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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Energy may be defined as the ability to do work. Interchangeability between work and heat is an important subject in thermodynamics. When different forms of energy are considered, it is recognized that while all are convertible to heat, some are more easily convertible to work than others. The convertibility to work is measured by engineers and thermodynamicists by the concept of availability and entropy.

Figure 1.1 shows the various forms of energy that occur in flow systems 1 . It is interesting to note that the various forms of categorical divisions are all binary.

In thermodynamics, when various systems are considered, energy as such is an extensive property. That is the one that depends on the extent of the mass considered. When energy balances are performed on a steady-state flow system, on the other hand, the energy quantities are regarded on a per mass basis, which is an intensive property.

1.1 EARTH'S ENERGY RESOURCES

The energy resources of the earth may be broadly classified into two categories; the fossil fuels and the geophysical energy resources (Figure 1.2) 1 .

The fossil fuels are, in general, found in liquid, gas (or vapor), or solid phases. If they are liquid, they are called crude oil. If gaseous, they are called natural gas. When solid, they are called coal. The fossil fuels sometimes occur in a semi-solid state or an extremely viscous and heavy liquid form embedded in the porous matrix of sand and shales. These are called oil shale and tar sands.

1.1.1 What is Natural Gas ?

Natural gas occurs in subsurface rock formations in association with oil (associated gas) or on its own (non-associated gas). Roughly 60 percent of the natural gas reserves is non-associated.

The main constituent of natural gas is methane. The remainder may contain various amounts of the higher hydrocarbon gases (ethane, propane, butane, etc.) and non-hydrocarbon gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, helium, and argon. Table 1.1 2 lists the components of a natural gas whereas Table 1.2 shows the composition of Hamitabat and Degirmenköy natural gas fields of TPAO 3 .

Although natural gas occurs under pressure in porous rock beneath the earth's surface, often it is in solution with crude oil or condensate. Then it may be described as the volatile portion of petroleum.

Natural gas is primarily used as fuel for industrial and residential applications. An increasing share of the natural gas production, however, is being used as feedstock for the chemical industry.

The proven world gas reserves at the end of 1999 are estimated at about 146.43 trillion cubic meters (5171.8 trillion cubic feet) which corresponds to 131.79 thousand million tonnes oil-equivalent (mtoe). (Proved oil reserves at the end of 1999 are estimated about 140.4 thousand million tonnes) By comparison, the reserves/production (R/P) ratio of the proven world reserves of gas is higher than oil`s R/P ratio (Figure 1.3) 4 .

It is expected that in the decades to come natural gas will gain prominence among the world's energy resources. Higher energy prices of oil (Figure 1.4) 4 will stimulate exploration activities and permit exploitation of gas accumulations that are currently non-commercial. Figures 1.5 - 1.8 show reserve and trade statistics of natural gas at the end of 1999 4 .

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Table 1.1 Components of typical natural gases 2 .

HYDROCARBON

NON-HYDROCARBON

Component

Mole %

Component

Mole %

Methane

70 - 98

Nitrogen

trace - 15

Ethane

1 - 10

Carbon dioxide *

trace - 1

Propane

trace - 5

Hydrogen sulfide *

trace - occasionally

Butane

trace - 2

Helium

up to 5 (usually none)

Pentane

trace - 1

   

Hexane

trace - ½

   

Heptane+

trace (usually none)

   

* Occasionally natural gases are found which are predominately carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide.

Table 1.2 Chemical composition of Hamitabat Natural Gas (mole %) 3 .

Component

HAMITABAT

DEGIRMENKÖY

Nitrogen

0.77

1.58

Carbon dioxide

0.08

0.18

Methane

95.48

89.47

Ethane

2.39

5.39

Propane

0.72

1.89

i-butane

0.17

0.40

n-butane

0.21

0.62

i-pentane

0.08

0.28

n-pentane

0.10

0.19

The natural gas industry may be divided into five main subdivisions.

¸ Drilling and discovery of petroleum deposits.

¸ Production from reservoirs.

¸ Surface separation or processing plants.

¸ Transportation and distribution of natural gas to market.

¸ Underground storage of natural gas near the market.

The natural gas engineer requires data on the behavior of natural gas and associated liquids so that he can predict the properties, such as density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity, needed in the design of pipelines, gas wells, meters and processing equipment.

¸ Vapor-liquid phase separations among the constituents become complex because of the multi- component systems involved, and study of these is important background for process design.

¸ The flow of gas through porous media governs the recovery of natural gas from reservoirs and controls the capacity of individual wells.

¸ Water-hydrocarbon phase relations are specific to the natural gas industry, because natural gas and water may form solid hydrates above 0 C.

¸ Knowledge of the behavior of natural gas under pressure is basic to engineering in the five areas just described.

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1.2 THE GAS SITUATION AND NATURAL GAS MARKETS IN TURKEY

In general, the economy of Turkey is heavily dependent on imported fuels, particularly oil. Until 1987, the role of natural gas in the primary energy consumption of Turkey was not worth mentioning, accounting for only 0.5-1.0 %.

In 1986, the total primary energy consumption of Turkey was about 39.3 million tonnes oil equivalent of which almost 35 million tonnes of oil equivalent was commercial energy. Approximately 52% of the total commercial energy consumption was oil origin while the share of natural gas in the total primary energy consumption was about 0.9 %. Figure 1.9 shows the change in primary energy consumption of Turkey 4 . The share of the natural gas in primary energy consumption of Turkey reached to a value of 14.2 % by the end of 1999 4 (Figure 1.10).

The natural gas reserves of Turkey, located basically in Thrace and southeast regions, have rather limited capacities and annual output is about 450 million m 3 . The natural gas fields of Turkey in 1996 are given in Table 1.3 5 . Table 1.4 illustrates the original gas in place and recoverable gas of these reserves at the end of 1996 5 .

The Turkish Government signed in 1984 a frame agreement with the USSR for the import of natural gas for a period of 25 years. After that, in 1986, a contract between SOYUZGASEXPORT (USSR) and BOTAS was signed providing for natural gas purchases beginning in 1987.

In 1986, the contract for the construction of a natural gas transmission system consisting of a main pipeline from the Bulgaria border to Ankara through Hamitabat, Ambarli, Istanbul, Gemlik, Bursa, Bozüyük, and Eskisehir and the first compressor station was awarded. The transmission pipeline reached in Ankara in the summer of 1988. The total length of the pipeline on the Turkish territory is about 850 km.

Figure 1.11 shows gas imports of Turkey in 1999. Approximately 9 billion m 3 of natural gas were imported from the Russia through the transmission line. Turkey also imported 3.18 billion m 3 of natural gas in the form of Algeria (3.10 billion m 3 ) and Nigeria and the share of the natural gas in primary energy consumption of Turkey has reached to14.2 %. The change in natural gas consumption of Turkey between 1986 and 1999 is shown in Figure 1.12 4 .

REFERENCES

1. Tek, M.R., Underground Storage of Natural Gas, Gulf Publishing Company-Book Division, Houston 1987.

2. McCain, W.D. Jr., The Properties of Petroleum Fluids, PennWell Books,1990

3. Personal Communication, TPAO.

4. ---, BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2000.

5. ---, PIGM, Petroleum Activities in 1996, T.C. Petrol Isleri Genel Müdürlügü Dergisi, No 41.

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Table 1.3 Natural Gas Fields of Turkey 5 .

Field

Discovery date

Specific gravity

TPAO

   

Dodan(CO2)

1965

1.360

Dodan(CO2)

1969

1.270

Dodan(CO2)

1969

1.406

Hamitabat

1970

0.590

Kumrular

1970

0.601

Çamurlu

1975

0.646

Çamurlu (CO2)

1977

-

G.Dinçer

1982

0.859

Umurca

1984

0.625

G.Hazro

1986

-

K.Marmara

1988

0.603

Karacaoglan

1989

0.615

Degirmenköy (S)

1994

0.630

Karaçali

1995

0.628

Degirmenköy (O)

1996

0.591

SHELL

   

Katin

1972

0.740

Barbes D.

1984

0.750

POLMAK

   

Kandamis

1985

0.573

Bayramsah

1987

0.809

THRACE B.

   

Hayrabolu

1990

-

Table 1.4 Natural Gas Reserves of Turkey at the End of 1996 (thousand cum) 5

Companies

Original gas in place

Recoverable gas

Cumulative

Remaining

production

recoverable gas

TPAO

13

862 520

9 125 852

2

713 804

6 412 048

N.V. Turkse Shell

1

808 175

1 248 205

 

-

1 284 205

POLMAK

189 723

126

179

 

-

 

126

179

Thrace Basin

1

139 750

980

187

 

4 398

 

975

790

TOTAL

17

000 168

11 480 423

2

718 202

8

762 221

4

5

5

70 Oil Gas 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Years R/P 1970 1972 1974
70
Oil
Gas
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Years
R/P
1970
1972
1974
1976
1978
1980
1982
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
1999

Figure 1.3 World years of reserve remaining 4

6 LNG (Japan) 5 NG (EU) Oil (OECD) 4 3 2 All prices are cif
6
LNG (Japan)
5
NG (EU)
Oil (OECD)
4
3
2
All prices are cif prices
1
cif = cost+insurance+freight
0
1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
Price (USD/MMBTU)

Years

Figure 1.4 Energy prices of oil and natural gas 4 .

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Distribution of Reserves 1999

0.032 0.028 0.221 0.024 0.031 0.041 0.040 0.058 0.020 0.021 0.157 USA Venezuela Russian Federation
0.032
0.028
0.221
0.024
0.031
0.041
0.040
0.058
0.020
0.021
0.157
USA
Venezuela
Russian Federation
Turkmenistan
Iran
Iraq
Qatar
Saudi Arabia
UAE
Algeria
Nigeria
Rest of the World

0.329

Figure 1.5 Reserve distribution at the end of 1999 4 .

Main Gas Exporters by Pipeline (1999)

0.072 0.093 0.263 0.097 0.348 0.126 Canada Netherlands Norway Russian Federation Algeria Rest of the
0.072
0.093
0.263
0.097
0.348
0.126
Canada
Netherlands
Norway
Russian Federation
Algeria
Rest of the World

Figure 1.6 Main gas exporters by pipeline (1999) 4

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Main LNG Exporters (1999)

0.014 0.013 0.017 0.065 0.165 0.057 0.312 0.081
0.014
0.013 0.017
0.065
0.165
0.057
0.312
0.081

0.068

0.207

USAAustralia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

AustraliaUSA Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

Trinidad TobagoUSA Australia Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

BruneiUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

QatarUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

IndonesiaUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar UAE Malaysia Algeria Others

UAEUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia Malaysia Algeria Others

MalaysiaUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Algeria Others

AlgeriaUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Others

OthersUSA Australia Trinidad Tobago Brunei Qatar Indonesia UAE Malaysia Algeria

Figure 1.7 Main LNG exporters (1999) 4

Main LNG Importers (1999)

0.049 0.042 0.014 0.037 0.095 0.026 0.066 0.029 0.640 USA Belgium France Spain Italy Turkey
0.049
0.042
0.014
0.037
0.095
0.026
0.066
0.029
0.640
USA
Belgium
France
Spain
Italy
Turkey
Japan
South Korea
Taiwan

Figure 1.8 Main LNG importers (1999) 4 .

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90 80 76.2 73.2 70.8 70 67.6 61.5 58.6 60 57.5 54.8 49.6 50.1 49.5
90
80
76.2
73.2
70.8
70
67.6
61.5
58.6
60
57.5
54.8
49.6
50.1
49.5
48.4
50
45.2
39.3
40
30
20
10
0
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Primary energy consumption (mtoe)

Years

Figure 1.9 Primary Energy Consumption of Turkey (1999) 4 .

Coal

0.438

Hydro

0.039 Oil 0.381
0.039
Oil
0.381

NG

0.142

Figure 1.10 Primary Energy Consumption of Turkey by Fuel (1999) 4 .

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Gas Imports of Turkey-1999 (Billion cum)

3.18 8.82 Pipeline LNG
3.18
8.82
Pipeline
LNG

Figure 1.11 Gas imports of Turkey (1999) 4 .

14 12 12 9.9 10 9.4 9 8 6.8 6.5 6 5 4.5 4.4 4
14
12
12
9.9
10
9.4
9
8
6.8
6.5
6
5
4.5
4.4
4
3.4
2.9
2
1.1
0.7
0.4
0
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
Gas consumption (billion m 3 )

Years

Figure 1.12 Natural gas consumption of Turkey 4 .

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