Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2
O S M P T H A E N E T M D O T
O
S
M
P
T
H
A
E
N
E
T
M
D
O
T
R
F
R
Sea Lamprey
N
I
A
C
C
A
P
O
E
A
C
M
D
I
D
.
M
N
S
E
M
.
A
U
R
I
E
N
C
I
C
E
S
O
T
L
R
A
A
N
T
I
O
O
I
T
N
A
N
I C E S O T L R A A N T I O O I

Lake Ontario

Food Web

Lake TroutR A A N T I O O I T N A N Lake Ontario Food

Rainbow Trout
Rainbow Trout

Walleye I T N A N Lake Ontario Food Web Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Burbot Chinook Salmon

A N Lake Ontario Food Web Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon

Burbot

Ontario Food Web Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown
Ontario Food Web Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown

Chinook Salmon

Web Lake Trout Rainbow Trout Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown Trout Lake

Coho Salmon

Rainbow Trout Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown Trout Lake Whitefish Round Goby

Smallmouth Bass

Walleye Burbot Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown Trout Lake Whitefish Round Goby Zebra/Quagga mussels

Brown Trout

Lake Whitefish Chinook Salmon Coho Salmon Smallmouth Bass Brown Trout Round Goby Zebra/Quagga mussels Slimy Sculpin Rainbow

Round Goby Zebra/Quagga mussels
Round Goby
Zebra/Quagga
mussels
Brown Trout Lake Whitefish Round Goby Zebra/Quagga mussels Slimy Sculpin Rainbow Smelt Yellow Perch Alewife American

Slimy Sculpin

Rainbow

Smelt
Smelt

Yellow Perch

mussels Slimy Sculpin Rainbow Smelt Yellow Perch Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Amphipods Calanoids
mussels Slimy Sculpin Rainbow Smelt Yellow Perch Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Amphipods Calanoids

Alewife

American Eel

Sculpin Rainbow Smelt Yellow Perch Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Amphipods Calanoids Opossum Shrimp Invasive

Atlantic Salmon

Smelt Yellow Perch Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Amphipods Calanoids Opossum Shrimp Invasive waterflea

AmphipodsSmelt Yellow Perch Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Calanoids Opossum Shrimp Invasive waterflea Chironomids

Calanoids
Calanoids

Opossum Shrimp Alewife American Eel Atlantic Salmon Amphipods Calanoids Invasive waterflea Chironomids Mollusks Native waterflea

Invasive waterflea
Invasive waterflea

Chironomids Salmon Amphipods Calanoids Opossum Shrimp Invasive waterflea Mollusks Native waterflea Cyclopoids Rotifers Raptorial

Mollusks
Mollusks

Native waterflea Opossum Shrimp Invasive waterflea Chironomids Mollusks Cyclopoids Rotifers Raptorial waterflea Diatoms Green algae

Cyclopoids Invasive waterflea Chironomids Mollusks Native waterflea Rotifers Raptorial waterflea Diatoms Green algae Blue-green

Rotifers
Rotifers

Raptorial waterflea Chironomids Mollusks Native waterflea Cyclopoids Rotifers Diatoms Green algae Blue-green algae F l a g e

Diatoms
Diatoms
waterflea Cyclopoids Rotifers Raptorial waterflea Diatoms Green algae Blue-green algae F l a g e l
Green algae
Green algae
Cyclopoids Rotifers Raptorial waterflea Diatoms Green algae Blue-green algae F l a g e l l
Blue-green algae
Blue-green algae

F l a g e l l a t e s Flagellates

Foodweb based on “Impact of exotic invertebrate invaders on food web structure and function in the Great Lakes:

A network analysis approach” by Mason, Krause, and Ulanowicz, 2002 - Modifications for Lake Ontario, 2009.

NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 S. State Road, Ann Arbor, MI 734-741-2235 - www.glerl.noaa.gov

Lake Ontario Food Web

Sea Lamprey

Lake Ontario Food Web Sea Lamprey Sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus ). An aggressive, non-native parasite

Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). An aggressive, non-native parasite that fastens onto its prey and rasps out a hole with its rough tongue.

Piscivores (Fish Eaters)

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Pacific salmon species stocked as a trophy fish and to control

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Pacific salmon species stocked as a trophy fish and to control alewife.

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). A Pacific species imported and stocked since 1966. Reproduce in many

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). A Pacific species imported and stocked since 1966. Reproduce in many streams, but population sustained in hatcheries.

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A valuable sport and commercial fish. More aggressive than other t

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). A valuable sport and commercial fish. More aggressive than other t ypes of salmon and are likely to attack other fish.

American eel (Anguilla rostrata). The American eel is a catadromous fish; it lives most of

American eel (Anguilla rostrata). The American eel is a catadromous fish; it lives most of its life in freshwater and migrates to the ocean to spawn.

Rainbow trout or Steelhead ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ). A lake strain of non-native rainbow trout,

Rainbow trout or Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A lake strain of non-native rainbow trout, rarely found deeper than 35 feet. Supplemented by stocking.

Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Native coolwater species. Intolerant of pollution so is a good indicator

Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Native coolwater species. Intolerant of pollution so is a good indicator of a healthy environment.

Brown trout (Salmo trutta ). A European species introduced in the late 1880’s. Mostly does

Brown trout (Salmo trutta). A European species introduced in the late 1880’s. Mostly does well in slightly degraded habitats.

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush ). Nearly eliminated by sea lampreys during the 1950s and 1960s.

Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Nearly eliminated by sea lampreys during the 1950s and 1960s. Stocking and lamprey control are resulting in its resurgence.

Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum ). Carnivorous night feeders, eating fishes such as yellow perch and freshwater

Walleye (Stizostedion vitreum). Carnivorous night feeders, eating fishes such as yellow perch and freshwater drum, insects, crayfish, snails, and mudpuppies.

Burbot (Lota lota ). Elongated, cylindrical, freshwater codfish.

Burbot (Lota lota). Elongated, cylindrical, freshwater codfish.

Forage Fish

Lake whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ). Native found in cold waters. Bottom feeder—diets have shifted

Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Native found in cold waters. Bottom feeder—diets have shifted to include zebra and quagga mussels.

Yellow perch ( Perca flavescens ). Native that schools near shore, usually at depths less

Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Native that schools near shore, usually at depths less than 30 feet.

Slimy sculpin ( Cottus cognatus ). Native, nocturnal inhabitant of nearshore areas where it primarily

Slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Native, nocturnal inhabitant of nearshore areas where it primarily eats invertebrates.

Rainbow Smelt ( Osmerus mordax ). Found in both coastal and offshore habitats. Light-sensitive, so

Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax). Found in both coastal and offshore habitats. Light-sensitive, so prefer deeper, cooler waters during the warmer seasons.

Alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus ). Atlantic species that invaded Lake Ontario in 1949 via the

Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Atlantic species that invaded Lake Ontario in 1949 via the Welland canal.

Round goby ( Neogobius melanostomus ). Invasive, introduced into the Great

Round goby (Neogobius melanostomus). Invasive, introduced into the Great

Lakes via freighter ballast. Feeds on bivalves, including zebra mussels,

crustaceans, insects, and small fishes.

122 species of fish, including at least 13 non-natives, make their homes in the waters of Lake Ontario. Seven species of native fish have been extirpated from Lake Ontario. This food web includes only the dominant species.

Macroinvertebrates

Chironomids/Oligochaetes . Larval insects and worms that live on the lake bottom. Feed on detritus.

Chironomids/Oligochaetes. Larval insects and worms that live on the lake bottom. Feed on detritus. Species present are a good indicator of water quality.

Amphipods (Diporeia) . The most common species of amphipod found in fish diets that began

Amphipods (Diporeia). The most common species of amphipod found in fish diets that began declining in the late 1990’s.

Opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta) . An omnivore that feeds on algae and small cladocerans. Migrates

Opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta). An omnivore that feeds on algae and small cladocerans. Migrates into the water column at night.

Mollusks . A mixture of native and non-native species of snails and clams are eaten

Mollusks. A mixture of native and non-native species of snails and clams are eaten by lake whitefish and other bottom feeding fish.

Zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis) . Established in Lake Ontario in

Zebra and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis). Established in Lake Ontario in 1989 (zebra); 1990 (quagga). Filter-feeders that remove huge quantities of plankton.

Zooplankton (Microscopic animals found in the water column)

Invasive Spiny waterfleas (Bythotrephes longimanus) . Visual raptorial predator that can depress native waterflea

Invasive Spiny waterfleas (Bythotrephes longimanus). Visual raptorial predator that can depress native waterflea populations.

Native Raptorial waterfleas (Leptodora kindtii) . Slow moving and patchy distribution of small swarms at

Native Raptorial waterfleas (Leptodora kindtii). Slow moving and patchy distribution of small swarms at relatively low numbers.

Cyclopoid copepods (e.g., Cyclops bicuspidatus) . Carnivorous copepods that feed on rotifers and other microzooplankton.

Cyclopoid copepods (e.g., Cyclops bicuspidatus). Carnivorous copepods that feed on rotifers and other microzooplankton.

Native waterfleas (e.g., Daphnia galeata) . Filter-feeding waterfleas that can be important for controlling phytoplankton.

Native waterfleas (e.g., Daphnia galeata). Filter-feeding waterfleas that can be important for controlling phytoplankton.

Calanoid copepods (e.g., Diaptomus spp. ) . Omnivores that feed on both phytoplankton and microzooplankton.

Calanoid copepods (e.g., Diaptomus spp.). Omnivores that feed on both phytoplankton and microzooplankton.

Rotifers . A diverse group of microzooplankton that, depending on species, feed on phytoplankton, detritus,

Rotifers. A diverse group of microzooplankton that, depending on species, feed on phytoplankton, detritus, or other microzooplankton.

Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column)

Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column)
Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column) Blue-green algae (aka Cyanobacteria). Often inedible and frequently
Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column) Blue-green algae (aka Cyanobacteria). Often inedible and frequently
Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column) Blue-green algae (aka Cyanobacteria). Often inedible and frequently
Phytoplankton (Algae found in the water column) Blue-green algae (aka Cyanobacteria). Often inedible and frequently

Blue-green algae (aka Cyanobacteria). Often inedible and frequently toxic; blooms in late summer and can look like spilled paint on the water surface.

Green algae. Microscopic (single-celled) plants that form the main support of the summer food web. Also includes large nuisance species such as Cladophora.

Diatoms. Cold-loving microscopic (single celled) plants encased in silica shells that support the first wave of production in the spring.

Flagellates. Motile, single-celled plants or animals frequently found in high numbers. Most eat bacteria and so may help funnel bacterial products back into the food chain.