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Water treatment Plant design

Introduction
We all know that , fresh water supply on earth is very limited. The increasing withdrawl of surface, underground sources to meet the demand of increasing population. On the other hand unstinted discharge of untreated wastes to ground waters. Fresh water availability rapidly dreasing, resulting grave health problems. Water is a precious commodity. Most of the water on earth is Sea water. Even available fresh water does contain significant levels of minerals, salts. Clean drinking water is a basic human need. Unfortunately majority of people still face lack of proper access to clear drinking water in developing countries like India. The rapid growth of population has exerted pressure on potable water demand , which requires exploration of raw water sources and Treatment and distribution systems. Drinking water standards have been formulated from time to time by burue of Indian standards (BIS),on the guidelines ofCentral Health and public health and environmental engineering organization (CPHEE) as recommoded by World Health Organisation, are given separately. The conventional Water treatment plant process are Aeration, Coagulation, Floculation, Sedamentation/ Clarification, Filtration,and disinfection. Finally production of biologically, chemically safe water is the primary goal of Designing of WTP. The sequence of water treatment units in WTP more or les s same as the main objectives are removal of turbidity and disinfection to kill the pathogens.

. AERATION: The first treatment in a conventional WTP is Aeration,Where water is brought in contact with atmospheric air to fresh surface water, and also oxidizes some of the compounds.

COAGULATION: Second treatment is chemical addition or flash mixing, where coagulant (mostly Alum) is thoroughly mixed with raw water by

way of which neutralization of charge particles occurs.This is done by Mechanical Flash Mixer equipment.

FLOCULATION The water is flocculated i.e. bigger floc formation is encouraged which enhances settlement . This process is done by Mechanical floculaters.

SEDIMENTATION/CLARIFICATION: The flocculated water is taken to Sedimentation or Clarification zone for removal of flocs whereit is settled at the bottom of the chamber. This si done by Mechanical equipment combined Clarifloclator.

FILTRATION: The clarified water is taken to Filter beds , where remaining turbidity is removed.

DISINFECTION: Lastly the filtered water is disinfected mostly with chlorine , and stored in Reservoirs, from where it is taken to distribution systems.