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Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions

April 6, 2007

1. Munkres 26.12

Solution:

Lemma 1. Let p X Y be a closed map. Suppose y Y , and suppose U is an open set in X containing p 1 (y). Then there exists an open set W in Y containing y such that p 1 (W) U.

Proof. Consider U c . This is a closed set, so p(U c ) is closed. Moreover, since p 1 (y) U, we have y i np(U c ). Let W be any open set in Y such that y W (p(U c )) c . Then

p 1 (W) p 1 ((p(U c )) c )=(p 1 (p(U c ))) c .

But p 1 (p(U c )) U c , so (p 1 (p(U c ))) c (U c ) c = U. Hence p 1 (W) U, as required.

Solution:

Suppose p X Y be a closed surjective perfect map, and suppose Y is compact. We want to show that X is compact, so let U α be an open cover of X. For every y Y we have p 1 (y) is compact, so there exists a finite subcover C y of p 1 (y). By the lemma there exists an open set W y such that y W y and p 1 (W y ) U C y U. Since Y is compact, we can cover Y with finitely many sets W y k (this step uses the fact that p is surjective). But then the union C y k is a finite subcover of X.

2. Munkres 29.5

Solution:

Let X and Y be homeomorphic locally compact Hausdorff spaces, with ϕ being a home- omorphism. Let ϕ be the extension to X such that ϕ( X ) = Y . We claim that ϕ is continuous. If U Y is open, and if Y U, then (ϕ ) 1 (U)=ϕ 1 (U), which is open in X and hence open in X . On the other hand, if Y U, then U c = K, where K is compact in Y. But then

((ϕ ) 1 (U)) c =(ϕ ) 1 (U c )=(ϕ ) 1 (K)=(ϕ) 1 (K)

which is compact in X since ϕ 1 is continuous. Hence (ϕ ) 1 (U) is open in X. Hence ϕ is continuous. Since it is a continuous bijection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space, it is a homeomorphism.

3. Munkres 29.6 The following lemma will be handy for the following problems.

Lemma 2. If X is a compact Hausdorff space and U = X p for some p X, then U is homeomorphic to X.

Proof. Define ϕ U X by ϕ(x) = x for x , and ϕ( ) = p. This is clearly a bijection from a compact space to a Hausdorff space, so to show it is a homeomorphism, we need only show it is continuous. Clearly if V is open in X and does not contain p, then ϕ 1 (V)= V which is open in U. On the other hand, if V is open in X and contains p, then V c is compact in X and contained in U, and hence compact in U. But then ϕ 1 (V c ) is compact in U. But then

ϕ 1 (V)=(ϕ 1 (V c )) c

which is the complement of a compact set in U and therefore an open set in U . Hence ϕ is

continuous.

Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions

April 6, 2007

Corollary 3. Let Z be a compact Hausdorff space. Suppose Y = Z p and X is homeomor- phic to Y . Then X is homeomorphic to Z.

Proof. By Munkres 29.5 we have X is homeomorphic to Y , and by Lemma 2 we have Y

is homeomorphic to Z.

Solution:

Since R is homeomorphic to (0, 2π), it is enough to show that the one point compactification

is homeomorphic to S 1 . Define ϕ (π, π) S 1 by ϕ(x) = e 2πix . This map is clearly clearly

injective, and is surjective onto S 1 (1, 0) . Moreover, the branch of ln with branch cut along then negative real axis is a continuous function and, when restricted to S 1 (1,0)

is the inverse function of ϕ. Hence (π, π) is homeomorphic to S 1 (1, 0) . Since S 1 is

a compact Hausdorff space, we conclude that the one point compactification of (π, π) is

homeomorphic to S 1 .

4.

Munkres 29.8

Solution:

Define f R + R + by f (x) = 1 x. This is a homeomorphism (it is continuous and is its own inverse). Let A = f (Z + ). Then A is homeomorphic to Z + and is 1 n n Z + . Let

Y =0 A

This is a closed and bounded subset of R and is hence compact. It is also a Hausdorff space. Therefore the one point compactification of A is homeomorphic to Y , and hence the one point compactification of Z + is homeomorphic to Y .

5.

a) Show that every manifold is a locally compact Hausdorff space.

b) Show that the one-point compactification of an nmanifold M is an nmanifold if and only if there is an precompact open subset V M such that M V is homeomorphic to R n B 1 (0).

Solution, part a:

For each x M, there is an open set U x that is homeomorphic to R n via a homeomorphism

ϕ x taking x to 0. Let K = ϕ (B 1 (0)). Since B 1 (0) is compact in R n we have K is compact in U. Hence K is compact in M and therefore closed in M (since M is Hausdorff). Moreover, K contains ϕ (B 1 (0)) which is open in U x (and hence open in M since U x is open) and contains x. Hence we have shown that every point x in M has a compact set that contains an open set containing x. Hence M is locally compact. It is Hausdorff by definition.

Solution, part b:

Let M be an nmanifold. Then M is a compact Hausdorff space and is hence compact. Moreover, every compact locally Euclidean space is second countable. So it is enough to

1

x

1

x

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Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions

April 6, 2007

show that M is locally Euclidean if and only if there is an precompact open subset V M such that M V is homeomorphic to R n B 1 (0). Finally, every point in M M is contained in an open (in M and therefore in M ) set that is homeomorphic to R n . Hence we have reduced the problem to showing that has a neighbourhood homeomorphic to R n if and only if if and only if there is an precompact open subset V M such that M V is homeomorphic to R n B 1 (0).

Suppose such a set V exists. Let Y = 0M V . Then Y is homeomorphic to R n B 1 (0), which

is homeomorphic to the closed punctured ball B 1 (0) 0 via the map x x x 2 . Since

B 1 (0) is compact, we conclude that the one-point compactification of Y is homeomorphic to B 1 (0) by a homeomorphism taking Y to 0. s Let K = M V . This is a closed set in M and is hence compact. Since Y is homeomorphic to (M V) M we conclude that Y is homeomorphic to M V by a homeomorphism taking Y to M .

Composing homeomorphisms, we conclude that there is a homeomorphism ϕ from M V

to B 1 (0) taking M to 0.

¯

Let W = M V . This set is open in M and contained in M V . It is therefore open

in M V . Hence ϕ(W) is an open set in B 1 (0) that contains 0, and hence contains some

¯

B є (0). Let U = ϕ 1 (B є (0)). This set is in M V and is contained in W. Since W is open in

M , we conclude that U is open in M . But U is homeomorphic to B є (0) (by ϕ restricted to U) and hence M has a neighbourhood that is homeomorphic to and open subset of R n .

Conversely, suppose that M is locally Euclidean. Let U be an open set in M that contains and is homeomorphic to R n by a homeomorphism ϕ. Without loss of generality we can

assume that ϕ( ) = 0. Let W = ϕ 1 (R n B 1 (0). This is an open set in U and hence open in M . It does not contain , so it is also open in M. Let V = (M U) W. This is an open subset of M. All the limit points of V in M must be in U, since V contains M U. But it is easy to see that these are exactly ϕ 1 (S n1 . Hence the closure of V in M must be (M U) ϕ 1 (R n B 1 (0). This is compact, since its complement is ϕ 1 (B 1 (0)), which is an open subset of . Hence V is a precompact open neighbourhood in M , and its closure does not contain . Hence it is a precompact open neighbourhood in M, and M V is

homeomorphic to B 1 (0) 0 which is homeomorphic to R n B 1 (0). So V is the set we seek.

6. Munkres p.145 Number 1.

Solution:

Let G be a topological group and let µ and ι be the multiplication and inversion maps. Since the identity map id and the inversion map ι are continuous, we have id ι G G G G is continuous. Hence µ (id ι) G G G is continuous. But µ (id ι)(x, y) = xy 1 . Hence the map taking x and y to xy 1 is continuous.

Conversely, suppose the map taking x and y to xy 1 is continuous. Let g denote this map. Define h G G G by h(x) = (1, x) where 1 is the group identity. This is a continuous map (and indeed a topological embedding). But then ι = g h and hence ι is continuous. But also, µ = g (id ι) and hence µ is also continuous.

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Math F651: Homework 9 Solutions

April 6, 2007

7. Munkres p.146 Number 3.

Solution:

Let H be a subgroup of G. Since inversion and mutiplication both take H and H H respec- tively to H, and since these are continuous maps from G and G G to G, their restrictions to H are also continuous. Hence H is a topological group.

We now show that H is a subgroup. By the above we will have shown that it is a topological group. Suppose h H and consider L h G G given by L h (g) = h ċ g. This map is a homeomorphism, so

 ¯ ¯ H =L h (H)=L h ( H). ¯ ¯ ¯

We conclude that if h H and h H, then h ċ h H. Similarly, h ċh H.

¯

¯

Now suppose h H. Then by the above we see that L h (H) is a subset of H. Hence

¯

¯

¯

¯

H = H L h (H)=L h ( H).

¯

¯

Since h H is arbitrary, we conclude that the product of two elements of H is again in H.

Now inversion ι G G, which is a homeomorphism. Then

¯

¯

ι( H)=ι(H)= H

¯ ¯

since ι(H) = H. Hence the inverse of an element of H is again in H.

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