estimates found using the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories.

Solution Methodology:

1. Check t/r ratio to determine if Thin-wall Theory is applicable.

2. Use the Thin-wall Theory to compute the state of stress

3. Identify the principal stresses based upon the stress magnitudes.

4. Use the principal stresses to assess the maximum shear stress.

5. Calculate the percent difference between the maximum shear stresses derived using the Thick-wall and Thin-wall Theories.

Solution:

1. Check t/r Ratio:

t

12.5 mm

1

1

1

 

=

=

 

or

r

25 mm

2

20

10

The application of Thin-wall Theory to estimate the stress state of this cylinder is thus not justified.

2. Compute stresses using the Thin-wall Theory to compare with Thick- wall theory estimates.

a. Hoop Stress (average stress, uniform across wall)

σ

t

=

p d

o

o

(150 MPa)(50 mm)

=

2

t 2(12.5 mm)

b. Radial Stress

σ

r

=

0

by definition

= −

300 MPa

c. Longitudinal Stress (average stress, uniform across wall)

σ

l

=

p d

oo

=

4

t

σ t

2

=−150 MPa

3. Identify Principal Stresses in terms of “Average” Stresses:

σ

σ

σ

1

2

3

=

=

=

σ

σ

σ

r

l

t

= 0 MPa = − 150 MPa = − 300 MPa

4. Maximum Shear Stress Calculation:

τ max

1

σ

3

=

0

( 300 MPa)

 

2

2

= σ

= +

150 MPa

5. Percent Difference between Thin- and Thick-wall Estimates for the Critical Section:

%

Difference =

=

τ

max,Thin

τ

max,Thick

(

+

τ

max,Thick

150)

−+ ( 200)

( + 200)

100%

(100%)

=−

25%

Thin -wall estimate is 25% low!