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Modern|st Concerns Journev o| the Mog| Fre|udes

U(Lcn De:c|cIicn. Ihe ciIy:ccpe


cepicIec c: :c(cic. uc|y cnc
ce:c|cIe
Ihe ciIie: hc:Ii|e cnc Ihe Icwn:
unf(ienc|y"

/nc Ihe vi||cce: ci(Iy. chc(cinc
hich p(ice:"

NichI-fi(e: ccinc cuI cnc Ihe |cck
cf :he|Ie(:"
Cn L(cken L|inc: cnc chimney
pcI:"

Ihe c(imy :c(cp: cf wiIhe(ec
|ecve: cLcuI ycu( feeI"

Ihe :cwcu:I-I(cmp|ec :I(eeI"

Dincy Shcce:"
Lcck cf ccnnecIicn cnc inIimccy
LeIween pecp|e in :ccieIy
/|ien pecp|e c|uIchinc Ihei( ccc:"

Six hcnc: cI cn cpen ccc( cicinc
fc( piece: cf :i|ve(. cnc feeI kickinc
Ihe empIy wine :kin:. LuI Ihe(e wc:
nc infc(mcIicn. :c we mcvec cn"
Ihe Ihcu:cnc :c(cic imcce: cf
which ycu( :cu| wc: ccn:IiIuIec:
Ihey f|icke(ec cccin:I Ihe cei|inc"

Hi: :cu| :I(eIchec IichI cc(c:: Ihe
:ky"

Eye: c::u(ec cf ce(Icin ce(IcinIie:"

Ihe ccn:cience cf c L|cckenec
:I(eeI. impcIienI Ic c::ume Ihe
wc(|c"

WiIh Ihe cIhe( mc:cue(cce: IhcI
Iime (e:ume:"
Lc:: cf (cmcnIic cnc icec|i:Iic view:
cf humcniIy. NeccIiviIy (ep|ccinc
cpIimi:m.
We(e we |ecc c|| IhcI wcy fc( Li(Ih
c( cecIh"

Ihi: Li(Ih wc: hc(c LiIIe( cccny fc(
u:. |ike DecIh. cu( cecIh"


Ihe |ichI c(epI LeIween Ihe
:huIIe(:. /nc ycu hec(c Ihe
:pc((cw: in Ihe cuIIe("

Ycu hcc :uch c vi:icn cf Ihe :I(eeI.
c: Ihe :I(eeI hc(c|y unce(:Icnc:"

Ycu Ic::ec c L|cnkeI f(cm Ihe
Lec. ycu |cy upcn ycu( Lcck. cnc
wciIec"
Lcck cf /L:c|uIe vc|ue:. {nc
ce(IcinIie: in |ife)
/nc (unninc cwcy. cnc wcnIinc
Ihei( |icuc( cnc wcmen"

Ihe wc(|c: (evc|ve |ike cncienI
wcmen ccIhe(inc fue| in Ihe vcccnI
|cI:"

Ihe mc(ninc ccme Ic
ccn:cicu:ne:: cf fcinI :Ic|e :me||:
cf Lee("
Di:i||u:icnmenI cnc fuIi|iIy cf |ife WiIh Ihe vcice: :incinc in cu( ec(:
:cyinc IhcI Ihi: wc: c|| fc||y"
Ihe ncIicn cf :cme infiniIe|y cenI|e.
infiniIe|y :uffe(inc Ihinc"

WiIh Ihe cIhe( mc:cue(cce: IhcI
Iime (e:ume:"

DepicIicn cf mcce(n mcn c: c
fci|u(e cnc cf mcce(n |ife c:
mecninc|e::.
/|ien pecp|e c|uIchinc Ihei( ccc:. l
:hcu|c Le c|cc cf cncIhe( cecIh"
Hi: :cu| :I(eIchec IichI cc(c:: Ihe
:kie: IhcI fcce Lehinc c ciIy L|cck"

Ihe mc(ninc ccme: inIc
ccn:cicu:ne:: cf fcinI :Ic|e :me||: cf
Lee("
Modern|st Iechn|ques Journev o| the Mog| Fre|udes
#hecIc(icc| cue:Iicn: 'We(e we |ec c|| IhcI wcy fc( 8i(Ih
c( DecIh
-
/mLicuiIy 'Ihe(e wc: nc infc(mcIicn :c we
ccnIinuec cnc c((ivec cI
eveninc. ncI c mcmenI Icc :ccn
{Whe(e When Whc)
'/ |cne|y ccL-hc(:e :Iecm: cnc :Icmp:
U(Lcn SeIIinc: 'Ihe ciIie: hc:Ii|e cnc Ihe Icwn:
unf(ienc|y

'/nc Ihe vi||cce: ci(Iy. chc(cinc
hich p(ice:

'NichI-fi(e: ccinc cuI cnc Ihe |cck
cf :he|Ie(:
'Cn L(cken L|inc: cnc chimney pcI:

'Ihe c(imy :c(cp: cf wiIhe(ec |ecve: cLcuI
ycu( feeI

'Ihe :cwcu:I-I(cmp|ec :I(eeI

'Dincy Shcce:
Icne '/|| cf Ihi: wc: c |cnc Iime ccc.
{:peckinc cLcuI Ihe pc:I f(cm Ihe
p(e:enI)
DeIcchec cI Iime:. |ike Ihe cpeninc. Ihe
Icne i: :cc(nfu| c( :c(cc:Iic cI Iime:. :uch c:
wiIh Ihe u:e cf Ihe wc(c 'mc:cue(cce:. Ihe
Icne i: jee(inc cI Ihe enc. wiIh Ihe pceI:
mcckinc |cuchIe(. /I mcny Iime: Ihe Icne i:
ci:cu:Iec. |ike when Ihe cwckeninc wcmcn
hc|c: ye||cw feeI in :ci|ec hcnc:. Ihe wc(c
'I(cmp|ec imp|ie: piIy. c: cce: Ihe
(efe(ence Ihe cenI|e Ihinc :uffe(inc.
SIc(I|inc/pc(cccxicc|
imcce(y
'Lyinc ccwn in Ihe me|Iinc :ncw.
Ihe(e we(e Iime: we (ec(eIIec Ihe
:umme( pc|cce:
Forodox {cppc(enI ccnI(ccicIicn] Ihe
'ce(Icin ce(IcinIie: ccnI(ccicI Ihe
'mc:cue(cce:.
Controst Dcy i: ccnI(c:Iec Ic nichI. men Ic
wcmen. Ihe cuIccc( :I(eeI Ic Ihe inIe(ic( cf
c (ccm. |ichI i: ccnI(c:Iec Ic cc(kne::.
C(ecIicn cf pe(:cnc cnc c
:I(cnc :en:e cf vcice
'/|| cf Ihi: wc: c |cnc Iime ccc. l
(ememLe(
'l :hcu|c Le c|cc cf cncIhe(
cecIh
'l cm mcvec Ly fcncie: IhcI c(e cu(|ec
/(cunc Ihe:e imcce:. cnc c|inc

'Ycu cczec. cnc wcIchec Ihe nichI
(evec|inc Ihe Ihcu:cnc :c(cic imcce: Cf
which ycu( :cu| wc: ccn:IiIuIec
lnIe(ic( mcnc|ccue
Di:ccnnecIec :Icnzc: Fi(:I 2
nc
:Icnzc
Hc(:h encu(cnce Ic cchieve
:cmeIhinc

/||u:icn: '/ cc|c ccminc we hcc cf iI..
{:e(mcn)

'Ih(ee I(ee: hcnc cn |cw :kie: {3
c(c::e:)

'Dicinc fc( piece: cf :i|ve(
{ccmL|inc fc( Ihe Ch(i:I: c|cIhe:
when he wc: c(ucifiec)

#e||g|ous A||us|on E|icI (efe(: Ic Ihe :uffe(inc
Ch(i:I whc mcy |ie Lehinc c|| Ihe humcn
:uffe(inc cf Ihe ciIy-':cme infiniIe|y cenI|e
infiniIe|y :uffe(inc Ihinc.
SymLc|i:I imcce: '/n c|c whiIe hc(:e {Lcc cmen)

'Ihe ccn:cience cf c L|cckenec :I(eeI
lmpcIienI Ic c::ume Ihe wc(|c
#epeIiIicn '/ jcu(ney cnc :uch c |cnc
jcu(ney

Mcny wc(c: cnc imcce: c(e (epecIec. Ihey
|ink Ihe p(e|uce:. New:pcpe(: cc((iec hcme
Ic (ecc in 'F(e|uce lll cccu( c: (uLLi:h cnc

&se o| convent|ono| poetrv techn|ques
Convent|ono| techn|que Journev o| the Mog| Fre|udes
MeIcphc(: - Ic pcinI Ihe picIu(e
mc(e c|ec(|y. :cmeIime: iI': ju:I ve(y
vi:uc||y cppec|inc Ic Ihe (ecce(.
LuI u:uc||y Ihe :iIucIicn i: LeIIe(
unce(:Iccc if iI': puI inIc Ie(m: Ihey
ec:i|y unce(:Icnc
/ ccy i: Lu(nI cuI. / :cu| i: ccmpc(ec
Ic cn eveninc :ky. lmcce: in c
wcmcn: minc f|icke( cn he( cei|inc
|ike f|cme:.
'Hi: :cu| :I(eIchec cc(c:: Ihe :kie:
'(evec|inc Ihe Ihcu:cnc :c(cic
imcce:..Ihey f|icke(ec cccin:I Ihe
cei|inc
'Ihe Lu(nI-cuI enc: cf :mcky ccy:
Fe(:cnificcIicn - 8eccu:e humcn:
hcve emcIicn: cnc we (e|cIe Ic
Ihem. :c pe(:cnifyinc :cme
:iIucIicn cive: iI mecninc cn c
mc(e humcn |eve|. c: we|| c: cfIen
mckinc iI mc(e inIe(e:Iinc c(
cmu:inc.
'wcy: ceep cnc wecIhe( :hc(p

'CiIie: hc:Ii|e cnc Ihe Icwn:
unf(ienc|y

'WcIe(-mi|| LecIinc Ihe cc(kne::
/ :I(eeI hc: c ccn:cience. Mc(ninc
hc: c ccn:cicu:ne::. LichI c(eep:. /n
eveninc :eII|e: ccwn. / :hcwe( w(cp:.
'Ihe winIe( eveninc :eII|e: ccwn
'Ihe mc(ninc ccme: Ic ccn:cicu:ne::
'/nc Ihe |ichI c(epI up LeIween Ihe
:huIIe(:
'Ihe ccn:cience cf c L|cckenec
:I(eeI
'Ihe :hcwe( LecI: Cn L(cken L|inc:.
Simi|e Ihe wc(|c: (evc|ve |ike c|c wcmen
hunIinc fc( fue|.
'Ihe wc(|c: (evc|ve |ike cncienI
wcmen GcIhe(inc fue| in vcccnI |cI:
/||iIe(cIicn - Ihe pu(pc:e cf
c||iIe(cIicn i: Ic c(ecIe c ccn:i:IenI
pcIIe(n IhcI ccIche: Ihe minc':
eye cnc fccu:e: cIIenIicn

U:uc||y iI i: Ic mcke Ihe pcem f|cw
'Dcc( cicinc
'Ih(ee I(ee:
'Sme|| cf :Ieck:. 'Hi: :cu| :I(eIchec
IichI cc(c:: Ihe :kie:-LcIh cf Ihe:e
c(e c|:c excmp|e: cf :iLi|cnce. '8(cken
L|inc:. /||iIe(cIicn ccnI(iLuIe: Ic Ihe
mu:icc| effecI: cf Ihe p(e|uce:.
'8uI :eI ccwn. Ihi: :eI ccwn

Fc( c jcu(ney. cnc :uch c |cnc
jcu(ney"
We c(e ncw civen Ihe icec IhcI
Ihe jcu(ney hcc ncI ccI cff Ic c
cccc :Ic(I. cnc wiIh Ihe pceI: u:e
cf (epeIiIicn cf Ihe wc(c 'jcu(ney.
we ccn (ec||y imccine IhcI IhcI
Ihi: wc: ncI c ve(y p|ec:cnI Iime
fc( Ihe 'Mcci. We c|:c Lecin Ic
unce(:Icnc IhcI IhcI Ihe 'Mcci
c(e mc:I cefiniIe|y cuI cf Ihei(
ccmfc(I zcne.
c: cu(|e(: in F(e|uce: l cnc ll. Hcnc: c(e
menIicnec in Ih(ee p(e|uce:. FeeI c(e
menIicnec in c|| Ihe p(e|uce:. Ihe :en:e cf
:me|| |ink: Ihe fi(:I Iwc p(e|uce:. Iime cf ccy
{:ee Iheme cLcve] fc(m: c ccnnecIinc |ink
LeIween Ihem. 'VcccnI |cI: |ink: Ihe fi(:I
cnc |c:I p(e|uce:. 'G(imy. 'cincy. ':c(cic.
':ci|ec cnc 'L|cckenec fc(m c :I(cnc |ink
LeIween Ihe p(e|uce:. '8|inc:. ':hcce: cnc
':huIIe(: |ink Ih(ee p(e|uce:.
mc(e :mccIh|y c( Ic cc|| cIIenIicn
Ic c :eI cf wc(c:.

SiLi|ience {(epecIec ': :cunc) ':ncw |ine. :me||inc cf veceIcIicn

'S|eepinc in :ncIche:

Ihe :umme( pc|cce: cn :|cpe:.
Ihe Ie((cce:. / /nc Ihe :i|ken ci(|:
L(inc :he(LeI

emcIicnc| mcvinc pcem. Ihe(e
c(e nc hc(:h :cuncinc |ine:. Ihey
c|| f|cw :cfI|y IcceIhe(.
Ihe (epecIinc ': :cunc: in Ihe
cpeninc ce:c(ipIicn ccnvey Ihe
ci:Ic:Iefu| ncIu(e cf Ihe hcu:e :me||:.
|inkec e:pecic||y Ic ':Ieck:. Ihe
ccnIinuinc ': (ep|eIicn o|so becomes
on exomp|e o| onomotopoe|o when iI
ccpIu(e: Ihe (c:pinc c( :c(cpinc
:cunc cf Ihe L|cwn |ecve: c: Ihey
:c(cpe Ihe c(cunc. SiLi|cnce c|:c
ccnvey: Ihe mccc cf Ihe impcIienI
ccL hc(:e mc(e vivic|y. SiLi|cnce i:
u:ec Ih(cuchcuI Ihe pcem-iI
(einfc(ce: Ihe cImc:phe(e cf ci(Iy
:ec(eI |ive:.
#hyme Ihe(e i: c |cI cf enc (hyme in Ihe
pcem c|Ihcuch iI cce:nI fc||cw c
:I(icI pcIIe(n Ih(cuchcuI. NcIe Ihe
i((ecu|c( :ecuence cf fifIeen enc
:cunc: fc( 'F(e|uce lll: 'ec. 'ec. 'inc.
'cce:. 'ec. 'inc. 'cck. 'e(:. 'e(:.
'eeI. 'cnc:. 'e(e. 'ci(. 'eeI. 'cnc:.
Ihe(e i: (hyme LuI cn unc|ec( pcIIe(n.
Ihi: mu:icc||y (ep(e:enI: Ihe ccnfu:icn
cf |ife. Ihe(e c(e c|:c :cme wc(c
(epeIiIicn: LeIween |ine:. Icke fc(
excmp|e ':I(eeI LeIween |ine: 33 cnc
34. /|| Ihe :cunc (epeIiIicn: c(ecIe
ve(Lc| c( wc(c mu:ic. which i: ve(y
:uiIcL|e fc( c c(cup cf pcem: cc||ec
'F(e|uce:.
/::cncnce Ihe :umme( pc|cce: cn :|cpe:.
Ihe Ie((cce:. / /nc Ihe :i|ken ci(|:
L(inc :he(LeI

emcIicnc| mcvinc pcem. Ihe(e
c(e nc hc(:h :cuncinc |ine:. Ihey
c|| f|cw :cfI|y IcceIhe(.
NcIe Ihe 'c :cunc IhcI c(ecIe: Ihe
mu:ic cf Ihe cwckeninc :cunc: cf
mc(ninc: 'Ihe mc(ninc ccme: Ic
ccn:cicu:ne:: cf. /fIe( Ihi: Ihe(e i: c
:ecuence cf 'e :cunc:. which c(ecIe
c :I(ikinc mu:icc| effecI:
'Sme||: cf Lee(
F(cm Ihe :cwcu:I-I(cmp|ec :I(eeI
WiIh c|| iI: muccy feeI IhcI p(e::
Ic ec(|y ccffee-:Icnc:.

What do the poems mean?
Prelude I
O In this short poem, a hidden observer describes dusk on a winter`s evening in a poor part oI a city.
O %he observer is outside, observing the appearance and atmosphere oI a street and neighbourhood.
O !ossibly the observer who describes the scene is Eliot himselI. Or it may be the cab driver. !erhaps Eliot
is observing a street prostitute, the you` oI the poem, as she stands on the pavement among the withered
leaves.
O It might be helpIul to regard this poem, like the others, as a video post-card oI this moment, six o`clock
on the winter`s evening. Eliot used words as his way oI painting the picture.
O %he time is pinpointed at 6 o`clock precisely.
O #esidents, living probably in one-roomed apartments, are cooking their evening meal all at the same
time. %hey are probably all workers living in Ilats. %he word passageways` suggests the houses have
been turned into Ilats Ior rent. Even though it seems a run-down part oI town, the residents can aIIord
steak.
O y linking the scene here with the stale smells oI beer` and dingy shades` in Iurnished rooms oI
!relude II` and the thousand sordid images` oI !relude III`, one could assume that the !reludes are set
in a red-light district oI a city.
O %he smell oI steak is a signal that day is done and night is beginning. ecause oI city smoke the day is
described as smoky. Maybe the smoke occurs because people are cooking at the same time. %he
tiredness oI the workers is suggested by the word burnt-out`. Or is there a humorous suggestion that
they over cook the steaks?
O %he weather is bad; a windy shower beats on the buildings and on the horse outside. %he cold rain
evaporates as steam oII the horse`s back.
O It is early winter as the autumn leaves are still on the ground. %he Iilth oI the place is revealed by the
phrase grimy scraps`.
O %he street is untidy as newspapers are blown around the place.
O %here are many empty or vacant spaces without a building on the street.
O %he details show that the street is rundown as the word broken` is used to describe the window-blinds.
O %he buildings are probably three or Iour storey houses rather than Iactories as the observer reIers to the
chimney pots. In !relude IV` the observer reIers to the houses as being in blocks.
O %he means oI transport is by cab-horse. A mysterious visitor to a house makes the cab-horse wait. It
seems to stamp its Ieet to beat oII the cold or its boredom. %he horse is lonely.
O e are given no clue about the mystery visitor. %he poem invites us to guess Ior ourselves who the
visitor might be. !erhaps he is a client oI the woman with yellow Ieet in !relude III`, a woman whose
hand raised a dingy shade` in !relude II`. Might he be visiting a prostitute? Or has he called to eat a
steak?
O %he only other event noted by the observer is the turning on oI the streetlights or lamps. In other words,
not much is happening outside.
Prelude II
O In this short poem the observer describes the early morning scene on a street as workers dash Ior a quick
coIIee on the way to their iob.
O %he observer is outside, observing the appearance and atmosphere oI a street and neighbourhood.
O %he muddy Ieet suggest a poorer neighbourhood oI St. Louis, where Eliot grew up.
O %here are probably some public houses on the street. %hey would account Ior the slight odour oI beer
and the sawdust. Floors oI cheap pubs would have had sawdust on their Iloor to dry up mud and spilt
beer.
O %he observer says that morning time causes masquerades` to start up again. Masquerades` are
pretences, tricks or Ialse actions put on Ior show.
O %hus, as he observes shades being liIted on various street-Iacing windows, he thinks oI the secret lives
that will be hidden in the daylight by so called normal behaviour. %he dingy hands are probably the
same soiled hands that hold yellow Ieet in !relude III`.
O !erhaps the observer thinks a lot oI people show oII and do not reveal their true selves in public. %hey
act innocently as they head Ior the coIIee stands, even though they might have been drunk with a
prostitute under cover oI darkness the night beIore.
O Eliot suggests that the truth may lie in up to a thousand Iilthy one room apartments where the prostitutes
that served the previous nights clients are also waking up and letting the shades up.
Prelude III
O %he observer addresses a you`perhaps the you` whose Ieet were surrounded by grimy scraps` as she
stood on the pavement in !relude I`.
O %he observer is inside, observing the appearance and atmosphere oI a room and its occupant.
O %he action oI tossing a blanket Irom the bed and waiting has a strong sexual suggestion about it.
O %his idea is strengthened with the reIerence to a thousand sordid images`. %he word thousand` echoes
the Iurnished rooms oI !relude II`. %he person`s soul is made up oI a thousand dirty picturesperhaps
oI clients who undressed while she tossed the blanket and waited.
O %he person in the room may be living in a personal hell. %he Iact that the pictures in her head Ilickered`
suggests Ilames, and in turn hell. During the night the world leIt her and returned at dawn.
O %he light creeps back to her dark world. Sparrows in the water chutes are the Iirst normal sounds she
hears. It is as iI her room at night had become a room in hell. At dawn everything seems normal again.
In !relude II` Eliot had suggested that people put on Ialse shows aIter the shades went up.
O %he observer imagines she has an insight into or awareness oI the street which is diIIerent than others
have. !erhaps she knows secrets that some oI the crowd rushing Ior coIIee don`t suspect, secrets that
others in that crowd hide.
O She removes the paper curlers Irom her hair. Are these made Irom some oI the same old newspapers that
Ilapped around the pavement in !relude I`? Is she preparing to keep up appearances Ior her work later
that evening? !erhaps she has nothing to do till nightIall. %his is suggested by the idle gesture oI
clasping her Ieet. %his gesture also betrays her dissatisIaction with her liIe.
O %he Iact that her hands are soiled may be a reIerence to the newsprint on the curling papers blackening
her hands, to her general lack oI hygiene or to some dirty deeds that happened in the night.
Prelude IV
O In this short poem, a hidden observer describes a winter`s aIternoon on a city street when it is busy. e
know this because the sky Iades and crowds move urgently along city blocks. Is it the same street
mentioned in previous preludes or is it in the commercial district?
O %he observer is outside, observing a passing crowd on the street. He may also be observing a single man
who is suIIering somewhat.
O %his man may be a street beggar who is being ignored by the passing crowd. %he patch oI sky visible
between city blocks represents this man`s soul. %he soul may also be the spirit oI the city or oI Christ.
O His soul is Iading with the light oI day. He is ignored and walked upon by the busy passers by. Some oI
them carry the evening newspaper home with them. Some oI the crowd are pipe-smoking men, whose
only thought iust then is Iocused on their pipes. %heir eyes show that they have Iixed views. %hey are
Iull oI simple certainties.
O Some oI them may be the clients oI the red light district, whose lives are a lie or masquerade`. %hey are
impatient` with the beggar and any other distraction and Ieel they alone make up reality, the world`.
O %he beggar may represent their lost conscience. %hey have lost touch with their human selves, as they
rush along pretending that their lives alone are what matters. %hey trample on the beggar or on the soul
oI the city.
O %he crowds are so big the street is blackened`. Or the street blackens at dusk Ior all those strange visits
and sordid images the day-time street hardly understands. Or the street is black in a moral sense as
people ignore their conscience. !erhaps Eliot wants us to have all three meanings at once.
O On the other hand Eliot may be having a Christian vision here. %he soul` may be the soul oI Christ. In
that case he is accusing the busy passers-by oI ignoring Christ. It is as iI the crowd are cruciIying Christ
in their selIish and sinIul lives, too Iull oI their own certainty.
O %he observer then makes personal remarks about the scenes shown in the Iour preludes.
O Eliot is touched by the characters he has portrayed in the Iour preludes. He pities them in their quiet
suIIering.
O He Ieels that there are a lot oI gentle people, perhaps like the girl revealed in !relude III`, who lead a
liIe oI suIIering.
O He may even be reIerring hopeIully to the constant spiritual presence oI the suIIering Christ. %he idea is
that Christ would redeem or give meaning to the lost lives oI these city dwellers.
O %hen another side oI Eliot comes out. He shocks us by sneering at the thought he has iust had. He laughs
mockingly.
O He seems to realise that women have always had a tough time. %hey will continue to struggle Ior
survival. Human liIe goes in cycles and poverty will always be part oI those cycles. In old age the same
women, who made their living Irom sordid actions as they tossed their blanket, will poke around in
empty building sites Ior sticks Ior the Iire. %hat`s what makes the world go round.
O Eliot`s Iinal position is that there is no cruciIied Christ in the background providing spiritual meaning
Ior people as they suIIer.
4urney 41 the MAGI
'!ournev of Lhe Maal' has been penned down bv nobel prlze wlnner 1S LlloL an ls a conLrasL of experlences based on Lhe
naLlvlLv of ChrlsL 1he monoloaue descrlbes Lhe [ournev of Lhe Maal Lo 8eLhlahem ln search of splrlLual paclflcaLlon and
ls an accounL of LlloL's own converslon Lo Anallcan falLh maklna Lhe [ournev and ob[ecLlve correlaLlon for LlloL

As per Lhe Cospel sLorv Lhe Maal were Lhe Lhree wlse men namelv 8alLhazar klna of Chaldea Caspor klna of LLhopla
Melcholr klna of nubla who belonaed Lo Lhe prlesLlv class of maalclans and had come Lo 8eLhlahem Lo pav homaae Lo
lnfanL ChrlsL presenLlna hlm wlLh alfLs of aold mvrrh and franklncense 1hev svmbollse wanderlna human souls ln
search of splrlLuallLv Lhe eLernal splrlLual quesLer
1he poem '!ournev of Lhe Maal' opens wlLh Lhe naLlvlLv sermon of LanceloL Andrews preached ln 1622 whlch descrlbes
Lhe hardshlps Maal faced due Lo deep wavs sharp weaLher meeLlna snow and hosLlle condlLlons whlch were hard Lo
combaL ' A cold comlna we had of lL/ !usL Lhe worsL Lme of Lhe vear' ln 'Lhe verv dead of wlnLer'1he Maaus admlLs LhaL
Lhere was lnLrospecLlon promoLed for 'Lhere were Llmes we reareLLed' as Lhev had alven up maLerlallsLlc pleasures and
sensuallLv of 'Summer places on Lhe slope' and 'sllken alrls brlnalna sherbeL'

8esldes wonderlna wheLher lL was worLh Lhe efforL Lhelr ma[or lssue of search was lanored and Lhe dav Lo dav
dlfflculLles boaaed Lhem down wlLh 'camelmen curslna and arumbllna' 'nlahL flres aolna ouL' and 'vlllaaes dlrLv and
charalna hlah prlces' and Lhev admlLLed 'A hard Llme we had of lL'

1he Maal now 'preferred Lo Lravel all nlahL' and faced aaonlslna momenLs of self doubL 'volces slnalna ln our ears
savlna LhaL Lhls was all follv' before Lhev flnallv reached a LemperaLe vallev

1he second half of Lhe poem abounds ln svmbollsm wlLh Lhe LemperaLe vallev slanlflna Lhe chanae ln Lhelr llves LhaL
followed Lhe ardous [ournev 1hev come across a ' runnlna sLream' deplcLlna Lhe Llmelessness of Lhelr [ournev
'waLermlll beaLlna Lhe darkness' conLlnulna Lhe lmaae of exLlncLlon and renewal 'Lhree Lrees slanlflna Lhree crosses aL
calvarv 'an old whlLe horse' a meLaphor for reblrLh of ChrlsL Lhe Savlor and Lhe defeaL of paaanlsm 'vlne leaves over
Lhe llnLel' aaaln svmbollc of Lhe vlne LhaL chrlsL meLamorphosed lnLo hls blood 'Slx hands aL an open door dlclna for
pleces of sllver' refers Lo beLraval of chrlsL bv !udas and lasLlv 'feeL klcklna empLv vlne sklns 'ls svmbollc of Lhe worn ouL
forms and rlLuals of Lhe old dlspensaLlon
1he Maaus descrlbes Lhelr desLlnaLlon as 'llndlna Lhe place lL was ( vou mav sav) saLlsfacLorv' Such a dellberaLe
undersLaLemenL reflecLs Lhe Lurmolls ln Lhe mlnds of Lhe Maal as an ouLcome of Lhe clash of Lhelr old dlspensaLlon and
new bellefs

1he lasL Lwelve llnes descrlbe Lhe psvcholoalcal chanae ln Maal as Lhev wore cauahL ln confuslon and perplexlLv and
clalmed LhaL '1hls blrLh was hard and blLLer aaonv for us llke ueaLh' 1he [ournev marked Lhe end of Lhelr old
dlspensaLlon buL dldnoL alve Lhem saLlsfacLlon of falLh for Lhe Maaus clalms 'l should be alad of anoLher deaLh' so LhaL
he mav be born lnLo a new falLh

1he poem can be sLudled aL Lhree levels 1he acLual [ournev of Lhe Maal LlloL's [ournev from doubL Lo falLh whlle hls
converslon Lo anallcanlsm and [ournev of anv lndlvldual ln splrlLual quesL
belonalna Lo Lhe Arlel poems Lhe [ournev Lraces LlloL's own splrlLual quesL and hls vearlna for subllme peace
1he monoloaue reconflrms Lhe unlversal LruLh LhaL Lhe brave and Lhe daunLless who embark upon [ournles wlLh
convlcLlon are araced wlLh dlvlnlLv buL lL ls sensual [deslres and LempLaLlons LhaL need Lo be overcome
@hemes
Suffering
!eople live harsh lives, Iull oI routine and boredom. LiIe is an unchanging cycle oI day and night. %here is a
sense oI people waiting and rushing but not really enioying their lives. !eople endure the discomIort oI winter.
%hey live in Iilthy conditions. Some hide Ialse lives Irom the eyes oI others. omen struggle, leading sordid
and unhygienic lives. %he poet pities this suIIering and seeks a spiritual signiIicance Ior it. ut he gives up and
laughs at it all.
The Nature Of Life In The Citv
Day and night are diIIerent in the city. y day it is a scene oI rushing crowds heading to coIIee stands beIore
work or heading home Irom newspaper stands aIter work. For many their daily liIe is a masquerade in
comparison to what they do at night. A woman has a vision oI the street that others don`t have. At night the
street is blackened and a type oI Iilthy underworld exists. At night people live their secret lives, creating
sordid` images.
Women And Men
Around 1910 a woman`s liIe was diIIicult. %he poem portrays a woman passing an uneasy night in bed,
tormented by sordid images, perhaps oI her clients. Her hands are dirty, like the dingy hands that liIt thousand
shades. Old women are reduced to picking twigs as Iire Iuel. Men on the other hand are portrayed as living lives
that are busy but Ialse. %hey are Iull oI certainty. %hey light their pipes and read evening newspapers. %he
women use the same papers only Ior hair curlers as they prepare themselves Ior men.
Pretence
!eople lead double lives. %he respectable liIe people live by day hides a sordid night-liIe. eer and sordid
images are the reality oI night-liIe Ior some. y day they act out a cleaner liIe as they rush Ior the coIIee stands
and work, pretending to have a clean conscience. %hey ignore the suIIering oI a beggar as they get on with their
busy and important lives. ut it is all a masquerade` or pretence.
Time
Eliot looks at the Iaces oI the city at diIIerent times: dusk, night-time, morning, aIternoon. In time nothing
changes, the world revolves around human misery, especially the misery oI women.
Lifestvle
!eople`s lives in 1910 consisted oI rushing to and Irom work, consuming coIIee, beer and steaks, reading
newspapers, smoking pipes and secret, sordid activities.
Povertv
Eliot portrays Iilth and neglect. Hands and Ieet are dirty. %he streets are Iull oI rubbish. Old women hunt Ior
Iuel. Young women sell their bodies. omen use newspapers Ior curlers.
What do both the poems have |n common?
O 1hev boLh speak of Lhe naLure of Lhe urban landscape and how lL ls hosLlle
O 8oLh poems emphaslze how Lhere ls no real values ln Lhe modern socleLv and how Lhe world wears a mask Lo
cover up lLs flaws
O 8oLh make references Lo ChrlsL and Lhe wav no one reallv undersLands Lhe sacrlflce he made for Lhe world Pe
suffered and dled for Lhe world's slns so evervone else could leave an eLernal llfe no one appreclaLes lL and
once aaaln sln ls rlfe ln Lhe world buL Lhls Llme Lhere ls no one Lo save us
O uepresslon and nealecLreflecLlna on Lhe Lrue meanlna of llfe

ow are the poems d|fferent?
O !ournev of Lhe Maal ls focused on a [ournev forward whlle Lhe [ournev experlenced bv Lhe characLers ln reludes
ls sLaLlonarv/backwards and ls more emoLlonal Lhan hvslcal
O !ournev of Lhe Maal Lakes us on Lhe [ournev wlLh Lhe characLer whlle preludes recounLs Lhe sLorles as Lhouah we
are floaLlna on Lop of Lhe clLv slmplv observlna Lhe wav Lhe clLv works and reflecLlna upon lL from a dlsLance
O Maal ls a [ournev seL ln Lhe pasL whlle reludes ls a scene LhaL ls seL ln Lhe presenL 1herefore boLh are seL ln
dlfferenL Llme perlods (llfesLvle ls dlfferenL)
O Maal ls a poem LhaL ls Laken from a more svmpaLheLlc and plLvlna perspecLlve whlle preludes ls svmpaLheLlc buL
mocks Lhe valueless socleLv