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Plumbing Kitchen Bath Dictionary

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to (fun) Toilet Terminology picture - to plumbing standards info - to other plumbing abbreviations Why is the word "Dictionary" listed in the Dictionary?

Our motto and goal: "Under-promise...Over-perform."

PlumbingSupply.com is pleased to offer this and other pages that provide information on plumbing products or the installation and/or care of many of the products offered on our site. If there is something you'd like to learn about and you don't find it addressed on our site, please email us and we will answer your questions, to the best of our ability, and add that information to our site for other customers. ABS: Generally, in the plumbing industry (it is used a lot in the auto industry because it is so durable) this is black colored plastic pipe and fittings used in drainage, sewer, waste and vents. ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) pipe/fittings and also PVC (see below) plastics have replaced much of the cast iron, lead and steel pipes formerly used for DWV. Important note is that no solvent cement (and primer) can totally "glue" (solvent weld) ABS to PVC plastic. Under normal conditions, quality ABS (when virgin resins are used) will not crack, chip or peel. ACRYLIC: A thermoplastic used on the surface of bathtubs and whirlpools. Generally comes in sheets and is formed to the shape of the mold (tubs/showers) in the factory. Generally fiberglass is added to the back for strength. ADA: Governmental guidelines. ADA stands for Americans with Disability Act. These guidelines do tend to change over time. When related to public plumbing, kitchen and bath the intent of the act/rules is to make restrooms, and other public sanitary facilities more easily accessible to those who have some disability such as being blind. Braille signs and grab bars are just two examples of products that we sell largely due to ADA rules. ADAPTOR: A fitting that joins two different types of pipes together. Or/Also a fitting that joins threaded with none threaded pipe (as in: female adaptor or male adaptor). AGA: Imprinted on many gas valves and appliances. It is the American Gas Association rating. AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE:

A mechanical one way valve used in place of traditional non mechanical (very reliable) vents. It is to allow air to enter waste piping and equalizing pressures. Vents are used to preserve the seal of trap in plumbing fixtures. Also known as auto trap vents. AIR GAP: Air-filled space allowing contaminated water to discharge freely, preventing the contaminated water from ever siphoning back into the potable water supply. ANGLE STOP: An "emergency" stop (valve) that is usually installed before the water supply line (below) to toilets and faucets. Angle stops are to be shut off in case of an emergency or repair and are generally not designed for daily on and off usage. The difference between a "straight stop" and an "angle stops" is that the "angle" stop changes direction by 90 degrees while a straight stop is like most valves and does not change direction. ANODE ROD: Sacrificial rod used mainly in water heaters. It helps protect the lining of and generally lengthens the life of a water heater. BALLCOCK: Also known as a float valve, the ballcock controls the flow of water into a gravity-operated toilet tank. When the toilet is flushed the float ball drops with the water level causing the ballcock to open, this allows water to reenter the tank. As the water level rises it lifts the float ball causing the ballcock to close once the tank is completely filled. BALL PASSAGE: The ball passage indicates the size of a ball that can pass through a toilet's trapway. It also refers to the size of the trapway of a toilet; the trap size is to be 1/8" larger than the ball that can pass through it. BASIN: Generally circular, vessel with slopping or curving sides for holding water for washing. BASKET STRAINERS: Generally a basket shaped strainer drain receptacle with holes, for sinks. Used to catch large food particles to prevent them from entering the drainage system. BIBB: aka bibcock or hose bibb - typically a faucet with nozzle bent downward. Also called: outside/outdoor faucet/spigot or garden faucet. BIDET: Pronounced B'Day, is a plumbing fixture similar to a toilet bowl (but no solids are to be deposited in a bidet) used for washing genitals and posterior areas of the body. It is floor mounted, usually next to a toilet, and incorporates a washing basin, faucet and sprayer. Bidets are very popular in some countries such as France and have finally been "discovered" in the U.S.. A bidet is commonly equipped with a hot and cold mixing valve to provide warm water for washing.

BISQUE: Refers to the finish on the unglazed areas of vitreous china fixtures. BTU: Abbreviation for "British Thermal Unit"; a measurement of heat equal to the amount of heat necessary to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit at sea level. (One BTU is equal to about 250 calories.) CAST IRON: Formerly used for drainage, sewers, waste, and vent pipe and fittings. Very durable and heavy metal. Today, many top quality bath tubs are still made with cast iron. Pipes and fittings today are generally only used for commercial applications where fire ratings are involved. CENTERSET: A style of bathroom lavatory faucet having combined spout and handles. Handles are 4" from center of handle-to-handle. Also a single handle faucet installed on 4" center-to-center faucet holes. CHINA: In the plumbing industry that generally refers to porcelain china used in making toilets and lavatory sinks. China is a material that is made from clay and is glazed and high fired in a kiln. The finish is very hard and smooth. An excellent product for toilets and lavatories. CLOSE-COUPLED TOILET: A two-piece toilet. The toilet tank is separate from the toilet bowl. This is the most common type of toilet. CLOSET: Generally means "water closet" (aka: toilet). A closet auger is a toilet auger which is used to clear toilet stoppages. COMMODE: Generally also stands for toilet. CONSOLE LAV: A table-like fixture with an integral lavatory. The back is fixed to a wall and the front is supported by consoles (brackets) or legs. COUPLING: A fitting that joins two pieces of pipe (or other fittings) together. CW: Cold water CPVC: Chlorinated PolyVinyl Chloride is a plastic product designed for drinking water at temperatures up to 180 degrees (where code permits). Comes in straight or rolls, generally off white colored (orange for fire sprinklers).

CWT: Abbreviation for Copper Water Tube (refers to nominal pipe size). CYCLE TIME: Refers to the amount of time it takes a toilet to complete it's flush cycle, from the instant it is flushed until the water supply shuts off. DAM: Refers to the seal caused by water in a trapway. DIVERTER: Valves which direct water to various outlets. They are used in showers, tub & shower combinations, bidets, Roman tub fillers and kitchen faucet sprayers. DWV: Abbreviation for Drainage, Waste & Vent systems. Not for drinking water. DYNAMIC PRESSURE: The pressure when the water IS flowing. EFFLUENT: Liquid waste, potentially hazardous, generally refers to liquid waste from septic tanks. ELBOW (aka ELL): A fitting with two openings that change directions 90 degrees. ELONGATED: The shape of the front of a toilet bowl. Generally about 2" longer than the standard "round front" bowl. ENAMEL: An opaque vitreous composition applied by fusion to the surface of metal fixtures such as cast iron and pressed steel tubs, lavatories and sinks. Please do not confuse enameled steel with enameled cast iron. Cast iron with enameling is much more durable. ESCUTCHEON: A flange or shield beneath a faucet handle. This part covers the faucet stem and the hole in the fixture or wall. FHT: Abbreviation for female hose threads. FSWT: Female sweat connection FIBERGLASS: Glass in a fibrous form used in making products such as boats and bathtubs.

FINISHES: The following finish abbreviations are generally used by many (not all) faucet manufacturers : BC Brushed Chrome BN Brushed Nickel CP Polished Chrome PB Polished Brass SN Satin Nickel WH White FIP(S): Abbreviation for threaded fitting - with threads inside the fitting. FITTING: A part used to join two sections of pipe or other fittings together. An example of a fitting is an elbow, bushing, or coupling. FIXTURE: Broad term in plumbing/kitchen/bath that could be an entire toilet, sink, tub, etc OR it could be the devices that provide a supply of water. FLAPPER: Part of the flush valve that seals water inside the toilet tank or allows passage of water into the toilet bowl during the flush cycle. Also known as a flush ball. FLOAT BALL: Connected to the ballcock inside the toilet tank. The float ball rises and falls with the water levels causing the ballcock to open and close. FLUSHOMETER: A toilet valve that delivers water and then shuts off after it meters a certain amount of water. FRICTION LOSS: Pressure lost in a pipe due to turbulence created by water traveling through pipe. GAS COCK: Gas valve. GPF: Gallons Per Flush. Today's toilets, per federal law, are only allowed to deliver 1.6gpf or less. In many years past, toilets flushed as much as 7-8gpf. GPH: Gallons Per Hour. GPM:

Gallons Per Minute. GRAY WATER: Waste water from all fixtures except toilets. HANDSHOWER: A showerhead designed with a handle that is connected to a water supply via a flexible hose. HEAD: The water pressure exerted by gravity (2.31 feet of height means/delivers one pound of head). Also, slang for toilet. HOSE BIBB: A garden or outdoor faucet. Also, a faucet that delivers water with a hose connection at the end of the spout (such as to a washing machine). H.P.: Abbreviation for "horse power." H.T.: Abbreviation for "hose threads." Garden hose threads are different than standard pipe threads. They are much more coarse and are 0.75 - 11.5 NH (normal hose). The 0.75 is the nominal diameter (3/4 inch) and the 11.5 is the number of threads per inch. HW: Hot water I.D.: Abbreviation for "inside diameter. In plumbing most pipes are sized by "nominal" (approx.) I.D. which means that when plumbers say 3/4" pipe for example it generally means that the outside diameter is wider than 3/4". IPS: Generally an abbreviation for "iron pipe size." Sometimes it means male pipe threads. IPT: Generally an abbreviation for "iron pipe thread." Sometimes it means male pipe size. LAVATORY ("LAV"): A fixed bowl or basin with running water and drainage for washing. Many use the word "Lavatory" as meaning a bathroom. LWCO: Low water cut off. MALE THREADS:

Male threads thread into female threads. Female fittings openings are larger than male fittings. Male fittings fit into/inside female fittings. MHT: Abbreviation for male hose threads. MINI-WIDESPREAD: A special style of bathroom lavatory faucet having separate spout and handles. But designed small enough that it will fit 4" center-to-center faucet holes. MIP: Abbreviation for male pipe threads. NPS: Abbreviation for National Pipe Straight Threads Standard (IPS) NPT: Abbreviation for National Pipe Tapered Threads Standard (FIP, MIP) ONE-PIECE TOILET: The toilet tank and bowl are not separate, but make one single fixture. Less common and usually more expensive, but generally a more stylish toilet. OD: Abbreviation for "outside diameter." The measurement of the diameter of the pipe as taken from the outside edge. OVALITY: The difference between the most wide OD and the most narrow OD on a pipe or tube. Found be subtracting the minimum outside diameter from the maximum outside diameter on a pipe. OVERFLOW TUBE: If the ballcock malfunctions this vertical tube inside the toilet tank will direct water into the toilet bowl. This is the part that can sometimes make your toilet sound like it is constantly running, which is an indication that there is a problem with your ballcock. PEX: Abbreviation for Polyethylene Plastic Material (stronger than, P.E.) PIPES: Unlike tubes, the measurement of a pipe (i.e. 2") roughly references the inside diameter (ID) of the pipe and not the outside diameter (OD). A 2" Sch 40 pipe actually has an OD of 2.375", a wall thickness of . 154" and an ID of 2.067". PR: Abbreviation for "Pressure Regulator." Generally means water pressure regulator. Most codes require one if water pressures ever exceeds 80 pounds at any time on domestic potable water systems inside a

structure. POC: Point of connection POP-UP ASSEMBLY: The drain mechanism of a faucet installed on a lavatory. The drain stopper "pops" up and down. PORCELAIN: A white ceramic ware that consists of quartz, kaolin, and feldspar. It is fired at high temperature on steel or cast iron to make the surface of some bathtubs, kitchen sinks and bathroom lavatories. Many times the word "porcelain" also refers to porcelain china which is a ceramic product with porcelain glaze. PORCELAIN ENAMEL: Vitreous enamel. Many times the words "porcelain enamel" refers to pressed steel (not recommended by us) products with a porcelain glaze. When purchasing "fixtures" we like to recommend either a porcelain glaze on top of ceramic, or porcelain glaze on top of cast iron. POTABLE: In reference to water is that "potable" means it is drinkable water. Water that is suitable for human consumption. POWER VENT: Refers to mechanical venting in water heating. Generally (not always) water heaters that use power venting are more efficient than regular draft venting. PRESSURE BALANCE VALVE: A shower mixing valve that automatically maintains balance between hot and cold water supplies by immediately regulating fluctuations in pressure. As a result the outlet temperature remains constant. PRIMING JET: The opening in the toilet bowl that allows the flow of water from the tank, designed to push waste through the trapway. PRV: Pressure reducing valve. PULL OUT SPRAY: When referring to a kitchen faucet this is a retractable hose/sprayhead. We'd like to mention that hoses used with a pull-out spray can turn out to be a high replaceable item. If you have a pull out sprayer be sure to pull it out straight each and every time. Do not kink the hose because if you do, no matter what brand, you could be ordering replacement hoses frequently. PVC: Polyvinyl Chloride is used today for cold water piping (outside/underground) as well as for sewers, drains, wastes and venting pipes and fittings. Flexible PVC pipe is also available and quite practical for spas, pools and sprinklers. PVC in the plumbing business is generally white but sometimes comes in

other colors (in our industry grey is the second most popular PVC color). PVD: Physical Vapor Deposition (used mostly with polished brass or gold finishes). This is a modern plating process used in faucet manufacturing. Vaporized zirconium reacts with nitrogen and other gases to form a VERY durable plated surface. Unlike former days when polished brass would easily tarnish over time, polished brass finishes with PVD are extremely durable and won't generally tarnish or discolor. REDUCER: A fitting that connects pipes of different sizes together. REFILL TUBE: Carries water from the ballcock to the overflow tube after the siphon break in order to refill the toilet bowl. RIM HOLES: Small holes along the underside of the toilet bowl rim in which water flows out of, resulting in a rinsing of the toilet bowl's inner surface. RISER: A vertical assembly of pipe and fittings that generally distributes water upward. ROUGH-IN DIMENSIONS: Rough-in dimensions give you the necessary information to install basic plumbing, electrical venting or other similar systems before installing the fixture. Many times a dimensional drawing is available that provides this information. ROUND FRONT: The standard shape of the front of a toilet bowl. Generally bout 2" shorter than the optional "elongated" bowl. SCHEDULE (SCH): The "Schedule" designation tells you how thick the wall is for any size of pipe with the higher schedule numbers meaning a thicker wall. The most common schedules are Sch 40 and Sch 80, but the actual wall thickness varies depending on the size of the pipe. SIPHONING: Suction that takes place when water pressure drops which causes water or waste to be pulled through a descending outlet channel. SIPHON BREAK: Recognized by the gurgling sound that takes place at the end of a toilet flush, the siphon break is when air is re-introduced into the trapway, causing the siphoning action to cease. SDR: Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) used for determining the minimum wall thickness for pipe. SDR is found by dividing the outside diameter (OD) of the pipe by the wall thickness measurement. To find the

minimum wall thickness of a pipe you simply divide the OD by the SDR. STATIC PRESSURE: The pressure when NO water is flowing. STRAIGHT STOP: An "emergency" stop (valve) that is usually installed before the water supply line (below) to toilets and faucets. Angle stops are to be shut off in case of an emergency or repair and are generally not designed for daily on and off usage. The difference between a "straight stop" and an "angle stops" is that the "angle" stop changes direction by 90 degrees while a straight stop is like most valves and does not change direction. STREET ELBOW: An elbow (90 degree bend) fitting that has a male end (same size as pipe) on one side and a female end (pipe fits inside this size) on the other side. T-BOLT: Also known as toilet or closet bolts, T-bolts are 2 anchor bolts that attach a toilet to the floor. TAILPIECE: The section of drain fitting that protrudes into the trap. TANK: Holds flush water for your fixture. On typical toilets the tank includes the ballcock, trip valve and flush lever. TANK BALL: The moving part of the flush valve that seals water in or allows water out of the tank during the flush cycle. Also known as the flapper, flush ball, stopper and seal disk. TANK BOLTS: Three bolts that hold together the tank, gasket and bowl of the toilet. TANK COVER LOCK: Device to prevent damage to and removal of the toilet tank cover and contents of the tank. TAP: Tap is synonymous with faucet. Also tap refers to the divergence of water from one fitting to another. TEE: Any T-shaped plumbing fitting. TEFLON TAPE: Thread sealing tape with stain resistant, water repellant Teflon finish. Teflon is a trademark of DuPont. TEMPERED: A heat treatment technique to strengthen and harden glass for more safety. Also applies to water that has

been mixed in order to avoid a temperature extreme. THERMOSTATIC VALVE: A pressure balancing shower mixing valve with automatic temperature control. When temperature or pressure fluctuations occur at the water inlets, a thermal actuator adjusts the hot and cold ratio to maintain the original temperature setting. THREAD SEALANT (LIQUID): Provides a water seal in threaded connections. THREAD SEALANT (TAPE): Dry ribbons of sealant sold on spools. Unlike liquid sealant there is no chance of it getting into the supply lines and blocking water flow. THROUGH-THE-FLOOR: Installation where the bath drain tee outlet points down rather than horizontal. THUMB NUT To ease installation and to prevent over-tightening this nut was designed to be tightened without tools. THUMB SCREW To ease installation and to prevent over-tightening this screw was designed to be tightened without tools. TILE-IN Installation where the sink is fit flush with the countertop TOILET SETTING COMPOUND Provides a non-hardening watertight seal for the base of the toilet and the floor. TORQUE WRENCH Tool for measuring the amount of force applied to a threaded connection TRANSFER VALVE Valve the changes the flow of water from one outlet to another TRAP: A curved section of drain line that prevents sewer odors from escaping into the atmosphere. All "fixtures" that have drains must have a "P" trap installed. A toilet is the only plumbing fixture that has an "S" trap instead of a "P" trap. TRAP SEAL: The seal caused by water in a trap preventing septic gasses from leaking back into the home. The trap seal is measured from the inlet of the trap to the top of the dam. TRAPWAY: Trap built into a toilet connecting the bowl to the waste outlet where siphoning occurs.

TRIP ARM The trip lever on the outside of the toilet tank connects to this TRIP CHAIN Chain that connects the toilet trip arm and the flapper on the flush valve TRIP LEVER Handle attached to the outside of the toilet tank used to initiate the flush TUBES: Unlike pipes, the measurement of a tube (i.e. 2") corresponds to it's outside diameter (OD). So the outside diameter of a 2" tube is truly 2". TWO-PIECE TOILET: The toilet tank is separate from the toilet bowl. This is the most common type of toilet and is also called a close-coupled toilet. ULF: Abbreviation for ultra low flush, which describes a toilet that deliver 1.6gpf or less. UNC, UC, or NC: Abbreviation for Unified National Coarse Thread (National Coarse) - Use on fittings, nuts, & bolts - not for pipes. UNF, UF, or NF: Abbreviation for Unified National Fine Thread (National Fine) - Use on fittings, nuts, & bolts - not for pipes. VANITY: A bathroom storage cabinet beneath the counter. Some plumbers also call a lavatory sink a vanity. VENT: When referring to plumbing fixtures, all fixtures (sinks, etc) must have a vent. Vents are used to allow air into the drainage systems to prevent P traps to from being siphoned dry. VITREOUS: A surface material on some plumbing fixtures derived from or consisting of glass. It is low in porosity and is translucent. Generally porcelain china is vitreous china. VTR: Vent through the roof WASTE & OVERFLOW: The drain assembly for a bathtub. The outlet at the top removes the "overflow" water during tub filling and the drain at the bottom removes "waste" water when the tub is drained. WASTE SHOE:

Generally refers to a bathtub drain assembly. WATER CLOSET (W.C.): Toilet. Many in our industry will write w.c. on drawings or quotes which means water closet (aka: "toilet"). WATER HAMMER: Shock waves in plumbing generally due to high velocity water being shut off quickly. This is mainly caused by undersizing of pipes and faucets or valves that are shut off fast. Sometimes installing water hammer arrestors can help alleviate or lessen water hammer. Best is to increase water pipe sizes (thereby slowing velocity). WHITE - EURO: Not all whites are alike. Euro-white generally is a somewhat yellowish white. Similar to Corian and Avonite's = Cameo white; Surell/Formica and Wilsonart's = Frosty white. WHITE - POLAR: Polar-white generally is a bluish white. Similar to Kohler, Elkay, Moenstone, and Swanstone's = White; Corian's = Glacier white; Avonite's = Porcelain white; Surrell/Formica's = Arctic white. WIDESPREAD: A style of bathroom lavatory faucet having separate spout and handles. Usually 8" from center of handle-to-handle. Some widespread faucets can be set with handles up to 12" apart. WORKING PRESSURE: Normal, maximum operating pressure design of a faucet, valve or plumbing product.

PlumbingSupply.com is pleased to offer this and other pages that provide information on the installation or care of many of the products offered on our site. If there is something you'd like to learn about and you don't find it addressed on our site, please email us and we will answer your questions, to the best of our ability, and add that information to our site for other customers.

Feet Of Head Pressure Loss Per 100 Ft. of Plastic Pipe


GPM
1/2" 1 2 5 7 10 2.08 4.16 23.44 43.06 82.02 3/4" 0.51 1.02 5.73 10.52 20.04 0.55 1.72 3.17 6.02 0.14 0.44 0.81 1.55 0.07 0.22 0.38 0.72 0.066 0.11 0.21 0.038 0.051 0.09 0.015 0.021 0.03 1"

Pipe Diameter
1-1/4" 1-1/2" 2" 2-1/2" 3" 4" 5"

15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 75 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 250 300 350 400 450 500

42.46 72.34

12.77 21.75 32.88 46.08

3.28 5.59 8.45 11.85 15.76 20.18 25.10 30.51

1.53 2.61 3.95 5.53 7.36 9.43 11.73 14.25 19.98

0.45 0.76 1.15 1.62 2.15 2.75 3.43 4.16 5.84 7.76 8.82 9.94 12.37 15.03

0.19 0.32 0.49 0.68 0.91 1.16 1.44 1.75 2.46 3.27 3.71 4.19 5.21 6.33 9.58 13.41

0.07 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.31 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.85 1.13 1.28 1.44 1.80 2.18 3.31 4.63 6.16 7.88 11.93 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.22 0.30 0.34 0.38 0.47 0.58 0.88 1.22 1.63 2.08 3.15 4.41 5.87 7.52 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.19 0.29 0.40 0.54 0.69 1.05 1.46 1.95 2.49 3.09 3.76

Example Use: 1" pipe, with 5 GPM would lose 1.72 feet of head pressure per hundred feet

Friction Loss in PVC Fittings = EQUIVALENT FEET OF STRAIGHT PIPE


PVC Type
90 elbow 45 elbow insert coupling gate valve male/female adapter

Pipe Size
1/2" 1.5 0.75 0.5 0.3 1.0 3/4" 2.0 1.0 0.75 0.4 1.5 1" 2.25 1.4 1.0 0.6 2.0 1-1/4" 1-1/2" 4.0 1.75 1.25 0.8 2.75 4.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 3.5 2" 6.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 4.5 2-1/2" 8.0 3.0 3.0 1.6 5.5 3" 8.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 6.5 4" 12.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 9.5

tee-flow (run) tee-flow (branch)

1.0 4.0

1.4 5.0

1.7 6.0

2.3 7.0

2.7 8.0

4.3 12.0

5.1 15.0

6.3 16.0

8.3 22.0

General Plumbing Information - Abbreviations, etc


PlumbingSupply.com is the web's leading and most popular Internet plumbing supplier since 1995
to home page - to email us - to how to order - to customer testimonials - to FAQ's - to report error - to search products - to view cart

Find other plumbing supplies starting with the letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M NOPQRSTUVWXYZ


to pipe flow chart - to detailed pipe thread size chart to fractions - decimal - mm conversions - to plumbing advice site - to metric - decimal conversion

Our motto and goal: "Under-promise...Over-perform."

PlumbingSupply.com is pleased to offer this and other pages that provide information on plumbing products or the installation and/or care of many of the products offered on our site. If there is something you'd like to learn about and you don't find it addressed on our site, please email us and we will answer your questions, to the best of our ability, and add that information to our site for other customers.

Common Plumbing abbreviations


AGA: American Gas Association Gal: Gallon Brs: Brass CP: Chrome Plated CC: Copper x Copper CFH: Cubic Feet per Hour CFM: Cubic Feet per Minute CWT: Copper Water Tube Dia: Diameter DC: Die Cast Fct: Faucet FGH: Female Garden Hose FHT: Female Hose Thread FIP: Female Iron Pipe FIPS: Female Iron Pipe Size FPT: Female Pipe Thread GPF: Gallons Per Flush GPM: Gallons Per Minute Ga: Gauge Hdl: Handle Hd: Head Hgt: Height ID: Inside Diameter IPS: Iron Pipe Size MGH: Male Garden Hose MHT: Male Hose Thread MIP: Male Iron Pipe MIPS: Male Iron Pipe Size MPT: Male Pipe Thread Nom: Nominal NPSH: National Pipe Straight Hose NPSM: National Pipe Straight Mechanical NPST: National Pipe Straight Thread Oz: Ounce OD: Outside Diameter PSI: Pounds Per Square Inch Pln: Plain Point PB: Polished Brass SF: Satin Finish SS: Stainless Steel SWT: Sweat THD: Thread Mil: 1/1000 Inch

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1 Foot = 0.305 meters 1 Meter = 3.281 feet 1 Meter = 39.37 inches 1 Square Meter = 10.76 sq. Feet

Weights
1 U.S. Gallon of Water 1 Cu. Foot of Water 1 Imperial Gallon 1 Liter 8.3357 Pounds 62.3554 Pounds 10.0 Pounds 2.2 Pounds

Pressures
1 Atmosphere 1 Atmosphere 1 Pound per Square Inch 1 Pound per Square Inch 1 Foot of Head 1 Inch of Water Column 1 Kilogram/sq. Centimeter 1 Foot of Water 33.94 Ft. of Water @ 62F 14.6963 lbs./sq. Inch 2.31 Feet of Head 27.7612 Inches of Water .433 Pounds/sq. Inch .0360 Pounds/sq. Inch 14.22 lbs./sq. Inch 62.3554 lbs./sq. Foot

Flows
1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Gallon/Minute (U.S.) 1 Cubic Ft. per Second 1 Liter per Second 1 Acre Inch per Hour 1 Acre Foot per Day 1,000,000 Gallons per Day 1 Cubic Ft. per Second .002228 cu. ft./Second .13368 cu. ft./Minute 8.0208 cu. ft./Hour .06309 Liters/Second 3.78533 Liters/Minute .0044192 Acre Ft./24 Hrs. 448.83 GPM 15.85 GPM 452.57 GPM 226.3 GPM 694.4 GPM .992 Acre Inches/Hr.

Volume
1728 Cubic Inches 231 Cubic Inches 27 Cubic Feet 1 Cubic Foot 1 Cubic Yard 1 Cubic Foot 1 Gallon 1 Cubic Yard 7.48052 Gallons (U.S.) 202 Gallons (U.S.)

16 Drams 32 Ounces 4 Quarts 1 Gallon 1 Gallon 1 Gallon 27.154 Gallons 325,851 Gallons 1,000,000 Gallons 1 Acre Foot Volume of a Cube Volume of a Pyramid Volume of a Sphere

1 Ounce 1 Quart 1 Gallon 3.785 Liters .00379 Cubic Meters .833 Imperial Gallon 1 Acre Inch 1 Acre Foot 3.0689 Acre Feet 43,560 Cubic Feet Area of Base x Height 1/3 Area of Base x Height Diameter Cubed x .5236

Power
Horse Power Pump Efficiency 1 Horse Power 1 Horse Power 1 Horse Power GPM x Total Head (Ft.) 3960 x Pump Efficiency GPM x Total Head (Ft.) 3960 x BHP to Pump 33,000 Ft. Pounds/Minute 746 Watts .746 Kilowatts

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Weight of 100' of pipe filled with water


Pipe Size 1" 1" 1" 2" Plastic (125#) 57 lbs. 97 lbs. 130 lbs. 217 lbs. Iron (Sch 40) 206 lbs. 293 lbs. 360 lbs. 512 lbs.

Comparing Flow rate to Velocity (in type 'L' copper)


Size (Nom) @ 3.0'/Second @ 3.5'/Second " " 1" 2.2 gpm 4.5 gpm 7.5 gpm 2.64 gpm 5.40 gpm 9.00 gpm Suggested Max. Flow Rate 2.2 gpm 4.8 gpm 9.0 gpm

1" 1" 2"

12.0 gpm 17.0 gpm 29.0 gpm

14.40 gpm 20.40 gpm 34.80 gpm

14.4 gpm 20.4 gpm 34.8 gpm

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Water Flow Rate Guide


Gallons Per Minute Seconds to fill Seconds to fill (GPM) a quart jar. a gallon jug. 0.75 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 20.00 * 15.00 * 10.00 * 7.50 5.00 4.50 4.25 3.75
* most practical

80 60 40 30 * 24 * 20 * 17 * 15 *

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Head Loss per 100' - Type 'L' Copper Tubing


Size " " 1" 1" 1" 2" 2" 3" 4" Velocity (FPS) 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 GPM 3.64 7.54 15.43 23.50 38.81 67.52 119.00 170.00 299.00 Head Loss 10.12 6.59 7.10 5.30 6.03 4.17 4.35 3.54 2.43

Head Loss per 100' - Sch.40 PVC


" "
GPM Head Loss GPM 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 0.40' 1.28' 2.58' 4.24' 6.25' 8.59' 11.25' 14.22' 17.50' 21.07' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Head Loss 0.35' 1.16' 2.34' 3.86' 5.71' 7.86' 10.32' 13.07' 16.10' 19.41'

1" 1" 1" 2" 2" 3"

GPM 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 Head Loss 0.35' 0.70' 1.14' 1.69' 2.32' 3.04' 3.85' 4.74' 5.71' 7.88' 10.36' GPM 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 Head Loss 0.51' 0.70' 0.91' 1.15' 1.42' 1.71' 2.35' 3.49' 5.81' 8.65' 11.98' GPM 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Head Loss 0.55' 0.67' 0.81' 1.12' 1.65' 2.75' 4.09' 5.65' 7.45' 9.45' 11.68' GPM 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 Head Loss 0.55' 0.68' 0.82' 1.22' 1.68' 2.21' 2.80' 3.46' 4.17' 5.79' 7.63' 9.70' GPM 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Head Loss 0.88' 1.12' 1.38' 1.66' 2.30' 3.03' 3.85' 4.75' 5.74' 6.82' 7.98' 9.22' GPM 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 Head Loss 0.63' 0.87' 1.15' 1.45' 1.80' 2.17' 2.57' 3.01' 3.47' 3.97' 4.50' 5.05'
The above is free as a courtesy - accuracy is not guaranteed.

PlumbingSupply.com is pleased to offer this and other pages that provide information on plumbing products or the installation and/or care of many of the products offered on our site. If there is something you'd like to learn about and you don't find it addressed on our site, please email us and we will answer your questions, to the best of our ability, and add that information to our site for other customers. ACRYLIC: A thermoplastic used on the surface of bathtubs and whirlpools. Generally comes in sheets and is formed to the shape of the mold (tubs/showers) in the factory. Generally fiberglass is added to the back for strength. A fitting that joins two different types of pipes together. Or a fitting that joins threaded with none threaded pipe (as in: female adaptor or male adaptor). A part at the end of a faucet spout which mixes air into the dropping water, thereby aerating the water. Air-filled space allowing contaminated water to discharge freely, preventing the contaminated water from ever siphoning back into the potable water supply. An "emergency" stop (valve) that is usually installed before the water supply line (below) to toilets and faucets. Angle stops are to be shut off in case of an emergency or repair and are generally not designed for daily on and off usage. The difference between a "straight stop" and an "angle stops" is that the "angle" stop changes

ADAPTOR:

AERATOR: AIR GAP:

ANGLE STOP:

direction by 90 degrees while a straight stop is like most valves and does not change direction. BASIN: BIDET: A circular vessel with slopping or curving sides for holding water for washing. Pronounced B'Day, is a plumbing fixture similar to a toilet bowl (but no solids are to be deposited in a bidet) used for washing genitals and posterior areas of the body. It is floor mounted, usually next to a toilet, and incorporates a washing basin, faucet and sprayer. Bidets are very popular in some countries such as France and have finally been "discovered" in the U.S.. A bidet is commonly equipped with a hot and cold mixing valve to provide warm water for washing. A style of bathroom lavatory faucet having combined spout and handles. Handles are 4" from center of handle-to-handle. Also a single handle faucet installed on 4" center-to-center faucet holes. A table-like fixture with an integral lavatory. The back is fixed to a wall and the front is supported by consoles (brackets) or legs. A fitting that joins two pieces of pipe (or other fittings) together. Chlorinated PolyVinyl Chloride is a plastic product designed for drinking water at temperatures up to 180 degrees (where code permits). Comes in straight or rolls, generally off white colored (orange for fire sprinklers). . Abbreviation for cold working pressure. Abbreviation for Copper Water Tube (refers to nominal pipe size). Valves which direct water to various outlets. They are used in showers, tub & shower combinations, bidets, Roman tub fillers and kitchen faucet sprayers. Drainage inside the building, note that "sewer" is outside the building. Abbreviation for Drainage, Waste & Vent systems. Not for drinking water. The pressure when the water IS flowing. A fitting with two openings that change directions 90 degrees. The shape of the front of a toilet bowl. Generally 2" longer than the standard "round front" bowl. An opaque vitreous composition applied by fusion to the surface of metal fixtures such as cast iron and pressed steel tubs, lavatories and

CENTERSET:

CONSOLE LAV: COUPLING: CPVC :

CWP: CWT: DIVERTER:

DRAIN: DWV: DYNAMIC PRESSURE: ELBOW (aka ELL): ELONGATED: ENAMEL:

sinks. Do not confuse enameled steel with enameled cast iron. Cast iron with enameling is much more durable. ESCUTCHEON: FHT: FIBERGLASS: FINISHES: A flange or shield beneath a faucet handle. This part covers the faucet stem and the hole in the fixture or wall. Abbreviation for female hose threads. Glass in a fibrous form used in making products such as boats and bathtubs. The following finish abbreviations are generally used by many (not all) faucet manufacturers : BC Brushed Chrome BN Brushed Nickel CP Polished Chrome PB Polished Brass SN Satin Nickel WH White Abbreviation for female pipe threads. Broad term in plumbing/kitchen/bath that could be an entire toilet, sink, tub, etc OR it could be the devices that provide a supply of water. Gallons Per Flush. Today's toilets, per federal law, are only allowed to deliver 1.6gpf or less. In many years past, toilets flushed as much as 7-8gpf. Gallons Per Hour. Gallons Per Minute. A showerhead designed with a handle that is connected to a water supply via a flexible hose. Abbreviation for "horse power." Abbreviation for "hose threads." Garden hose threads are different than standard pipe threads. They are much more coarse and are 0.75 - 11.5 NH (normal hose). The 0.75 is the nominal diameter (3/4 inch) and the 11.5 is the number of threads per inch. Abbreviation for "inside diameter. In plumbing most pipes are sized by "nominal" (approx.) I.D. which means that when plumbers say 3/4" pipe for example it generally means that the outside diameter is wider than 3/4". Generally an abbreviation for "iron pipe size." Sometimes it means male pipe threads.

FIP(s): FIXTURE:

GPF:

GPH: GPM: HANDSHOWER: H.P.: H.T.:

I.D.:

IPS:

LAVATORY (aka = "LAV"): MHT: MINIWIDESPREAD: MIP(s): NPS: NPT: OD: OVALITY:

A fixed bowl or basin with running water and drainage for washing. Many use the word "Lavatory" as meaning a bathroom. Abbreviation for male hose threads. A special style of bathroom lavatory faucet having separate spout and handles. But designed small enough that it will fit 4" center-tocenter faucet holes. Abbreviation for male pipe threads. Abbreviation for National Pipe Straight Threads Standard (IPS) Abbreviation for National Pipe Tapered Threads Standard (FIP, MIP) Abbreviation for "outside diameter." The measurement of the diameter of the pipe as taken from the outside edge. The difference between the most wide OD and the most narrow OD on a pipe or tube. Found be subtracting the minimum outside diameter from the maximum outside diameter on a pipe. Abbreviation for Original Equipment Manufacturer Abbreviation for Polyethylene Plastic Material (stronger than, P.E.) Unlike tubes, the measurement of a pipe (i.e. 2") roughly references the inside diameter (ID) of the pipe and not the outside diameter (OD). A 2" Sch 40 pipe actually has an OD of 2.375", a wall thickness of .154" and an ID of 2.067". Abbreviation for "Pressure Regulator." Generally means water pressure regulator. Most codes require one if water pressures ever exceeds 80 pounds at any time on domestic potable water systems inside a structure. Physical Vapor Deposition (used mostly with polished brass or gold finishes). This is a modern plating process used in faucet manufacturing. Vaporized zirconium reacts with nitrogen and other gases to form a VERY durable plated surface. Unlike former days when polished brass would easily tarnish over time, polished brass finishes with PVD are extremely durable and won't generally tarnish or discolor. The drain mechanism of a faucet installed on a lavatory. The drain stopper "pops" up and down. A white ceramic ware that consists of quartz, kalin, and feldspar. It is fired at high temperature on steel or cast iron to make the surface of some bathtubs, kitchen sinks and bathroom lavatories. Many

OEM: PEX: PIPES:

PR:

PVD:

POP-UP ASSEMBLY: PORCELAIN:

times the word "porcelain" also refers to porcelain china which is a ceramic product with porcelain glaze. PORCELAIN ENAMEL: Vitreous enamel. Many times the words "porcelain enamel" refers to pressed steel (not recommended by us) products with a porcelain glaze. When purchasing "fixtures" we like to recommend either a porcelain glaze on top of ceramic, or porcelain glaze on top of cast iron. A shower mixing valve that automatically maintains balance between hot and cold water supplies by immediately regulating fluctuations in pressure. As a result the outlet temperature remains constant. A fitting that connects pipes of different sizes together. A vertical assembly of pipe and fittings that generally distributes water upward. The standard shape of the front of a toilet bowl. Generally bout 2" shorter than the optional "elongated" bowl. The "Schedule" designation tells you how thick the wall is for any size of pipe with the higher schedule numbers meaning a thicker wall. The most common schedules are Sch 40 and Sch 80, but the actual wall thickness varies depending on the size of the pipe. Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) used for determining the minimum wall thickness for pipe. SDR is found by dividing the outside diameter (OD) of the pipe by the wall thickness measurement. To find the minimum wall thickness of a pipe you simply divide the OD by the SDR. Drainage outside the building, note that "drain" is inside the building. The pressure when NO water is flowing. An "emergency" stop (valve) that is usually installed before the water supply line (below) to toilets and faucets. Angle stops are to be shut off in case of an emergency or repair and are generally not designed for daily on and off usage. The difference between a "straight stop" and an "angle stops" is that the "angle" stop changes direction by 90 degrees while a straight stop is like most valves and does not change direction. An elbow (90 degree bend) fitting that has a male end (same size as pipe) on one side and a female end (pipe fits inside this size) on the other side.

PRESSURE BALANCE VALVE:

REDUCER: RISER: ROUND FRONT: SCHEDULE (SCH):

SDR:

SEWER: STATIC PRESSURE: STRAIGHT STOP:

STREET ELBOW:

THERMOSTATIC VALVE:

A pressure balancing shower mixing valve with automatic temperature control. When temperature or pressure fluctuations occur at the water inlets, a thermal actuator adjusts the hot and cold ratio to maintain the original temperature setting. A curved section of drain line that prevents sewer odors from escaping into the atmosphere. All "fixtures" that have drains must have a "P" trap installed. A toilet is the only plumbing fixture that has an "S" trap instead of a "P" trap. Unlike pipes, the measurement of a tube (i.e. 2") corresponds to it's outside diameter (OD). So the outside diameter of a 2" tube is truly 2". Abbreviation for Unified National Coarse Thread (National Coarse) - Use on fittings, nuts, & bolts - not for pipes Abbreviation for Unified National Fine Thread (National Fine) - Use on fittings, nuts, & bolts - not for pipes A bathroom storage cabinet beneath the counter. Some plumbers also call a lavatory sink a vanity. A surface material on some plumbing fixtures derived from or consisting of glass. It is low in porosity and is translucent. The drain assembly for a bathtub. The outlet at the top removes the "overflow" water during tub filling and the drain at the bottom removes "waste" water when the tub is drained. Toilet. Not all whites are alike. Euro-white generally is a somewhat yellowish white. Similar to Corian and Avonite's = Cameo white; Surell/Formica and Wilsonart's = Frosty white Polar-white generally is a bluish white. Similar to Kohler, Elkay, Moenstone, and Swanstone's = White; Corian's = Glacier white; Avonite's = Porcelain white; Surrell/Formica's = Artic white. A style of bathroom lavatory faucet having separate spout and handles. Usually 8" from center of handle-to-handle. Some widespread faucets can be set with handles up to 12" apart. Abbreviation for cold water, oil, gas pressure rating.

TRAP:

TUBES:

UNC, UC, or NC: UNF, UF, or NF: VANITY: VITREOUS: WASTE & OVERFLOW: WATER CLOSET: WHITE - EURO:

WHITE - POLAR:

WIDESPREAD:

WOG: