Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Evolution of Distribution System Load Flow Methods – a Bibliographic Review

S

Mishra, Non-member

D

Das, Non-member

Load flow methods for power distribution systems are quite different in comparison to transmission systems owing to some special topological features. Over years various load flow methods known as Distribution System Load Flow (DSLF) methods have been proposed to exploit the special topological properties as well as to overcome the difficulties arising out of the ill conditioned nature of the distribution systems. In this paper, an extensive chronological survey of the development of various DSLF methods available in the literature is presented. Uncertainties in input parameters, application of object oriented approaches and three phase four wire distribution load flow methods are some of other features of distribution load flow which have also been reviewed in this paper. The emergence of distributed generators and use of FACTS devices have made the distribution system and hence the DSLF methods far more complex than its earlier versions. The evolution of the present day three phase unbalanced DSLF methods with multiple feeding sources, embedded FACTS devices, advance software approaches etc., has been traced in this paper.

Keywords : Distribution system; Load flow; Distributed generators; Forward and backward sweep

INTRODUCTION

Load flow calculation studies started with the Ward and Hale method 1 in 1956 is a very basic and important tool in the field of power system engineering. Since the invention, many methods for solving the load flow problem have been developed 2 . Most of the methods have ‘grown up’ around transmission systems and, over the years, variations of the Newton method such as the fast decoupled method 3 , have become the most widely used. Distribution networks are characterized by radial structure and high R/X ratio feeders. Conventional power flow methods show convergence problem in solving such networks. Special power flow methods have therefore come out over years, which exploit the special characteristics of distribution networks, namely radiality and the presence of only one voltage controlled bus. These alternate algorithms show better efficiency and simplicity for radially configured networks than the traditional Gauss Siedel and Newton-Raphson (NR) methods 4-6 and are classified as distribution system load flow (DSLF) methods. However, the emergence of distributed generators and use of FACTS devices have made the distribution system and hence the DSLF methods far more complex than its earlier versions. Thus, the evolution of the present day three phase unbalanced DSLF with multiple feeding sources, embedded FACTS devices, advanced software approaches etc., has been traced in this paper through an extensive bibliographic survey.

LITERATURE REVIEW OF DSLF METHODS

Sivkumar Mishra is with Department of Electrical Engineering, Ghanashyam Hemalata Institute of Technology and Management, Puri-752002, Orissa and Debapriya Das is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal.

This paper (modified) was received on August 03, 2010. Written discussion on the paper will be entertained till November 30, 2010.

Radial distribution systems are inherently unbalanced, owing to factors such as the occurrence of asymmetrical line spacing, the combinations of single, double and three phase line sections and the imbalance of customer loads; hence, solution methods based on the assumption of balanced loading are not applicable. Yet, in literature many DSLF methods have been proposed that solve only the line- to -neutral equivalent of a balanced system. Thus, important information such as the effect of mutual coupling on voltage drop and unbalance is lost 7 . Various DSLF methods 8-21 are available in literature, which effectively exploit the radial nature and overcome the ill-conditioned nature due to high R/X ratio of the distribution networks but are suitable for single phase analysis of radial distribution networks (RDN), assuming balanced operation. The load flow methods proposed for distribution systems considering the unbalance operation can be grouped into two basic categories 22-24 . The first category is Forward Backward Sweep (FBS) / Ladder Network based methods, Loop Impedance Method and Implicit Zbus Gauss method or modified versions. The other class is composed of methods which require information on the derivatives of the network equations. Newton like methods involving formation of Jacobians and computation of power mismatches at the end of the feeder and laterals and other fast-decoupled methods, tailored specially for distribution systems, come under this second category.

Ladder Network / Forward Backward Sweep based Methods

Literature survey reveals that most of the methods for radial distribution load flow have been predominantly based on Forward and Backward Sweeping (FBS)/ Ladder Network based approach .The obvious reason for the above is that this method is simple, fast and robust. The general algorithm consists of two basic steps: forward sweep and backward

sweep. The forward sweep is mainly a voltage drop

calculation from the sending end to the far end of a feeder

or a lateral, and the backward sweep is primarily a current,

power or admittance summation based on the voltage updates from the far end of the feeder to the sending end .Many methods 25-34 have been proposed in literature which are classified as FBS based DSLF methods .Some distribution feeders serving densely loaded areas operated with weakly meshed loops by closing the normally open tie switches. Shirmohammadi, et al 35 have proposed a compensation method for distribution systems with weakly meshed structures. Several methods 36-42 which are based on the compensation technique and follow the FBS based DSLF methods suitable for weakly meshed distribution systems have been reported.

Implicit Zbus Gauss and Loop Impedance Matrix Methods

Gauss Implicit 43,44 method has been proposed which uses

a bi-factorised complex Y admittance matrix based on

equivalent current injection (ECI) but requires the

factorization of the full Y-bus matrix, adversely affecting the performance in terms of speed. Teng 45 proposed a modified Gauss-Siedel method, by blending the Implicit Z-bus method43-44 and the Gauss-Siedel method to improve the computational efficiency. Goswami and Basu 46 have formulated a load flow algorithm by writing simple loop equation and representing loads as complex impedances.

A topological approach 47 has been proposed where two

matrices are developed, namely, the bus injection to branch current (BIBC) matrix and branch current to bus voltage (BCBV) matrix. The load flow solution is obtained by using simple matrix multiplication of these two matrices. Chen and Yang 48 have proposed an unbalanced DSLF based on branch frame of reference.

Newton Like Methods and Modified Fast Decoupled Methods

Various attempts have been made to modify the Newton’s

method to make it applicable to distribution systems. In the modified NR technique 49 , the network radial structure is explored to express the Jacobian matrix as a product of UDUT, where U is constant upper triangular matrix and D

is a diagonal matrix, the elements of which are updated at

every iteration. An attempt has been made 50 to extend the standard three phase decoupled theory 51 with certain modifications to obtain a fast decoupled three phase DSLF.

A fast decoupled DSLF has been proposed 52 , which orders

the ‘laterals’ instead of ‘buses’ into ‘layers’, thus reduces the problem size to the no. of laterals. A Phase Decoupled load flow method 53 has been proposed based on ECI method. Methods 54-65 are some other variations of NR based DSLF method or various decoupled

MODELING ASPECTS IN DSLF

Distribution systems are inherently unbalanced due to reasons stated before. To avoid significant error arising from

inherent system imbalance, rigorous distribution analysis using detailed component models is required.

Feeder Modelling

In Dilek, et al 42 and Chen and Dilon 66 and Vempati, et al 67 ,

a detailed discussion of feeder models for both coupled

and uncoupled feeders has been given. Starting with a modified version of Carson's equations, Kersting and Philips 68 and Kersting 69 have developed distribution feeder models that can be used in unbalanced DSLF. In this work, modeling of both distribution overhead and underground line segments has been carried out, which accurately computes the phase impedance and admittance matrices taking into account the actual phasing of the line and spacing between conductors.

Transformer Modelling

The modeling of three phase transformers is a vital step in distribution system analysis. Due to unbalanced system operations, a complete and accurate three-phase model is desirable for distribution and inline transformers of various core and winding configurations. A three-phase transformer model has been discussed in Dilon and Chen 70 and Kersting, et al 71 . Chen, et al 43,72 have proposed a two block three phase transformer model and a similar model has been proposed in Baran and Staton 73 .Gorman and Grainger 74,75 have discussed the conversion of nodal admittance matrix from primitive admittance matrix in detail. Kersting and Philips 76 have developed the models for an unsymmetrical three phase transformer bank and Kersting et al 71 have presented an exact model of three phase ungrounded Wye-Delta transformer for. Various other aspects of transformer modeling for DSLF have been presented 77-82 .

Load Modelling

Most of the electrical loads of a power system are connected

to the low voltage distribution systems. The electrical loads

of a system comprise residential, commercial, industrial and municipal loads. The active and reactive load powers of a distribution system are not independent of system voltage and frequency deviations. Also, the active and reactive power characteristics of various types of load differ

from each other. In static analysis, like load flow analysis, it

is considered that the frequency deviation is insignificant

and thus only the effects of voltage deviation on the active and reactive load powers is considered to get better and accurate results. Various approaches of load modeling for DSLF have been proposed in the papers 27, 83-87 .

Test Feeders for Unbalanced Distribution System Load Flow Analysis

With many computer programs available for the analysis of radial distribution feeders and because of the wide variation of the assumptions made in the development of the programs, there is a need for benchmark systems for

comparison and testing of the various programs. Kersting and Willis 88 have presented the complete data for three four wire Wye and one three wire delta radial distribution feeders. In 89 , an updated version of the same test feeders along with a simple system that can be used to test three phase transformer models, is presented. The complete data and solutions for all the test feeders can be downloaded at http:// ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders.html. With the increase in the application in distributed generation technologies such as wind turbines and various combined heat and power applications that employ induction generators, Dugan and Kersting 90 have presented a more extensive model which consists of IEEE 34 node test feeder with two large induction machines.

RECENT TRENDS IN DSLF

Uncertainties in Input Parameters

All the distribution load flow methods so far discussed have been carried out assuming the input quantities (loads at different buses and feeder parameters) are known and fixed. However, in real life situations, the values of these input quantities may contain a significant amount of uncertainties. These uncertainties might occur due to- error in the calculation or measurement of the feeder parameters; and error in the metered, calculated or forecasted values of the demand in the system load buses. Hence, researchers have tackled these in various ways. Das et al 91 have presented a fuzzy model for radial distribution system, where uncertainties in loads are modelled as fuzzy numbers. Various approaches have been proposed to handle uncertainties in input parameters in DSLF 92-95 .

Multiple Feeding Sources (Distributed Generation)

Recent technology improvements in micro turbines, fuel cells and energy storage devices have provided the opportunity for dispersed generation (DG) at the distribution level. With the penetration of distributed generation in distribution systems now DSLFs are required to be modified keeping in view the multiple feeding sources. Together, this requires that the load flow algorithm be more robust and faster than that required for static studies. Compensation based DSLF 34 has been extended to a DG distribution system with PV node compensation 35 . Various methods of DSLF with distributed generation have been proposed in the papers 96-106 .

Application of FACTS Devices

The major objectives of FACTS devices installed on a distribution feeder are to improve voltage profiles, correct power factor and reduce line losses. Modifications and extensions to standard distribution load flow algorithms with FACTS devices are reported in literature 107-109 . Tripathy et al 110 have proposed a load flow technique which handles multiple sources and looping of the distribution networks with optimally placed D-STATCOM. Mori 111 and Mehdi, et al 112 have modelled the D-STATCOM for DSLF analysis.

Similarly, Hosseni, et al 113 have modeled unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) for distribution system load flow.

Object Oriented (OO) Methods

The Object Oriented (OO) methods are particularly appealing, because OO modeling and programming allow to fully exploit the advantages of the new architectures and guarantees flexibility, expansibility and easiness of maintenance of Distribution Management Systems (DMS) functions and software packages. Losi and Russo 114 have proposed the application of OO approach to distribution load flow problem using NR method and is then extended to weakly meshed topology of distribution systems 115 . The effects of various load models on the distribution load flow solution and on the convergence characteristics of the OO algorithm are presented 116 . OO distribution load flow modeling is extended to include DGs 117 . Selvan and Swarup 118-121 have proposed various Object Oriented FBS based DSLF methods.

Three Phase Four Wire Distribution Load Flow

Three phase four wire distribution networks are widely adopted in modern power distribution system. A multi grounded three phase four wire service has higher sensitivity for fault protection than a three phase three wire service. The return current is due to both the unbalanced load and nonlinear characteristics of electrical equipments through the distribution feeder. However, the neutral wire in most of power flow software is usually merged into phase wires using Kron's reduction. Since the neutral wire and ground wire are not explicitly represented, neutral wire currents and voltages remain unknown. In some applications, like power quality and safety analysis, loss analysis, etc. knowledge of the neutral wire and ground currents and voltages could be of special interest. Ciric, et al 122,123 have proposed a general power flow algorithm for three phase four wire radial distribution networks considering neutral grounding, based on forward backward sweep method. Similarly, various related methods 124-126 can be found.

CONCLUSION

Distribution system load flow analysis has come a long way, starting from simple analysis of radial networks to its present form with many complexities as discussed. Load flow calculation methods for distribution system analysis vary from adaptations of networked transmission system analysis methods to a wide variety of ladder/ forward Backward Sweep methods that take advantage of the radial structure of most distribution systems. Ladder/ forward Backward sweep techniques have superior performance compared to the coupled matrix methods for radial circuits as the solution sweeps fit naturally with the operation of voltage regulator controls and other controls on the distribution equipment, thus simplifying control algorithm implementation 127 . However, Araujo, et al 128 have shown that for very large circuits, modern sparse techniques have

overcome the speed advantage of the sweep method. This is an important issue because distribution load flows are now being performed routinely on systems larger than 15000 three phase buses. The increasing penetration of distributed generators into the distribution system and the use of FACTS devices are the two factors that will affect the future trend of development of Distribution load flow techniques.

REFERENCES

1. J B Ward and H W Hale. ‘Digital Computer Solution of Power Flow

Problems’. Transactions on AIEE, vol 75, pt 3, 1956, p 393.

2. B Stott. ‘Review of Load Flow Calculation Methods’. Proceedings of

IEEE, vol 2, no 7, July 1974, p 916.

3. B Stott and O Alsac. ‘Fast Decoupled Load Flow’. IEEE PAS-93,

May/June 1974, p 859.

4. S A Rajgopalan. ‘A New Computational Algorthim for Load Flow Study

for Radial Distribution System’. Computer and Electrical Engineering, vol 5, Oxford Pengamon, 1978, p 225.

5. R A Stevens, D T Rizy and S L Purucker. ‘Performance of Conventional

Power Flow Routines for Real time Distribution Automation Application’. Proceedings of the Eighteenth Southeastern Symposium on Systems Theory, IEEE Computer Society, 1986, p196.

6. C E Lin, Y W Huang and C L Huang. ‘Distribution System Load Flow

Calculation with Microcomputer Implementation’. Electrical Power System Research, vol 13, 1987, p 139.

7. C S Chen,C T Hsu and Y H Yan. ‘Optimal Distribution Feeder Capacitor

Placement Considering Mutual Coupling Effect of Conductors’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 10, no 2, April 1995, p 987.

8. M E Baran and F F Wu. ‘Optimal Sizing of Capacitors Placed on a

Radial Distribution System’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 4, no 1, January 1989, p 735.

9. C G Renatoe. ‘New Method for the Analysis of Distribution Networks’.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 5, no 1, January 1990, p 391.

10. H D Chiang. ‘A Fast Decoupled Load Flow Method for Distribution

Power Network : Algorithms Analysis and Convergence Study’. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol 13, no 3, June 1991, p 130.

11. G B Jasmon and L H L Lee. ‘Stability of Load Flow Techniques for

Distribution System Voltage Stability Analysis’. IEE Proceedings of Genr Trans Distri, vol 138, no 6, 1991, p 479.

12. D Das, H S Nagi and D P Kothari. ‘Novel Method for Solving Radial

Distribution Networks’. IEE-Part C, vol 141, no 4, 1994, p 291.

13. A Chandrasekharan and R P Broadwater. ‘A New Formulation of

Load Flow Equations in Balanced Radial Distribution Systems’. Canadian Electrical Engineering Journal, vol 12, no 2, October 1987, p 147 .

14. D Das, D P Kothari and A Kalam. ‘Simple and Efficient Method for

Radial Distribution Networks’. Elect Power and Enery Systems, vol 17, no 5, 1995, p 335.

15. S Ghosh and D Das. ‘Method for Load Flow Solution of Radial

Distribution Netwoks’. IEE Proceedings of Gen Trans Distri, vol 146, no 6, November 1999.

16. S Jovanovic and F Milicevic. ‘Triangular Distribution Load Flow’.

IEEE Power Engg Review, vol 20, May 2000, p 60.

17. S Mok, S Elangovan,C Longjian and M M Salama. ‘A New Approach

for Power Flow Analysis of Balanced Radial Distribution Systems’.

Electric Machines Power Systems, vol 28,no 4, 2000, p 325.

18. P Aravindababu, S Ganapathy and K R Nayar. ‘A Novel Technique

for the Analysis of Radial Distribution Systems’. Elect Power and Enery Systems, vol 23, 2001, p 167.

19. M Afsari, S P Singh, G S Raju and G K Rao. ‘A Fast Power Flow

Solution of Radial Distribution Networks’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 30, no 10, October 2002, p 1065.

20. S F Mekhamer, S A Soliman, M A Moustafa and M E El-Hawary.

‘Load Flow Solution of Radial Distribution Feeders : a New Contribution’. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol 24, 2002, p 701.

21. R Ranjan and D Das. ‘Simple and Efficient Computer Algorithm to

Solve Radial Distribution Networks’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 31, no 1, 2003, p 95.

22. A G Bhutad, S V Kulkarni and S A Kharparde. ‘Three Phase Load

Flow Methods for Radial Distribution Networks’. Proceedings of IEEE TENCON Conference, October 15-17, 2003, p 781.

23. G D Patil and S V Kulkarni. ‘Performance Assessment of Load Flow

Techniques for Unbalanced Distribution Systems’. Proceedings of National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), vol 2, 2004, p 43.

24. L T Baldwin and S A Lewis. ‘Distribution Load Flow methods for

Shipboard Power Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol 40, no 5, September/October 2004, p 1183.

25. R Berg and E S Hawkins. ‘Mechanized Calculation of Unbalanced

Load Flow on Radial Distribution Circuits’. IEEE Transactions on PAS- 86, 1967, p 415.

26. W H Kersting. ‘A Method to Teach the Design and Operation of

Distribution System’. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus System, vol 103, no 7, July 1984, p 1945.

27. R P Broadwater, A Chandrasekharan, C T Huddle and A H Khan.

‘Power Flow Analysis of Unbalanced Multiphase Radial Distribution Systems’. Electrical Power System Research, vol 14, 1988, p 23.

28. D Thukaram, H M W Banda and J Jerome. ‘A Robust Three Phase

Power Flow Algorithm for Radial Distribution Systems’. Electrical Power System Research, vol 50, no 3, June 1999, p 227.

29. R Ranjan, B Venkatesh, A Chaturvedi and D Das. ‘Power Flow

Solution of three-phase Unbalanced Radial Distribution Network’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 32, 2004, p 421.

30. G W Chang, S Y Chu and H W Wang. ‘An Improved Backward/

Forward Sweep Load Flow Algorithm for Radial Distribution Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 22, no 2, May 2007, p 882.

31. S Mishra. ‘A Simple Algorithm for Unbalanced Radial Distribution

System Load Flow’. Proceedings of IEEE TENCON Conference, Hyderabad, November 19-21, 2008, p 1.

32. U Eminoglu and M H Hocaoglu. ‘Distribution Systems Forward/

Backward Sweep based Power Flow Algorithms : a Review and Comparison Study’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 37, no 1, 2009, p 91.

33. M F Al Hajri and M E El-Hawary. ‘Exploiting the Radial Distribution

Structure in Developing a Fast and Flexible Radial Power Flow for Unbalanced Three Phase Networks’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 25, no 1, 2010, p 378.

34. M Dilek, R Broadwater and S Lee. ‘A Robust Multiphase Power

Flow for General Distribution Networks’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 25, no 2, May 2010, p 760.

35. D Shirmohammadi, H W Hong, A Semlyen, G X Luo. ‘A Compensation

based Power Flow Method for Weakly Meshed Distribution and

Transmission Networks’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 3, no 2, May 1988, p 753.

36. G X Luo and A Semlyen. ‘Efficient Load Flow for Large Weakly

Meshed Networks’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 5, November 1990, p 1309.

37. C S Cheng and D Shirmohammadi. ‘A Three Phase Power Flow

Method for Real Time Distribution System Analysis’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 10, no 2, May 1995, p 671.

38. M H Haque. ‘Efficient Load Flow Method for Distribution Systems

with Radial or Mesh Configuration’. IEE Proceedings of Gen Trans Distri, vol 143, no 1, January 1996, p 33.

39. D Rajicic and R Taleski. ‘Two Novel Methods for Radial and Weakly

Meshed Networks Analysis’. Electrical Power System Research, vol 49, March 1998, p 79.

40. G J Chen, K K Li, T S Chung and G Q Tang. ‘An Efficient Two Stage

Load Flow Method for Meshed Distribution Networks’. Proceedings of APSCOM, 2000, p 537.

41. S Ghosh and D Das. ‘An Approach for Load Flow Solution of Meshed

Distribution Networks’. The Institution of Engineers (India), Electrical Engineering Division, vol 84, no , September 2003, p 66.

42. M Dilek, R Broadwater and S Lee. ‘A Robust Multiphase Power

Flow for General Distribution Networks" IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 25, no 2, May 2010, p 760.

43. D I Sun, S Abe, R R Shoults and M-S Chen. ‘Calculation of Energy

Losses in a Distribution System’. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol PAS-99, no 4, 1980, p 1347.

44. T H Chen, M-S Chen, K J Hwang, P Kotas and E A Chebli. ‘Distribution

System Power Flow Analysis – a Rigid Approach’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 6, July 1991, p 1146.

45. J H Teng. ‘A Modified Gauss-Siedel Algorithm of Three Phase Power

Flow Analysis in Distribution Networks’. Elect Power and Enery Systems, vol 24, no 1, 2000, p 97.

46. S K Goswami and S K Basu. ‘Direct Solution of Distribution Systems’.

IEE Proceedings-C, vol 138, no 1, January 1991.

47. J H Teng. ‘A Direct Approach for Distribution System Load Flow

Solutions’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 18, no 3, July 2003, p 882.

48. T H Chen and N C Yang. ‘Three Phase Power Flow by Direct ZBR

Method for Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems’. IET Gen Trans Distri, vol 3, issue 10, 2009, p 903.

49. F Zhang and C S Cheng. ‘A Modified Newton Method for Radial

Distribution Load Flow Analysis’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 12, no 1, February 1997, p 389.

51. J Arrillga and C P Arnold. ‘Computer Modelling of Electrical Power

Systems’. John Wiley and Sons, NewZealand, 1983.

50. A V Garcia and M G Zago. ‘Three Phase Fast Decoupled Power

Flow for Distribution Networks’. IEE Proceedings of Genr Trans Distri, vol 143, no 2, March 1996, p 188.

52. R D Zimmerman and H D Chiang. ‘Fast Decoupled Power Flow for

Unbalanced Radial Distribution Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 10, no 4, November 1995, p 2045.

53. W M Lin and J H Teng. ‘Phase Decouple Load Flow Method for

Radial and Weakly Meshed Distribution Networks’. IEE Proceedings of Genr Trans Distri, vol 143, no 1, January 1996, p 39.

54. H L Nguyen. ‘Newton-Raphson Method in Complex Form’. IEEE

Transactions on Power Systems, vol 12, no 3, August 1997, p 1355.

55. A G Exposito and E R Ramos. ‘Reliable Load Flow Technique for

Radial Distribution Networks’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 14, no 3, August 1999, p 1063.

56. Y H Moon, B K Choi, B H Cho, S H Kim, B N Ha and J H Lee. ‘Fast

and Reliable Distribution System Load Flow Algorithm based on the y- bus Formulation’. Proceedings of IEEE PES Summer Meeting, vol 1, July 1999, p 238.

57. W M Lin, Y S Su, H C Chin and J H Teng. ‘Three Phase Unbalanced

Distribution Power Flow Solutions with Minimum Data Preparation’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 14, no 3, August 1999, p 1178

58. P A N Garcia, J R L Pereira, S Carneiro (Jr), P A Costa and N A

Martins. ‘Three Phase Power Flow Calculations using Current Injection Method’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 15, no 2, 2000, p

508.

59. W M Lin and J H Teng. ‘Three Phase Distribution Network Fast

Decoupled Power Flow Solutions’. Electrical Power and Energy System,

vol 22, 2000, p 375.

60. J H Teng and C Y Chang. ‘A Novel and Fast Three Phase Load Flow

for Unbalance Radial Distribution Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Power

Systems, vol 17, no 4, November 2002, p 1238.

61. S Kebaili, F Adjeroud and K Zehar. ‘Extension of the Modified Newton

Method for Radial Distribution System Load Flow’. Proceedings of

Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2001, p

781.

62. P Aravindhababu. ‘A New Fast Decoupled Power Flow Method for

Distribution Systems’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 31, no 9, 2003, p 869.

63. E R Ramos, A G Exposito and G A Cordero. ‘Quasi Coupled Three

Phase Radial Load Flow’. IEEE Transactions Power Systems, vol 19, no 2, May 2004, p 776.

64. J C M Viera (Jr), W Freitas and A Morelato. ‘Phase Decoupled Method

for Three Phase Power Flow Analysis of Unbalanced Distribution Systems’. IEE Proceedings of Genr Trans Distri, vol 151, no 5, September 2004.

65. W Ohyoshi and H Mori. ‘A New Power Flow Method in Radial

Distribution Systems’. IEEJ Transactions on Power and Energy, vol 126, no 3, 2006, p 290.

66. M-S Chen and W E Dilon. ‘Power System Modelling’. Proceedings

of IEEE, vol 2, no 7, July 1974, p 901.

67. N Vempati, R R Shoults and M S Chen. ‘Simplified Feeder Modelling

for Load Flow Calculations’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 2, no 1, January 1987, p 168.

68. W H Kersting and W H Philips. ‘Distribution Feeder Line Models’.

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol 31, no 4, July/August 1995, p 715 .

69. W H Kersting. ‘Distribution System Modelling and Analysis’. CRC

Press, Boca Raton, 2000.

70. W E Dilon and M S Chen. ‘Transformer Modelling in Unbalanced

Tthree Phase Networks’. IEEE Summer Power Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 1972.

71. W H Kersting, W H Philips and W Carr. ‘A New Approach to Modelling

Three Phase Transformer Connections’. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol 35, January/February 1999, p 169.

72. T H Chen, et al. ‘Three Phase Co-Generator and Transformer Models

for Distribution System Analysis’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery,

vol 6, no 4, October 1991, p 1671.

73. M E Baran and E A Staton. ‘Distribution Transformer Models for

Branch Current based Feeder Analysis’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 12, no 2, May 1997, p 698.

74. M J Gorman and J J Graigner. ‘Transformer Modelling for Distribution

System Studies : Part I : Linear Modelling Basics’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 7, no 2, April 1992, p 567.

75. M J Gorman and J J Graigner ‘Transformer Modelling for Distribution

System Studies : Part II : Addition of Models to Y-bus and Z-bus’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 7, no 2, April 1992, p 575.

76. W H Kersting and W H Philips. ‘Modelling and Analysis of

Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks Serving Unbalanced Loads’. IEEE

Transactions on Industrial Applications, vol 32, no 3, May/June 1996, p

720.

77. R C Dugan. ‘A Perspective on Transformer Modelling for Distribution

System Analysis’. Proceedings of IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, vol 1, July 2003, p 114.

78. M R Irving and A K Al-othman. ‘Admittance Matrix Models of Three-

phase Transformers with Various Neutral Grounding Configurations’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 18, no 3, August 2003, p

1210.

79. R C Dugan and S Santoso. ‘An Example of Three-phase Transformer

Modelling for Distribution System Analysis’. Proceedings of IEEE PSE Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exhibition, vol 3, September 7-12, 2003, p 1028.

80. Z Wang, F Chen and J Li. ‘Implementing Transformer Nodal

90. W H Kersting and R C Dugan. ‘Induction Machine Test Cases for

the 34 Bus Test Feeder- Description’. Proceedings of IEEE PES General Meeting, 2006, p 1.

91. D Das, S Ghosh and D K Srinivas. ‘Fuzzy Distribution Load Flow’.

Electric Machines Power Systems, vol 27, no 11, 1999, p 1215.

92. B Das. ‘Radial Distribution System Power Flow using Interval

Arithmetic’. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol 24, no 10, 2002, p 827.

93. D Das. ‘A Noniterative Load Flow Algorithm for Radial Distribution

Networks using Fuzzy Set Approach and Interval Arithmetic’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 33, no 1, 2005, p 59.

94. B Das. ‘Consideration of Input Parameter Uncertainties in Load Flow

Solution of Three-phase Unbalanced Radial Distribution System’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 21, no 3, August 2006, p 1088.

95. P R Bijwe and G K Viswaanadha Raju. ‘Fuzzy Distribution Power

Flow for Weakly Meshed Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Power Sytems, vol 21, no 4, November 2006, p 1645.

96. D Rajicic, R Ackovski and R Taleski. ‘Voltage Correction Power Flow’.

IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 9, no 2, April 1994, p 1056.

97. M H Haque. ‘A General Load Flow Method for Distribution Systems’.

Electric Power Systems Research, vol 54, 2000, p 47.

98. Y Zhu and K Tomsovic. ‘Adaptive Power Flow Method for Distribution

Systems with Dispersed Generation’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 17, no 3, July 2002, January 2000, p 822.

99. S Naka, T Genji and Y Fukuyama. ‘Practical Equipment Models for

Admittance Matrices into Backward/Forward Sweep based Power Flow Analysis for Unbalanced Radial Distribution System’. IEEE Transactions on Power Sytems, vol 19, no 4, November 2004, p 1831.

Fast Distribution Power Flow Considering Interconnection of Distribution Generators’. IEEE PES Summer Meeting, vol 2, 2001, p 1007.

100.

T Oomori, T Genji, T Yura, T Watanabe, S Takayama and Y

81.

Peng Xiao and D C Yu. ‘A Unified Three-phase Transformer Model

Fukuyama. ‘Development of Equipment Models for Fast Distribution

for Distribution Load Flow Calculations’. IEEE Transactions on Power Sytems, vol 21, no 1, February 2006, p 153.

Three Phase Unbalanced Load Flow Calculation’. Electrical Engineering in Japan, vol 142, no 3, 2003, p 8.

82.

U Eminoglu and M H Hocaoglu. ‘Three-phase Transformer and

101.

P A N Garcia, J L R Pereira, S Carneiro (Jr), M P Vinagre and F V

Voltage Regulator Modelling for Forward/Backward Sweep based Distribution System Power Flow Algorithms’. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, vol 46, no 1, 2009, p 30.

Gomes. ‘Improvements in the Representation of PV Buses on Three- phase Distribution Power Flow’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 19, no 2, May 2004, p 894.

83.

M H Haque. ‘Load Flow Solution of Distribution Systems with Voltage

102.

Xiao-Ping Zhang. ‘Continuation Power Flow in Distribution System

Dependent Load Models’. Electric Power Systems Research, vol 36, no 3, 1996, p 151.

Analysis’. Proceedings of IEEE PES Power System Conference and Exposition, October 29-November 1, 2006, p 613.

84.

E Bompard, E Carpaneto, G Chicco and R Napoli. ‘Convergence of

103.

P S N Rao and R S Deekshit. ‘Radial Load Flow for Systems having

the Backward/Forward Sweep Method for the Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Systems’. Electrical Power and Enery Systems, vol 22, no 7, October 2000, p 521.

Distributed Generation and Controlled Q Sources’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 33, no 6, 2005, p 641.

104.

S Tong and K Miu. ‘A Network based Distributed Slack Bus Model

J Liu, M M Salama and R R Mansour. ‘An Efficient Power Flow

Algorithm for Distribution Systems with Polynomial Load’. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, vol 39, no 4, 2002, p 372.

85.

for DGs in Unbalanced Power Flow Studies’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 20, no 2, May 2005, p 835.

105.

S Khushalani, J M Solanki and N N Schulz. ‘Development of Three-

86.

R Ranjan, B Venkatesh and D Das. ‘Load Flow Algorithm for Radial

phase Unbalanced Power Flow using PV and PQ Models for Distributed

Distribution Networks Incorporating Composite Load Model’. International Journal of Power and Energy Systems, vol 23, no 1, 2003, p 71.

Generation and Study of Impact of DG Models’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 22, no 3, August 2007, p 1019

87.

Ulas Eminoglu and M H Hocaoglu. ‘A New Power Flow Method for

106.

J H Teng. ‘Modelling Distributed Generators in Three-phase

Radial Distribution Systems including Voltage Dependent Load Models’.

Distribution Load Flow’. IET Gen Trans Distri, vol 2, issue 3, 2008, p

Electrical Power System Research, vol 76, no 3, 2005, p 106.

330.

88.

W H Kersting and L Willis. ‘Radial Distribution Test Feeders’. IEEE

107.

M R Salem, L A Talat and H M Soliman. ‘Voltage Control by Tap

Transactions on Power Systems, vol 6, no 3, August 1991, p 975.

89. W H Kersting. ‘Radial Distribution Test Feeders’. Proceedings of

IEEE Power Engg Society Winter Meeting, vol 2, 2001, p 908.

Changing Transformers for a Radial Distribution Network’. IEE Proceedings of Genr Trans Distri, vol 144, no 6, November 1997, p 517.

108. P A N Garcia, J L R Periera and S Carneriro. ‘Voltage Control

Devices Models for Distribution Power Flow Analysis’. IEEE Transactions

on Power Systems, vol 16, no 4, November 2001, p 586.

109. P Yan and A Sekar. ‘Analysis of Radial Distribution Systems with

Embedded Series FACTS Devices using a Fast Line Flow based Algorithm’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 20, no 4, November 2005, p 1775.

110. P Tripathy, S N Singh and S C Srivastava. ‘Power Flow Analysis

with Optimally placed D-STATCOM in Distribution System’. Proceedings of National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), vol 2, 2004, p 128.

111. H Mori. ‘Optimal Allocation of FACTS Devices in Distribution

Systems’. Proceedings of Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, vol 2, 2001, p 936.

112. H Mehdi, S H Ali and F F Mahmud. ‘Modelling of D-STATCOM in

Distribution System Load Flow’. Journal of Jhejiang University-Science- A, vol 8, no 10, 2007, p 1532.

113. M Hosseni, H A Shyanfar and M Fotuhi-Fiuzabad’. Modelling Unified

Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) in Distribution System Load Flow’. Energy Conversion and Management, vol 50, no 6, 2009, 1575.

114. A Losi and M Russo. ‘An Object Oriented Aapproach to Load Flow in Distribution Systems’. Proceedings of IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, vol 4, 2000, p 2332.

115. A Losi and M Russo. ‘Object Oriented Load Flow for Radial and

Weakly Meshed Distribution Systems’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 18, no 4, November 2003, p 1263.

116. A Losi and M Russo. ‘Load Modelling Impact on Object Oriented

Distribution Load Flow’. Proceedings of IEEE Bologna Power Tech, Bologna, Italy, June 2003.

117. A Losi and M Russo. ‘Dispersed Genereration Modelling for Object Oriented Distribution Load Flow’. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol 20, no 2, April 2005, p 1532.

118. M P Selvan and K S Swarup. ‘Distribution System Load Flow using

Object Oriented Methodology’. IEEE ICPST POWERCON-2004, Singapore, November 21-24, 2004, p 1168.

119. M P Selvan and K S Swarup. ‘Object Oriented Modelling of

Distribution Systems with Dispersed Generation for Power Flow Analysis’. Proceedings of National Power Systems Conference (NPSC), vol 2, 2004, p 122.

120. M P Selvan and K S Swarup. ‘Modelling and Analysis of Unbalanced Distribution System using Object Oriented Methodology’. Electric Power Systems Research, vol 76, no 11, 2006, p 968.

121. M P Selvan and K S Swarup. ‘Object Modelling of Balanced and

Unbalanced Distribution Systems for Power Flow Analysis’. Electric Power Components and Systems, vol 34, no 2, 2006, p 191.

122. R M Ciric, A P Feltrin and L F Ochao. ‘Power Flow in Four Wire

Distribution Networks – General Approach’. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol 18, no 4, November 2003, p 1283.

123. R M Ciric, L F Ochao and A Padilha. ‘Power Flow in Distribution

Networks with Earth Return’. Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 26,no.5, 2004, p 373.

124. D P R Penido, L R Araujo, J L R Pereira, P A N Garcia and S

Carneiro (Jr). ‘Four Wire Newton Raphson Power Flow based on the Current Injection Method’. Proceedings of IEEE PES PSCE, 2004, p 1.

125. M Monfared, A M Daryani and M Abedi. ‘Three-phase Asymmetrical Load Flow for Four Wire Distribution Networks’. Proceedings of IEEE PES PSCE, October 29-November 1, 2006, p 1899.

126. D P R Penido, L R Araujo, S Carneiro (Jr) and J L R Pereira.

‘Unbalanced Three-phase Distribution System Load Flow Studies including Induction Machines’. Proceedings of IEEE PES General Meeting, 2006. p 1.

127. W H Kersting and R C Dugan. ‘Recommended Practices for

Distribution System Analysis’. Proceedings of IEEE PES PSCE, October 29-November 1, 2006, p 499.

128. L R Araujo, D P R Penido, S Carneiro (Jr), J L R Pereira. ‘A

Comparative Study on the Performance of TCIM Full Newton versus Backward-Forward Power Flow Methods for Large Distribution Systems’. Proceedings of IEEE PES PSCE, October 29-November 1, 2006, p 522.