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OPRE 6260 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT

Notes 2

2001

Line Balancing The process of assigning tasks to workstations in such a way that the workstations have approximately equal time requirements. COMSOL : Computer Method of Sequencing Operations Assembly Line (Chrysler Corporation) CALB : Computer Assembly Line Balancing ALPACA : Assembly Line Planning and Control Activity (GM).

0.1 Min

0.7 Min

1.0 Min

0.5 Min

0.2 Min

Figure 1:

OT = Operating time per day CT = Cycle time One shift per day; One shift is 8 hours. OT = 8 60 = 480 minutes per day Cycle Time = CT = 1.0 min OT 480 Output = = = 480 units per day CT 1.0 Cycle Time = CT = 2.5 min 480 OT = = 192 units per day Output = CT 2.5

0.1 Min

0.7 Min

1.0 Min

0.5 Min

0.2 Min

Figure 2:

OT = Operating time per day CT = Cycle time D = Desired output rate One shift per day; One shift is 8 hours. OT = 8 60 = 480 minutes per day D = 480 units per day 480 OT = = 1.0 M inute CT = D 480

0.1 Min

0.7 Min

1.0 Min

0.5 Min

0.2 Min

Figure 3:

Number of Workstations Need t Nmin = CT Nmin = Theoretical min number of stations CT = Cycle Time t = Sum of task time t 2.5 Nmin = = = 2.5 stations CT 1.0 Nmin = 3 .

4 Min

3 Min

5 Min

3 Min

1 Min

2 Min

Figure 4:

Precedence Diagram

OT = Operating time per day CT = Cycle time D = Desired output rate One shift per day; One shift is 8 hours. Example A: OT = 8 60 minutes per day D = 96 units per day 480 OT = = 5 M inutes CT = D 96

4 Min

3 Min

5 Min

3 Min

1 Min

2 Min

Figure 5:

Precedence Diagram

OT = Operating time per day CT = Cycle time D = Desired output rate One shift per day; One shift is 8 hours. Example B: OT = 8 60 minutes per day D = 80 units per day 480 OT = = 6 M inutes CT = D 80

Heuristic (intuitive) rules 1. Assign tasks in order of most following tasks. 2. Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight. Positional weight is the sum of each tasks time and the times of all following tasks.

0.1 Min

1.0 Min

0.7 Min
Figure 6:

0.5 Min

0.2 Min

Example 1

Heuristic (intuitive) rule : Most number of followers. Cycle Time = CT = 1.0 Min Workstation Time Eligible Assign Station Remaining Task Idle Time

D = 560 units per week OT = 40 hours per week CT = 40 OT = = 0.07 Hours D 560

ti 0.26 N= = = 3.7 = 4 CT 0.07

Workstation Time Eligible Assign Station Remaining Task Idle Time

0.1 Min

1.0 Min

0.7 Min
Figure 7:

0.5 Min

0.2 Min

Precedence Diagram

Heuristic (intuitive) rule : Most number of followers. Cycle Time = CT = 1.0 Min
Workstation Time Remaining 1 1.0 0.9 0.2 2 1.0 3 1.0 0.5 0.3 Eligible Assign Task a,c a c c none b b d d e e Station Idle Time

0.2 0.0

0.3 0.5

Two widely used measures of eectiveness : . 1. Balance Delay : The percentage of idle time of the line. Nactual = actual number of stations.
per cycle100 P ercentage of idle time = Idle timecycle time N
actual

0.5 100 P ercentage of idle time = 3 1.0 P ercentage of idle time = 16.7% 2. Eciency: Ef f iciency = 100 percent idle time Ef f iciency = 100 16.7 = 83.3%

Line Balancing Procedure : 1. Identify the cycle time and determine the minimum number of workstations. 2. Make assignments to workstations in order, beginning with Station 1. Tasks are assigned to workstations moving from left to right through the precedence diagram. 3. Before each assignment, use the following criteria to determine which tasks are eligible to be assigned to a workstation : a. All preceding tasks in the sequence have been assigned. b. The task time does not exceed the time remaining at the workstation. 4. After each task assignment, determine the time remaining at the current workstation by subtracting the sum of times for tasks already assigned to it from the cycle time. 5.Break ties that occur using one of these rules: a. Assign the task with the longest task time. b. Assign the task with greatest number of followings If there is tie, choose one task arbitrarily. 6. Continue until all tasks have been assigned to workstations. 7. Compute appropriate measures (e.g., percent idle time,

Designing Process Layout The main issue in design of process layouts concerns the relative positioning of the departments involved. Departments must be assigned to locations. The problem is to develop a reasonably good layout; some combinations will be more desirable than others.

Some departments may benet from adjacent locations. Example: Sharing expensive tools or equipments. Sequence of operations. Some departments should be separated. Example: A lab with delicate equipment would not be located near a department that had equipment with strong vibrations. Sand blasting department and painting department.

A D

B E

C F

be assigned 1 2 3 4 5 6

Figure 8:

Process Layout

6! = 1 2 3 4 5 6 = 720 14 departments need to be arranged in 14 locations. 14! = 1 2 3 . . . 12 13 14 = 8.7178 1010 More than 87 billion dierent ways to arrange.

Measures of Eectiveness Process layout : a variety of processing requirements. Customers or materials in these systems require dierent operations and dierent sequences of operations. Transportation costs or time can be signicant One of the major objectives in process layout is to minimize transportation cost, distance, or time. This is usually accomplished by locating departments with relatively high interdepartmental work ow as close together as possible.

Information Requirements The design of process layout requires the following information: 1. A list of departments or work centers to be arranged, their approximate dimensions, and the dimensions of the building or buildings that will house the departments. 2. A projection of future work ows between the various work centers 3. The distance between locations and the cost per unit of distance to move loads between locations 4. The amount of money to be invested in the layout. 5. A list of any special considerations (e.g., operations that must be close to each other or operations that must be separated).

The activity relationship chart for ABC machine shop is shown in the gure below. Arrange the eight departments in a 2 4 gird. A: Absolutely necessary E: Especially important I: Important O: Ordinary closeness OK U: Unimportant X: Undesirable

CELL K CELL L CELL M CELL N CELL O CELL P CELL Q CELL R

A X X I U A O U X A X A A A E O A U A E A X U U U U X A

K R

Computer-Aided Layout: The size and complexity of process layout problems have led to the development of a number of computerized packages. Well-known packages: ALDEP (Automated Layout DEsign Program) It uses an initial random selection of a department and location and then a search of remaining departments closeness rating with the chosen department in order to assign locations. This procedure is continued until all departments have been assigned. The completed layout is evaluated and scored according to how well the preference have been satised. The process is repeated a number of times, and the best layout is identied. CORELAP (COmputerized Relationship LAyout Planning) CORELAP processes location assignments using the preference rating to order the choice of departments. Hence, it begins with a department pair that has an A rating, then another A pair, and son on until all a relationship have been assigned. Next, the E relationship pairs are assigned, and son on down the line until all departments have been assigned to locations. Both ALDEP and CORELAP use the preference rating (A-E-I-OU-X).

CRAFT uses From-To-Chart. CRAFT (Computerized Relative Allocation of Facilities Technique) CRAFT seeks to minimize material ow cost. It requires information on material ow rates between departments, unit distance transportation costs and initial layout. It exchanges pairs until no further improvements can be obtained. The output is a printout of a rectangular layout. Other Software packages MICRO-CRAFT BLOCPLAN uses a relationship chart as well as a from-to-chart as input data for ow. Layout cost can be measured either by distancebased objective or the adjacency-based objective. MULTIPLE (LAYOPT) Information about Software packages Article : Points to consider in Selecting Facilties Planning Software, Quarterman Lee, Industrial Engineering, IIE Solution, pp. 42-48, January, 1998.

Methods 1. Activity Relationship Diagram 2. Graph-Based Process The process of constructing an activity relationship diagram often requires compromises, especially when not all closeness rating can be satised. Planer Graph A graph is planner if it can be drawn so that its vertices are points in the plane and each edge can be drawn so that it intersects no other edges. Dual Graph To construct the dual of a planar graph, place a dual node in each face of the primal planner graph. Whenever two faces shares an edge in their common boundary, join the nodes of the corresponding faces by an edge crossing the edge representing the common boundary.

Reference: Production/Operations Management by William J. Stevenson, Sixth Edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999. Facility Layout and Location: An analytical Approach by Richard L. Francis, Leon F. MaGinnis, Jr., John A. White, Second Edition, Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1992.

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