You are on page 1of 6

688

uoqnlos q;H~3: AlaA!l:>adsa.I '.Ial-eM aU!pO! pUB '.IalBM aU!WO.Iq '.Ial-eM auolq:> pall-e:> a.I-e sua201-eq asaql JO SUO!lnlOS snoanbv SUO!l:>-ea.I UO!l:>npa.I-UO!WP!XO U!-ea:> JO spnpo.Id S-e UO!lnlOS U! waql 2u!l-e.Iaua2 Aq .10 .Ial-eM U! sluawala asaql 2u!AIOSS!P Aq .Iaql!a pa.I-eda.Id aq u-e:>1':1 pU-e '1':.18: JO suoqnlos snoanbv '1':10 aA!l:>-eO!P-e.I aU!l-els-e asn-e:>aq pu-e Apnls Sl! .IoJ pa.I!nba.I a.I-e suompuo:> l-eP S! -ads l-eqllUa2-e 2u!z!p!XO 2uO.IlS -e q:>ns S! 1':.!l asn-e:>aq '.IaAaMoq '1':1 pu-e '1':.18: '1':10 AluO sasn lUawadxa S!l{.1 lUa2-e 2u!z!p!XO u-e S! waql JO q:>-ea pu-e '(1':lV pu-e '1':1'1':.18:1':10'1':.!l):>!wol-e!P S! W.IoJ l-eluawala .I!aql 'aldw-exa .Io.!l sa!ado.Id .I-el ' -!W!S AU-eW aA-eq Aaql 'dno.I2 aw-es aql ol2uolaq sluawala asaql asn-e:>a8: o(lV) aU!l-els-e pu-e '(I) au!po! '(.18:) au!wo.Iq '(10) auolq:> '(.!l) auonu a.I-e dno.I2 S!ql JO s.Iaquiaw aqJ, ayq-el :>!poad aql JO VIlA dno.ID U! punoJ a.I-e sua201-eq aqJ, Aus-ea a.IOW Suo!l-eA.Iasqo .InOA JO awos pu-els.Iapun Ol nOA MOll-e 1l!M sa!ado.Id .I!aql JO awos JO UO!ld:>sap Jaq V luawadxa S!qljo -ed q:>-eaU! sapH-eq pu-e sua201-eq ql!M l-eap 1l!M no.!.
sapu'D'l[ a'l[l PU'D suaJJol'D'l[ a'l[.L

paA.Iasqo aA-eq nOA l-eql uO!l:>-ea.Iq:>-ea.IoJ uoq-enba pa:>u-el-eq -e alM 1l!M nOA 'lU-eodw! lSOW pu-e '.All-eU!.!luo!lnlos :>!s-eq-e U! paU!-elqo asoql WO.IJAlpall.I-ew .IaolHPu-e:>UO!l -nlos :>!PP-e u-e U! uO!l:>-ea.Iuo!pnpa.I-uo!l-eP!X0 u-e WO.IJ pau!-elq0 spnpo.Id aql l-eql puy oSl-e 1l!M no.!. sq12ua.IlS 2u!z!p!XO .I!aql Ol 2u!p.Io:>:>-e.Ian-el aql llu-e.I Ol nOA alq-eua 1l!M slua2-e 2u!z!p!XO uowwo:> OMl ql!M '-I pu-e _.18: 'sapH-eq OMl JO Suo!l:>-ea.I aql uo suoq-eA.Iasqo luanbasqns .Ino.!. sq12ua.IlS 2upnpa.I .I!aql Ol 2u!p.Io:>:>-esapH-eq aql pu-e sq12ua.IlS 2u!z!p!XO .I!aql Ol 2u!p.Io:>:>-esua201-eq aql llu-e.I Ol ayq-e aq 1l!M nOA 'CI pu-e '_.18: '-10) sapH-eq 2u!puodsa.I.Io:> aql uo sua2 -ol-eq asaql JO palJa aql 2u!A.lasqo A8: Slua2-e 2upnpa.I pu-e 2u!z!p!XO U!-el.Ia:> JO samlu-enb :>laWO!q:>!OlSWO.IJuoqnlos U! sa:>u-elsqns asaql a.I-eda.Id lHM no.!. 01':1 pu-e '1':.18: '1':10:sua201-eq aa.Iql JO suo!lnlos snoanb-e 2u-eda.Id Aq u!2aq 1l!M no.!.

o(gov UO!paS
'uoww-eD/2u!qq3:) lua2-e 2u!z!p!X0 aql Aq pau!-e2 pu-e lua2-e 2upnpa.I aql Aq lsol SA-eMl-ea.I-e SUO.Ipal::il lua2-e 2upnpa.I -e pu-e lua2-e 2u!z!p!XO u-e apnpu! lsnw Slu-el:>-ea.I aql '.IaAOa.I0W uo!l:>npa.I pu-e UO!l-eP!XOsnoau-ellnw!s JO SlS!SUO:> uoq:>-ea.I q:>-e3:sa.InwaJ uowwo:> awos puy u-e:>nOA 'SUO!l:>-ea.Iasaql JO .Iaqwnu -e a.I-edwo:> nOA uaqM 'as.IaA!p a.I-e SUO!l:>-ea.Iuoq:>npa.I-uoq-eP!XO q2noqllV q:>-ealq-e Aq SU!-els JO l-eAowa.I aql pu-e !wlY :>!qd-e.I2oloqd uo a2-ew! u-e JO UO!l-eW.IoJ aql !A.zan-eq s,anqow -oln-e u-e JO UO!lmado aql !auHos-e2 pu-e 'no 's-e2 l-e.Inl-eU 'l-eo:>JO uoqsnqwo:> aql apnpu! saldw-ex3: A-epA.zaAa Suo!l:>-ea.I uo!pnpa.I-uo!wP!XO .Ialuno:>ua aM.

uOnanp.IlUI

340

Experiment 19A

has its own characteristic color, depending on the concentration and thickness of the solution. Chlorine water is colorless to yellow; bromine water is yellow to red-brown; and iodine water is red-brown to brown. These halogens are also soluble in cyclohexane (C6H12),a substance that is itself insoluble in water. When cyclohexane is added to an aqueous solution of a halogen, two layers are formed. The upper layer is cyclohexane, because it is insoluble and less dense than water. A portion of the halogen passes from the aqueous layer to the upper cyclohexane layer (a process called extraction). A characteristic color is then imparted to this layer. The color of a halogen in cyclohexane differs somewhat from its color in an aqueous solution, as you will discover during the experiment. Reduction of a halogen (x2) yields halide ions (X-) according to the halfreaction.

Because the halogens are oxidizing agents, the halide ions are reducing agents. Compounds of the halides are colorless if the positive ions belong to either Group IA or Group IIA, as in Nal or CaCI2. Compounds of this type are ionic, so they are insoluble in cyclohexane. Reduction of other common oxidizing agents You will also encounter two other oxidizing agents in this experiment. These are KMn04 (potassium permanganate) and FeCI3 Reduction of purple Mn04 - can give either green Mn042- (manganate ion); brown-black Mn02, which will be a solid; or Mn2+,an ion that is pink but will be virtually colorless at the concentration found in this experiment. Reduction ofFe3+ will give Fe2+,a pale green ion that will be virtually colorless at the concentration found in this experiment. Concept of the experiment You will mix aqueous solutions of potential oxidizing and reducing agents in each part of this experiment. However, do not expect a reaction to occur in every mixture that you prepare. If a reaction occurs, there will be certain telltale signals. The formation or disappearance of the characteristic color of one of the halogens in a cyclohexane layer is usually a signal of a reaction in the aqueous layer. In some instances, color changes in the aqueous layer will also indicate that a reaction has occurred.

Procedure
Getting started 1. Obtain 3 large test tubes with stoppers for the halogen solutions, 3 small test tubes, and one piece of fine filter paper. 2. Label the large test tubes so that you will know which halogen each one contains. 3. Obtain directions for discarding the solutions that you use during the experiment.
Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

...
f:1oa,!l W 1"0 JO sdo.Ip g pU"BaqnllsallS.IY "saqnllsal "aqnllsal puo:>as aql Ol aql Ol touW)I W 1"0 JO do.Ip 1 PPV of: "saqnllsal aql A.Ip pU"BqS"BM. "I aql JO q:>"Ba 0lU! .I8:"BNW (;"0 JO sdo.Ip 91 a:>"Bld "(;

sluaJJv JJU!Z!P!XO UOWWO;) .lat[10 t[nm sU0!1;)'lJa.l JJuudwal1V

"SUO!l"BA.Iasqo .InOAP.IoJaU ".Ial"BM au!wo.Iq pU"B.Ial"BMaU!.I0IqJ ql!M I"BN W '17"0JO sdo.Ip 9 lsal 'saqnllsal aql 2u!A.IP pU"B2U!qS"BM.IalJ"B'All"BU!JI"L "suo!WA.Iasqo .InOA p.Io:>au ".Ial"BM au!po! pU"B.Ial"BMauoIqJ ql!M .I8:"BNW (;"0 JO sdo.Ip 01lsal 'UO!qS"BJI"B:>!lUap! uI "9 U"B "saqnllsal aql A.Ip pU"BqS"BM "g ".IaA"BI .Iaddn aql U! .I"Badd"B IEM papp"B nOA l"Bql ua20I"Bq aql JO .1010:> AIuO 'S.InJJO uo!p"Ba.I ou JI "Suo!l"BA.Iasqo .InOA p.IoJa.I pU"B'Anua2 aql P!MS .10 allBqs 'saqnl lsal asaql JO qJ"Ba Ol aU"BXaqopAJ JO 'lw 1 lnoq"B PPV "v au!po! JO sdO.Ip 01 pUB aqnllsallS.Ig "saqnllsal "auo puoJas aql Ol .Ial"BM aql Ol .IalBM aU!WO.Iq JO sdO.Ip 01 PPV of: (; JO qJBa U! IOBN W (;"0 JO sdO.Ip 01 aJBId "saqnllsal
sapnvt[

"(;

II"BWSaql A.Ip pUB qSBM. "I


suou;)va.l JJuudwal1V

t[nm suaJJolvt[)o

P.IoJaU "puno.!2llJBq -dB PInoqs ua20IBq A.IaAP!MS .10 allBqs "P.I!ql aql U! .IalBM SdO.Ip 91 'saqnllsal

".IOIOJ qJBa al!qM B lSU!B2B .IaABI S!ql Ma!A ".IaABI.Iaddn aql U! .IBad aql JO .IOIOJaqJ, "pa.I!nba.I aq Plnoqs .IaddolS oN "Anua2 pUB aqnl lsal qJBa Ol aUBxaqopAJ JO 'lw 1 lnoqB ppy au!po! JO sdO.Ip 91 pUB 'pUOJaS aql U! .IaWM aU!WO.Iq JO IIBWS aql JO auo U! .IalBM auoIq:> aql JO SdO.Ip 91 aJBId "8 "saqnllsal a2.IBI aql U! suoqnIos ua20IBq aql a.IOlS "L "InO aIqnlosU! aAOWa.I Ol (IBnuBw aql aas) UO!lB.IlIY Al!AB.!2 2u!sn .IalBM au!po! aql .IaWJI "9

S!ql Ol uoqJnp0.IluI

"UO!pBa.I JO aw.I aql p.IBla.I IEM UO!lnnp !.IalBM JO lunOWB pa.I!nba.I aql 2U!PpB a.IoJaq U!W 91 l!"BMpUB SaJUBlsqns asaql ppB 'a.IoJa.IaqJ, "PPB aql JO pUB SlUa2B 2U!Z!p!XO pUB 2upnpa.I aql JO suoq -B.IlUaJUOJ aql uo spuadap aw.I aqJ, "MOIS UO!pBa.I aql '.IalBM aU!WO.Iq .IOJl "g S! "lUa2B 2U!Z!p -!xO (V) pUB 'pa.I!nba.I J! .IaWM (8) 'pa.I!nba.I J! (tOS6H W goO) P!JB (;) 'lua2B 2u!Jnpa.I (1) :.IaWM aU!.I0IqJ .IoJ .Iap.Io 2u!MOIIoJ aql U! slua2Ba.I aql PPY .IaAawuap3: 'lw-9(;1 ".Iapu!IAJ pawnpB.I2 'lw-01 B U! (ayq!ssod J! 'pooq "B.Iapun) uoqnlos

"v

B 2u!sn 'llSBU qJBa a.IBda.Id of:


"(;

".IadBd 2m -q2!aM JO aJa!d B uo 6(IOO )BO JO SSBW pa.I!nba.I aql U!BlqO Ol aJuBIBq B as [l -O.IdnOAlBql suoqJa.I!p

"lUawu2!ssy A.IOlB.IoqBIa.Id aql U! pap!A aql Ol2u!p.IOJJB 61pUB '6.18:'610 JO suoqnlos a.IBda.Id "I
suaJJolvt[ at[l)o suounlos snoanbv JJuvda.ld

"lWlW!.Iadxa S!ql .su!.Inp paMoUB a.IU sawuU uado oN "alquwwuU S! auuxaqol;>AO :NOIJ..ilVO
:luaW!.Iadxa S!ql2unp asn nOA .IaAauaqM uonn"BJa.Id AlaJBs 2u!MOIIoJ aql .Iaqwawau

aUBxaqopAJ

"v

342

Experiment 19A

4. Add 5 drops of 3 M H2S04 to each test tube. 5. Add about 1 mL of cyclohexane to each test tube. Shake or swirl the test tubes very gently, and then record your observations for both layers. 6. Repeat Steps 1 through 5, using 8 drops of 0.4 M Nal instead of 15 drops of 0.2MNaBr. 7. Wash and dry one of the test tubes. 8. Add 8 drops of 0.4 M Nal, 5 drops of 6 M NaOH, 1 drop of 0.1 M KMn04, and about 1 mL of cyclohexane to this test tube. Shake or swirl very gently and record your observations for both layers. 9. Dispose of the halogen solutions according to the directions provided by your laboratory instructor.

Copyright Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

x
''17

"I
.(;
-

X
'9 '1

X
'g ~

81

-I

:(2) "(IOO)BO

JO SSBW JO SSBW

:(2) .IadBd

:.1opn.I'lsuI :uoqJas :S.1aqwaw WBa.L :aWBU lUapn'lS :as.rnoJ :a'lBO

....
348 Experiment 1.9A

3. Reactions of other common oxidizing agents in acidic solution Br


7.

I 9.

8.

10.

4. Reaction o{MnOl

with I in basic solution

I 11.

Questions
1. You have made 11 observations. Each one has been numbered. This question asks you to consider the first 10. Indicate those cases in which no reaction occurred. If a reaction occurred, write a balanced equation that is in accord with your observation.

(1)

(2)

continued
Copyrilfht

Houghton.

Mifflin

Company.

All rights

reserved.