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Introduction

Fonetika a fonologie 1B

What is the course about?

The student will get an overview of the English phonological system in comparison with Czech, will be acquainted with the structure of the English syllable, the basics of suprasegmental phenomena (word stress, sentence stress, rhythm and intonation) as well as aspects of connected speech such as linking, assimilation and elision. All of these are highly relevant to the process of teaching the language to future Czech teachers of English.

The aim of the lecture is to lay a sufficient theoretical foundation for a focused practical training in the seminar accompanying it. Attention will paid to the building of proper terminology and assistance given in the gradual development of the students linguistic thinking.

The course is aimed primarily at students of combined study programmes but is equally suitable for day students.

The syllabus of the course 1. English phonological system - introduction to the history 2. An overview of English consonants 3. An overview of English vowels 4. The structure of the English syllable 5. Word stress in English - basic rules 6. Aspects of connected speech I - linking and rhythm 7. Aspects of connected speech II assimilation 8. Aspects of connected speech III - elision 9. English intonation - basic intonation patterns and their use 10. English intonation and its functions

The format of the course The student will follow the instructions in Interaktivn osnova where all the materials, links, exercises and sources are placed. The structure of the course is twofold: even-numbered (2, 4, ...) lectures are in the form of contact sessions, supplied with on-line support and worksheets to print and bring to the lectures odd-numbered (1, 3, ...) lectures are entirely on-line (please excuse the occasional untidiness of the text, it's due to one of the imperfections of IS) At the end of each lecture the student will find the following sections: Self-study referring to the relevant chapters in the required course book Worksheet to print other worksheets and links The completion of the course: Colloquy = a written test (multiple-choice questions) will take place in the last session.

Bibliography Required study material ROACH, P. English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: CUP 1994. ISBN 0-521-40718-4 ROACH, P. A Little Encyclopaedia of Phonetics. Recommended study material KRMOV, M. Fonetika. Brno: Masarykova univerzita 2007. http://is.muni.cz/elportal/estud/ff/js07/fonetika/materialy/index.html FLETCHER, C. Pronunciation Dictionary: Study Guide. Harlow: Longman Group UK Ltd. 1990. ISBN 0 582 05386 2 GIMSON, A. C.. Gimson's pronunciation of English. Edited by Alan Cruttenden. 5th ed. London : Arnold 1994. ISBN 0-340-70021-1. JONES, D. Cambridge English Pronunciation Dictionary, edited by P. Roach et al. Cambridge: CUP 2006. ISBN 0-521-68087-5 OCONNOR, J. D. Better English Pronunciation. Cambridge: CUP 1991. ISBN 0-521-23152-3 UNDERHILL, A. Sound Foundations. Oxford: Heinemann English Language Teaching 1994. ISBN 0-43524091-9 URBANOV, L. A Handbook of English Phonetics and Phonology. Brno: Masaryk University 1998. ISBN 80-210-1728-92

Lecture 1
Phonetics and Phonology
FF1B

Lecture 1
INTRODUCTION History: Phonetics: o o o o see below the scientific study of speech, central concerns: the discovery of how speech sounds are produced (articulatory observation, kinaesthetic observation = trying to feel what is going on inside our vocal tract) how these are used in spoken language (discovering the range and variety of sounds used in meaningful speech, linguistic phonetics) how we can record speech sounds with written symbols (IPA = the International Phonetic Association and its phonetic alphabet, see Roach: 1995, pp. 40-41)) how we hear and recognize different sounds (auditory aspect of speech, acoustic phonetics)

Phonology: the study of the sound systems of languages, most basic activity = phonemic analysis (to establish what the phonemes and the phonemic inventory of the language are) o suprasegmental phonology: study of stress, rhythm and intonation - study of distinctive features, oppositions between phonemes, etc Phoneme: 20th cent., the fundamental unit of phonology, which was defined and used in many different ways in the o spoken language can be broken down into a string of sound units (phonemes) o there 44 phonemes in English o each language has a small, relatively fixed set of these o most phonemes can be put into groups (vowels x consonants, plosives x fricatives, voiced x unvoiced, etc.) o how can we establish what the phonemes are: phonemes are contrastive and we must find cases where the difference between two words is dependent on the difference between two phonemes, eg. the difference between bit and bid depends on the final consonant and so /t/ and /d/ are different phonemes o minimal pairs: pairs of words that differ in just one phoneme (eg. pin x bin, free x three, and x end, etc.) o for phonemic transcription we use phonemic symbols in //, these are based on IPA, but unlike in the phonetic transcription [ ] they do not have to indicate precise phonetic quality, therefore we use far fewer of them

o there are as many phonemic symbols as there are phonemes in the language Allophone: a phonemic variant o a phoneme may be pronounced in many different ways, o eg. the /r/ sounds in ray and tray are the same sound (ie the same phoneme) but in reality, they are very different, in ray /r/ = voiced non-fricative, in tray /r/ = unvoiced and fricative; in phonemic transcription we would use the same symbol /r/ but we know that the allophones of /r/ include the voiced non-fricative sound and the unvoiced fricative one; we would indicate these by using two different phonetic symbols in [ ]. The production of speech sounds: ( see Roach: 1994, pp 8-10) Received Pronunciation (RP): o the accent of British English usually chosen for the purposes of description and teaching, although it is in fact only spoken by a small minority of the population; o also known as Oxford accent or BBC English o historical reasons for the use of RP as a model: in the first half of 20th cent basically any English person qualified to teach at a university or write textbooks would have been educated at private schools, and RP was (and partly still is) the accent of the privately educated, o reasons for its use today: it is widely used in quality broadcasting, it is claimed not to belong to any particular region (although it is much more widespread in London and the S-E of England than anywhere else), it has become accepted as a common currency almost everyone in Britain knows it and understands it; o its American counterpart = General American, has neither a particularly social or regional character. o Both of these varieties of Present-Day English are treated as equal in importance within the English-speaking world. Self-study English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach:

Introduction The production of speech sounds The phoneme

Lecture 2
Phonetics and Phonology FF1B

Lecture 2 Worksheet
CLASSIFICATION OF SOUNDS - CONSONANTS

This is an overview of the consonant phonemes in English (and the key to ex. 4):

Glottal stop / / Though frequently used by speakers of RP (especially in rapid colloquial speech), the glottal stop is not considered a significant sound in that it cannot change the meaning of a word. Thus it is not given phonemic status and does not figure on the phonemic chart. The glottal stop is a plosive produced by a complete block to the air stream at the glottis. The air pressure is then suddenly released. The stop itself is perceived as a silence beginning with the sudden cessation of the previous sound and ended by the sudden onset of the following sound. It can be described as an unvoiced glottal plosive (or stop), and is denoted by the symbol //. The glottal stop can be used: 1. to give emphasis to a syllable beginning with a vowel, eg Am I? /m a/, Its easy! /ts i:zi/; 2. between adjacent vowels belonging to different syllables (instead of a glide), eg co-operate /kpret/; 3. to avoid an intrusive /r/, eg I saw it /... t/ 4. to replace an unvoiced plosive, mostly /t/ but also /p,k/ at the end of words, eg what /w/, shock //, etc. You will notice the occurrence of // in authentic listening material and amongst many native speakers. It is worth practising in context at the same time as practising the articulation it is replacing. Do not forget though that it is a common feature of rapid speech and would sound unnatural when speaking slowly and carefully. Self-study English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach:

Voicing and consonants (+ Written exercises) Fricatives and affricates (+ Written exercises) Nasals and other consonants (+ Written exercises)

Lecture 3

Phonetics and Phonology FF1B Lecture 3


CLASSIFICATION OF THE SOUNDS OF ENGLISH II VOWELS Sounds are all produced in the vocal tract. The vocal tract refers to the parts of the body that contribute to the production of vocal sounds: the lungs, larynx, oral cavity (mouth), lips and nose. Sounds are divided into vowels and consonants. Vowels are made by voiced air passing through different mouth-shapes, there is no obstruction to the flow of air; the differences in the shape of the mouth are caused by different positions of the tongue and of the lips. Vowels must be learned by LISTENING AND IMITATING ! ! ! Phonetic criteria Phonetic (=articulatory) criteria:

2 positions of the tongue:

A. Vertical position of the tongue a) Close b) Close-mid c) Open-mid d) Open B. Horizontal position of the tongue a) Front b) Central c) Back

3 positions of the lips:

A. Rounded B. Spread C. Neutral (front vowels are generally unrounded, back vowels are rounded) Cardinal vowels - were devised by Daniel Jones in the 20th cent, - represent a reliable system for the classification of vowels, a standard reference system according to which vowels of any language can be compared and specified, - they correspond to the utmost tongue positions which equal the highest degree of a certain quality (frontness, highness, etc.)

Discovery activity

The general aim of discovery activities is to experience the auditory, visual and physical aspects of sounds. Look at the chart of phonemic symbols and try to pronounce individual sounds (ie monophthongs, difthongs and consonants). To make this experience more vivid there are 3 kinds of feedback you can give yourself: 1. kinesthetic feedback: the internal physical sensation of touch and of muscle movement in your throat, mouth, tongue and lips, etc; 2. auditory feedback: what you hear, externally through the air, and internally through your head (you can even block your ears with your fingers when you speak); 3. visual feedback: any physical movement connected with the production of the sound that you can see in yourself or in others (its very helpful to have a pocket mirror available). You can also deepen your observations by making use of three kinds of voicing, each of which show different aspects of articulation:

speaking aloud whispering mouthing silently

Self-study English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach:


English short vowels (+ Written exercises) Long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs (+ Written exercises)

Lecture 4
Self-study English Phonetics and Phonology by Peter Roach:

Strong and weak syllables (+ Written exercises) Stress in simple words (+ Written exercises) Complex word stress (+ Written exercises)