Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 25

# Chapter 6

## Chapter 3 pp. 86-96

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Traffic and Capacity

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Trunking and Grade of Service

Cellular radio systems rely on trunking to accommodate a large number of random users in a limited radio spectrum (fixed number of channels or circuits). Trunking theory exploits the statistical behavior of users. It was first used by telephone companies to determine the number of telephone circuits that need to be allocated for buildings. The fundamentals of trunking theory were developed by Erlang. The measure of traffic intensity has the unit of Erlang. One Erlang represents the amount of traffic intensity carried by a channel that is completely occupied.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Trunking and Grade of Service

The grade of service (GOS) is a measure of the ability of a user to access a trunked system during the busiest hour. The GOS is an important benchmark used to define the desired performance of a particular trunked system. It is the wireless designers job to estimate the maximum required capacity and to allocate the proper number of channels to meet the GOS. GOS is typically given as the likelihood that a called is blocked, or the likelihood of a call experiencing a delay greater than a certain queuing time.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Trunking and Grade of Service

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Trunking and Grade of Service

The traffic intensity offered by each user in Erlangs

Au = H
The total offered traffic for a system containing U users

A = UAu = UH
Traffic intensity per channel of a trunked system with C channels

Ac = UAu C
The maximum possible carried traffic is the total number of channels, C, in Erlangs.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Poisson Distribution
A discrete distribution that expresses the probability of a number of events occurring in a fixed period of time if these events occur with a known average rate, and are independent of the time since the last event.

Pr{k} =

k e
k!

k = 0,1, 2,L
k: the number of occurrence of an event : the expected number of occurrences that occur during the given interval. Mean value: =

Poisson Distribution, = 10
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

2 Variance: =

## The Blocked Calls Cleared System

The blocked calls cleared system (Erlang-B system) -- No queuing for call requests -- Arrived calls follow a Poisson distribution. -- An infinite number of users, a finite number of channels -- Arrivals of requests are memoryless -- The probability of a user occupying follows an exponential distribution The probability that a call is blocked (Erlang-B formula, Erlang loss function)
AC Pr[call is blocked] = EC ( A) = C C! k = GOS A k! k =0
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

## The Blocked Calls Cleared System

The Erlang loss function is best calculated iteratively by:

1 C 1 = 1+ EC ( A) A EC 1 ( A)
with

E0 ( A) = 1
Erlang B formula provides a conservative estimate of the GOS, as the finite number of users always predict a smaller likelihood of blocking.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Large groups are more efficient than small ones.

2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

## The Blocked Calls Cleared System

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## The Blocked Calls Cleared System

Trunking efficiency is a measure of the number of users which can be offered a particular GOS with a particular configuration of fixed channels. The way in which channels are grouped can substantially alter the number of users handled by a trunked system. Example
How many users could be supported for 0.5% blocking probability for 5 trunked channels? Assume that each user generates 0.1 Erlangs of traffic. Solution: C=5. From Fig. 3.6, we have traffic intensity A=1.13.

## U = A / Au = 1.13 / 0.1 = 11.3

Therefore, total number of users that can be supported is 11.
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

## Improving Coverage and Capacity in Cellular Systems

Cellular design techniques are needed to provide more channels per unit coverage area if GOS degrades beyond a threshold. Major techniques to expand the capacity: --- Cell Splitting: Allows an orderly growth of the cellular system. --- Sectoring: Uses directional antennas to further control interference and frequency reuse. --- Zone microcells : Distributes the coverage of a cell. Cell splitting increase capacity by increasing the number of base stations Sectoring and zone microcells rely on based station antenna placements to improve capacity by reducing co-channel interference.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

## Cell Basics (Review)

S duplex channels available for use. Each cell is allocated a group of k channels Cluster size N If a cluster is replicated M times within the system, the capacity C=MkN=MS The co-channel reuse ratio:
Q= D = 3N R

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Cell Splitting
Cell splitting is the process of subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells (microcells), each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna height and transmitter power.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Cell Splitting
Handoff issues must be addressed so that high speed and low speed traffic can be accommodated simultaneously.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Cell Splitting

Cell splitting will not upset the channel allocation scheme required to maintain the minimum cochannel reuse ratio Q.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Cell Splitting
For the new cells to be smaller in size, the transmit power of these cells must be reduced. If the radius of each new microcell is half that of the original cell,

## Pr [at old cell boundary] Pt1 R n Pr [at new cell boundary] Pt 2 ( R / 2) n

If we take n=4, and set the received powers equal to each other, then

Pt1 Pt 2 = 16

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Cell Splitting
In practice, not all cells are split at the same time. Therefore, different cell sizes might exist simultaneously. Channels in the old cell must be broken down into two channel groups, corresponding to the smaller and larger cell reuse requirements. Antenna downtilting is often used to limit the radio coverage of newly formed microcells. Cell splitting achieves capacity improvement by essentially rescaling the system. By decreasing the cell radius R and keeping the co-channel reuse ratio D/R unchanged, cell splitting increases the number of channels per unit area.
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

Sectoring
Sectoring keeps the cell radius unchanged and seek method to reduce Q. The channels used in a particular cell are broken down into sectored groups and are used only within a particular sector. Several directional antennas are used at the base station. This technique for decreasing co-channel interference and thus increasing system performance is called sectoring.

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Sectoring

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Sectoring
The signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) for a mobile receiver
S Q = I i0
n

( =

3N ) i0

Assume n=4 and cluster size N=7. If there is no sectoring and omnidirectional antennas are used, S/I=18.6 dB. With sectoring, S/I=25.1 dB (24.2 dB in the textbook).

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering

Sectoring
The reduction in interference offered by sectoring enable planners reduce the cluster size N, and provides an additional degree of freedom in assigned channels. Sectoring needs an increased number of antennas at each base station. Trunking efficiency is decreased due to channel sectoring at the base station. The number of handovers also increases, since sectoring reduces the coverage area of a particular group of channels. In urban areas, directional antenna patterns are somewhat ineffective in controlling radio propagation.
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

## A Microcell Zone Concept

The increased number of handoffs required when sectoring is employed results in an increased load on the switching and control link elements.. In microcell zone approach, when a mobile travels from one zone to another within the cell, it retains the same channel. Any base station channel may be assigned to any zone by the BS. A handoff is not required at MSC when the mobile travels between zones within a cell.
2009-8-10 Wireless Engineering

## A Microcell Zone Concept

A given channel is active only in the particular zone in which the mobile is travelling, and the base station radiation is localized and interference is reduced. Particularly useful along highways or along urban traffic corridors

2009-8-10

Wireless Engineering