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# Hamdard Institute of Information Technology

## Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK

Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 1
OBJECTIVE
• To study about Electrical variables and electrical symbols
• To study about Digital Multi meter
• To study about Resistor Color Coding

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter

• Power supply Probes
• Power supply unit

Theory

## Some of Electrical / Electronic Symbols

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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## Some of Electrical / Electronic Variables

Digital Multimeter

## A multimeter , also known as a volt/ohm meter or VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument

that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter may include
features such as the ability to measure voltage, current and resistance. Multimeters may use
analog or digital circuits - analog multimeters and digital multimeters (often abbreviated DMM
or DVOM.)

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Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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Connection of DMM

## Using Multimeter as OHM meter

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Hamdard University
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Color Codes
Resistor, capacitor and inductor

## It is sometimes not obvious whether a color coded component is a resistor, capacitor, or

inductor, and this may be deduced by knowledge of its circuit function, physical shape or by
measurement.

## Color Code Chart

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Hamdard University
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Resistor values are always coded in ohms ( symbol Ω), capacitors in picofarads (pF), and
inductors in micro henries (µH).
• band A is first significant figure of component value
• band B is the second significant figure
• band C is the decimal multiplier
• band D if present, indicates tolerance of value in percent (no color means 20%)
For example, a resistor with bands of yellow, violet, red, and gold will have first digit 4 (yellow
in table below), second digit 7 (violet), followed by 2 (red) zeros: 4,700 ohms. Gold signifies
that the tolerance is ±5%, so the real resistance could lie anywhere between 4,465 and 4,935
ohms.
Procedure
Step-1:
Hold one of the given resistors in such a way that closest bands come in left side.
Step-2:
Read ad record the value of resistor in column ‘A’ of table-1 by observing colors from
left side to right side.
Note: The colors of first bands I & II indicate significant figures in ohms, while the color
of third band indicates the multiplying factor.
Step-3:
Read and record the tolerance value in column ‘B’ of table-1 by observing the fourth
band.
Note: The color of fourth band indicates the percentage tolerance. Incase if band four
is not there (that is no color) the tolerance is assumed to be + 20 %.
Step-4:
Measure the resistance value with the help of Digital Multi Meter (DMM), and record
the value in column ‘C’ of table-1.
Step-5:
Calculate and record the difference of calculated and measured resistance values in
column ‘D’ of tale-1.
Step-6:
Take another resistor and repeat the procedure from step-1 to step-5.

Precautions
• Observe the colors of the bands carefully.
• Read the values of color code attentively.

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Hamdard University
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Table – 1

## Calculated Resistance Difference of

S.No Measured Resistance
Resistance Tolerance % Resistance
1
2
3
4
5

Conclusionary Questions:
Q1:_______________________________________________________________________
Ans:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Q2:_______________________________________________________________________

Ans:

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 1

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 2
OBJECTIVE
• To verify the Characteristics of OHMS LAW

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter

• Power supply Probes
• 1kΩ, 12kΩ and 27kΩ resistors

Theory
Ohm’s law states that Voltage is directly proportional to Current if the resistance and
temperature is kept constant. Also, current is inversely proportional to resistance which
means if the resistance is decreased, the current increases. Mathematically,
V = I × R or I = V / R.

## Voltage Divider Circuit

Procedure
1. Connect the circuit as shown in above figure with R2 = 12kΩ.
2. Apply the set of voltages as specified in table on next page.
3. Note the change in current and record observed values in table corresponding to
each value of voltage.
4. Plot the graph between Voltage and Current graph sheet 1.
5. Repeat the entire experiment with resistor R2 = 27kΩ, observe readings in table and
plot the graph between Voltage and Current on graph sheet 2.

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Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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Table – 1

## Voltages Current with 12kΩ Current with 27kΩ

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16

Conclusionary Questions:
After Plotting graphs :
Q1:_______________________________________________________________________
Ans:

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Q2:_______________________________________________________________________

Ans:

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 2

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Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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## Graph Sheet 1 for 12k resistor

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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## Graph Sheet 2 for 27k resistor

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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LAB EXPERIMENT # 3
OBJECTIVE
• To observe the change in RT (Total Resistance) ,as resistance placed in Series
and Parallel configuration

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter

• Required resistances as mentioned in Schematics
• Plain Paper

Theory
As resistances are placed in series combination, RT = R1 + R2 + Rn . In other words total
resistance is sum of all resistances connected.
and
As Resistances are placed in Parallel Combination, 1/RT = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/Rn . In other
words total resistance is reciprocal of all the resistances connected.

Procedure

## • Draw the schematic in respective area as provided in the lab

• Using Table - 1 place the values on the mentioned cells.
• Calculate the RT via formula and place it in its dedicated cell.
• Measure the RT and place it in its dedicated cell.
• Calculate the tolerance and Place it in last cell.
• Repeat the above procedure for both Parallel and Test Schematic.

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

## Schematic of Parallel Circuit

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Hamdard University
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## Schematic of Test Circuit

Table – 1
Values of RT Tolerance
Combination
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 Calculated Measured Color Range Obtained
Series
Parallel
Test Circuit

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 3

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 4
OBJECTIVE
• To verify Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law- (KVL).

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter

• Required resistances as mentioned for Groups.
• DC Power Supply Probes

Theory
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law states that Algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed path is zero,or
we can say that sum of all voltage drops equal to to the source voltages.
For KVL equation is VS – V 1 – V 2 – V 3 – V n = 0
or can be expressed by VS = V1 + V2 + V3 + Vn
To verify this law and to have multiple voltage drops we will use a series circuit.

## Schematic for – KVL

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Procedure
• Arrange your circuit on Bread board and Set Power supply at 10 volts.
• Using Ohm's law find out the voltages drops across each resistor and place in calculated section
of Table – 1, and verify through Equation.
• Use Rough work area for Calculations, a dedicated page next to this page.
• Consider V4 as VS
• Now using DMM find out voltages across each resistance and place it in measured Section of
Table – 1, and verify through Equation.
• Calculate the percentage of any possible instrumentation Error.
• Repeat the above steps by adjusting Power Supply at 14 volts and Using Table – 2.

Table – 1

## VS = V4 = R1 R2 R3 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error

10 volts a–b b–c c–d VS – V1 – V2 – V3 = 0
Calculated -------------
Measured
Use Rough work area for any Calculations

Table – 2

## VS = V4 = R1 R2 R3 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error

14 volts a–b b–c c–d VS – V1 – V2 – V3 = 0
Calculated -------------
Measured
Use Rough work area for any Calculations

## Explain Error in tis Experiment:

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Calculations

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusionary Questions:

Q1:____________________________________________________________________________
Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________

Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 4

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 5
OBJECTIVE
• To verify Kirchhoff’s Current Law- (KCL).

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter

• Required resistances as mentioned for Groups.
• DC Power Supply Probes

Theory
Kirchhoff’s Current Law states that The sum of current(s) in to a junction is equal to the sum of
current(s) out of that junction, or we can say that Algebraic sum of all the current(s)entering and
leaving a junction is equal to zero.
For KCL equation is IIN = IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IRn
or can be expressed by IT – IR1 + IR2 + IR3 + IRn = 0
To verify this law and to have multiple values of current we will use a parallel circuit.

## Schematic for – KCL

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

## Resistances Combination - A Combination - B

R1
R2
R3
Assigned values for Resistances
Procedure
• Calculate the Current of both combinations.
• Set Power supply at 12 Volts.
• Adjust meter probes and sector for Current measuring.
• Measure the current through each resistance and place it in its Table - 1.
• Calculate the Error percentage if any.
• Repeat the same for combination B.

Table – 1

## Combination IR1 IR2 IR3 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error

A 2-7 3-6 4-5 IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = IT
Calculated -------------
Measured
Use Rough work area for any Calculations

Table – 2

## Combination IR1 IR2 IR3 Placing in Equation Percentage of any Error

B 2-7 3-6 4-5 IR1 + IR2 + IR3 = IT
Calculated -------------
Measured
Use Rough work area for any Calculations

## Explain Error in tis Experiment:

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Conclusionary Questions:

Q1:____________________________________________________________________________
Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________

Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 5

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 6
OBJECTIVE
• To find out Current through R2 , using Super Position Theorem.

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter x 1.

• Required resistances ______ Ω x3.
• DC Power Supply Probes x 2

Theory
The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that the response (Voltage or Current) in any
branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum
of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, while all other independent sources
are replaced by their internal impedances.
To ascertain the contribution of each individual source, all of the other sources first must be "turned
off" (set to zero) by:
1. Replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit (thereby eliminating
difference of potential. i.e. V=0, internal impedance of ideal voltage source is ZERO (short
circuit)).
2. Replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit (thereby eliminating
current. i.e. I=0, internal impedance of ideal current source is infinite (open circuit).

## Schematic for – Superposition Theorem

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Procedure
• Assemble the circuit on bread board with assigned resistances.
• Set and connect V1 = ___________ volts.
• Use Fixed 5 volts section for V2.
• Measure IR2 when both sources are connected and ON. And place in Table – 1.
• Now remove V2 and replace it with a jumper so it will act as short part for current.
• Now measure the IR2A ,IR1A and IR3A and place it in Table – 2.
• Repeat the above procedure with V2 and use jumper instead of V1.
• Place the values in Table – 2.
• Now using Rough work area calculate the values for Table – 3 .along all possible Diagrams.
• Compare and both calculate and measured values and find out Percentage of error.
• Answer the given Question in own words.
Table – 1
V1 V2 IR2
___________A
Table – 2
Table for Measured Values
With Source : R1 R2 R3 IR2 = IR2A + IR2B
V1 = _______ v IR1A = IR2A = IR3A =
V2 = _______v IR1B = IR2B = IR3B =
When R1 = R2 = R3 = ______________ Ω

Table – 3
Table for Calculated Values
With Source : R1 R2 R3 IR2 = IR2A + IR2B
V1 = _______ v IR1A = IR2A = IR3A =
V2 = _______v IR1B = IR2B = IR3B =
When R1 = R2 = R3 = ______________ Ω

## Explain how Superposition Theorem is helpful in this Experiment?

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

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Calculations
With V1 = ___________ volts

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Calculations
With V2 = ___________ volts

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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Conclusionary Questions:

Q1:____________________________________________________________________________
Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________

Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

## Completed and Checked :_________________________________. (only by Instructor)

End Of Lab # 6

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 7
OBJECTIVE
• Using Δ – Y conversion prove VR3C = VR3M and IR3C = IR3M.

APPARATUS

## • Digital Multi meter x 1.

• Required resistances ( to be assigned in lab).
• DC Power Supply Probes x 1

Theory
The basic Delta – Wye transformation is used to establish equivalence for networks with three
terminals. Where three elements terminate at a common node and none are sources, the node is
eliminated by transforming the impedances. For equivalence, the impedance between any pair of
terminals must be the same for both networks. The equations given here are valid for complex as well
as real impedances.

## Delta - Wye Circuits

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## Schematic for Δ – Y conversion

Table -1 - Assigned Values

## V = ______ R1 = _____ R2 = _____ R3 = _____ R4 = _____ R5 = _____

Procedure

• Assemble the circuit following the schematic above on bread board with respective values.
• Adjust the required voltages and connect with circuit.
• Select voltages on DMM and measure VR3M .
• Select amperes on DMM and measure IR3M.
• Place both measured values in Table -2.
• Now draw Simplified Diagram in diagram block .
• As now Circuit is simplified calculate VR3C and IR3C and place in Table – 2.
• Use dedicated are for calculation and represent each value on Simplified Diagram.
• Any Manual work should be clean.
• Calculate error percentage if any.

Table – 2

Comparative Table
VR3M = ___________ V VR3C = ___________ V _________ %
IR3M = ___________ A IR3C = ___________ A _________ %

## Explain how Δ – Y conversion is helpful in this Experiment?

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

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Hamdard University
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## Explain why do we select Δ – Y conversion , instead of Y – Δ ?

___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________________

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Hamdard University
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Calculation Area

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Hamdard University
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Calculation Area

## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
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## Comments of Instructor if any :__________________________________________________

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Conclusionary Question:
Q1: Convert Wye – Delta:
• R1 = _______
• R2 = _______
• R3 = _______

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 7

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LAB EXPERIMENT # 8
OBJECTIVE
• To understand the functions and operations of Oscilloscope and Function generator.

APPARATUS

• Oscilloscope probes x 2.
• Function Generator probe x 1.
• Sharped Pencil x 1.
• Black Pointer x 1

Theory
Oscilloscopes
An oscilloscope is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying
signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional graph of one or more electrical potential differences
using the vertical or 'Y' axis, plotted as a function of time, horizontal or 'x' axis. Although an
oscilloscope displays voltage on its vertical axis, any other quantity that can be converted to a voltage
can be displayed as well. In most instances, oscilloscopes show events that repeat with either no
change, or change slowly.
Oscilloscopes are commonly used to observe the exact wave shape of an electrical signal. In addition to
the amplitude of the signal, an oscilloscope can show distortion, the time between two events (such as
pulse width, period, or rise time) and relative timing of two related signals.

GOS-620 - Oscilloscope

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
Faculty of Engineering Science and Technology BEE LAB WORK BOOK
Hamdard University
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

## Few main Functions of Oscilloscopes

Function Generators
A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment used to generate electrical waveforms.
These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot, in which case some kind of triggering source
is required (internal or external).
Function Generators are used in development, testing and repair of electronic equipment, e.g. as a
signal source to test amplifiers, or to introduce an error signal into a control loop.

## GFG-8050G - Function Generators

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Hamdard Institute of Information Technology
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Hamdard University
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## Different type of waveforms

Procedure

Calibration of Oscilloscope:

• Use CAL point to calibrate the oscilloscope before any further operation.
• Using Channel 1 's input , connect Probe to CAL point.
• Now verify the screen is showing the square wave is of 2VP-P and of 1KHz.
• Volts / Division X number of blocks within wave's amplitude (For Voltages)
• Time / Division X number of blocks within one complete cycle.
• Use F = 1 / T to find out frequency.
• If result doesn't match 2VP-P and of 1KHz remove any errors in Prudence of instructor.
• Plot wave shape and mention the X – Y along readings in Graph – A on next page.
• Now use Function Generator to generate different wave forms assigned in lab.
• The work should be neat and use pencil for all drawings.

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Graph – A
Volts / Division : __________ Time / Division : __________

Sine Wave :
1. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
2. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
3. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
4. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
5. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.

Square Wave :
6. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
7. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
8. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
9. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
10. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.

Triangle Wave :
11. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
12. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
13. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
14. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.
15. ___________Hz , ___________VP-P and Duty Cycle ___________ %.

Note:
Plot the above on Oscilloscope and as well as on Graphs 1 – 15.

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Graph 1

Graph 2

Graph 3

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Graph 4

Graph 5

Graph 6

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Graph 7

Graph 8

Graph 9

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Graph 10

Graph 11

Graph 12

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Graph 13

Graph 14

Graph 15

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Hamdard University
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Conclusionary Questions:

Q1:____________________________________________________________________________
Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Q2: ____________________________________________________________________________

Ans:

___________________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________

Remarks :

Date:___________________________

Signature:___________________________

End Of Lab # 8

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Project

## Use electronic work bench to draw schematic

Sample page

Schematic Diagram

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Details :

Sample page

List of Material

Sample page

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