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2 (82)

- 2006

19

25

.
:

32

.

(
)

47

62

72

73
74
76

I. ""
II. ,
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY

116
118

2 (82)
March-Apryl 2006
CONTENTS

PRINCIPAL TRENDS

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION


Public Opinion through the Political Looking Glass
(Yury LEVADA)

The Russian Mirror for Byelorussian President


(Leonid KESSELMAN)

19

Three Time Measures or the Dynamics


of Status Subjective Evaluations (Larisa KOSOVA)

25

Russia Residents Attitude to Legal Institutions:


the Survey of Recent Research (Olga GRYAZNOVA)

32

The Cultural Capital and Accessibility of Higher Education


(Tomasz ZARYCKI)

47

Youth at the Secondary Employment Market


(Vladimir ZVONOVSKY, Regina BELOUSOVA)

62

Authors of the issue

72

INFORMATION: SURVEYS FINDINGS

73
74
76

I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the Population
List of Questions for the General Population
SUMMARY

116
118

1.

( "" "" ""


" " ; )


,
1998 ., , . 2004 . ,
2005 ., .
2005 . , . 2006 .
.

2. " "

( "" " " " "


" "; "" " "
" ")

"", 2004 ., .
2005 ., " ", 2005 . . 2006 .
.

2 (82) 2006

3.

,
, ,
? ( % )


. 2005 . . ,
2005 ., 2006 .

4.

2004 .,
.
.

5.

( "" ", "


" " " ")

2 (82) 2006

6. 56 ,
( % )
6a. .

" " . 2006 .


2005 . (40%), (43%).
:
. () 19 17%; . 10 11%; . 12 10%; . 10 13%; . 9 6%; . 3 1%; . 2 4%; . 4
4%; . 3 2%.

6.

2 (82) 2006

6.

7.
,
? ( % , N=1600 )

, c
? ( % , N=1600 )

2 (82) 2006

8. () (),
1998 . = 100%

()
.
(), ,
,
-.
2006 . 6%, , .
, "" ,
. , ,
: . ,
, 8%.

9. ,
? ( % , N=2100; 2006 .)

2001 . 2002 . 2004 . 2005 . 2006 .



,
59
59
57
58
55

66
73
73
75
71

34
31
35
35
36
, 30
30
30
37
31

41
38
35
27
29
, ,
24
24
22
26
26

19
17
19
19
20
,
11
14
13
17
12
,
8
8
4
8
8

25
32
36
31
30

37
35
28
26
25
,
26
30
29
29
32
,
26
25
30
28
28
, ( , )
2
3
2
3
2
,
23
20
23
32
23
,

10
10
10

8
7
5
,

8
8

11
10
9
15
14

3
2
2
3
4
, , ..
9
9
10
7
6
*
22
22
13
12
6

* 2006 . .

2 (82) 2006


,

"" , , .
, , , ,
.
, XIX .
,
.
(" "?), ( ) " ". ,
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, ,
( ).
1.
( ).

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"" 2006 ., 1600
.

, .

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- .
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moi) , , .
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/
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,
, (
) "" " ",

.. ,

2 (82) 2006

1
"" :
"", ?
( % , N=1600 )

,
,
,

(, , )
.

64
36
30
19
18
16
16
14
12
10
10
10
9
7
6
2
2
4


,
,
- .


, , (. 1).
("",
"").
(70%)
, ,
.
19%,
12%.
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" ", (57%)
", ".

( 36%, 30%),

( . 55%,

1824
71
35
29
16
22
19
18
14
16
13
13
9
10
7
5
4
3
2

2539
64
33
31
17
18
15
16
14
11
10
12
12
11
8
8
1
2
4

4054 55
59
68
37
38
30
30
23
19
17
16
18
13
15
16
12
15
11
11
11
8
8
11
10
8
8
9
7
7
6
7
1
3
2
1
4
5

66%). ,
, 43:49,
" " 27:66.
, ,
, ,
(27:68),
(38:54), " " (41:52).
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4,89, 3,99.

, .
( ), - .
"" (, ,
..)

2 (82) 2006

2
, , ?
( % )



1997 .
33
53
14


.
"",
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. ,
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. , , , .
,

- . .
,
,
,
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, ,
.
, .
. . :
(
),
( ).
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,
, "
", , " ".
10

1998 .
33
54
13

1999 .
33
54
13

2001 .
38
58
4

2006 .
37
57
6

.
(1824 ) " "
36%, " " 60%, (55 ) 42:50.
35:64, " " 40:50.
, "
" , 1990-
, , ,
(. 2). , .
, 1
, .
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( " "; ), -, .
. : "
, , ,
, ?" ( % ; N=1600 ; 100%, ):

,


,
>,

,
,
""

56
43
15
12
10
6
3
1
6

16% ,
, 72% "
".
-

2 (82) 2006

. ,
, 50%
" " , 51% , 61%
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). 66%
89%
, , ,

.
" ..." 45% , ,
" ( , ,
)" 38, 13, 4%. :
1998 .
81:13, 2000 . 69:8, ( )
83:13. . 81 14%,
86 10%.
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" "
5%, "" 10, "" 37, "
" 27, " " 20%1.
,
(. 3).
,
:
26%,
28, 13 49%
, 11 57%.

21%, 43%,
12 51% .

.
, , "
",
15%, ,
" ",
19%. .

1 .: . ? //
: .
1995. 2; .
// ... 1999. 4.

3
?
( %
, N=1600 )

1824

*
15
12

37
32
**
47
55

1
1

2539

4054 55

11
38
50

14
41
43

22
35
42

* " " " ".


** " " " ".

4

,
?
( %
, N=1600 )

1824

*
42
27
**
57
72

1
1

2539

35
65

4054 55

46
52
52
46
2

* " " "".


** "" " ".

13%, 48%, 20 40% . ,



.
, ( "") . , ("")

.
, ( 58%, 41%),
(36 64%
).
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. 33%,
67%, 20 78%,
41 57% .
47%, 52%, 31
68%, 25
73% .

2 (82) 2006

11

.
, 31%,
58%,
38 51% .
31% ,
68; 40 58% . :
, ,
, .
: . 15% ,
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", 82% . ,
( ?):
21 77% ; 10:87.
-
27% ( 73%),
9 88%. , , ,
23 75% .
,
(. 5). , , ,
4:
.

(32:66),

(19:77), (9:86).
16%
. 13% , . 82 86% .

19%, , , 76 78%, ..
. "" .
12

5

? ( %
, N=1600 )

*
**

18
77
5

1824

24
70
6

2539

20
67
13

4054 55

20
13
77
81
3

* " " "  ".


** " " " ".


, , "
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, "
" 19, " " 17, "
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2% .
,
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27%, -
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()
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17% .
,
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( , )
.
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2005 . "" . : " -

2 (82) 2006

?" ( % ,
N=1600 ; 100%,
):






, ,


,

,

%
48
29
27
18
17
1



.

, " "
(19 15% ), ,
" " (18
12% ).
(52 47%
) , (31
28%) , ,
(36 25% ).


:
"" ( "")
. ,
" " (19 15% ), "
" (18 12% ).
(52 47%
)
, (31 28%)
, ,
(36 25% ).
,
.
( , ,

6


? ( %
, N=1600 )

,

>
,

,

>
, >
, >


1999 . 2006 .
1

15

38

39

17

37
1

27
9

.) .

( " ").
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"" , ,
" " (. 6). "
":
- ,
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"" . 68%
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28% "
, ".

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(. 7).
( 1989 . ) ""


"" .
"" . ,

2 (82) 2006

13

7
...
( % )

1989 .
) ?

14
>
29

37

20
) ?

22
>
42

17

19

1250

1994 .

1999 .

2003 .

2006 .

8
31
42
19

9
31
43
17

11
35
44
10

10
45
37
9

9
35
33
23
3000

10
40
27
23
2000

12
45
33
10
2000

11
50
29
10
1600

.

.

(51:45),
(45:51). "" "".
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, 8.
.
37 31% , , 11
48%
. , , 32:29, 27:69. , .


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, ,

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.
:
, . , "".
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14

8
...
( % , N=1600 )



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7
29
38

1
8
33

19

39

4
36:23
4

15
9:54
4

* , .
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9

? ( %
, N=1600 )

>



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,
>

>

2 (82) 2006


. .

21

22

16

30

29

34

31
10

29
10

37
10


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38:54, 44:55. ,

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, ,
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. " " " " (
), , (. 10).

(39%)
(24%).
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( 35%
).
: .
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1 " ... ,
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. .; ., 1934. . 7. . 299).

, .

,
.
(
)
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(. 14).

. - .
(12%), (19%).
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.
: 35% (
23%), 17%
(10%).
, ,
, ,
: (70%)
(47%).


.
, ,
. ,
,
, . (
) , .

10
?
( % , N=1600 )


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,

5
7
33
29
26

1824 2539 4054


10
6
39
21
24

2 (82) 2006

5
10
35
23
27

4
7
34
32
22

55

4
5
27
36
29

15

11
, , ? ( % ;
100%, )

55

21

25

28

35

34

35

42

29

28
27

31
27

32
28

28
27

23
26

24
1
9

30

23
1
9

27
1
6

20
2
14

4054

19

2539

24

1824

,
, , >

, >

,
, >

24

24

22

29

35

48

35

26

28
27

27
28

31
29

22
24

24
1
9

31
0
4

25
1
8

17
1
16

,
, ,

,

,
,

12
? ( % )
)


4

33

33

20


10
)





16

1824
5
37
30
17
11

4
32
33
20
10

2539
4
39
33
17
7

3
39
35
19
4

2 (82) 2006

4054
3
31
38
22
7

5
33
33
20
9

55
4
26
29
23
18

4
26
31
20
20

13
? ( %
; 100%, )






,

,

1989 .

1994 .

1999 .

2003 .

51
15
6
11
6
35
15
41
1250

54
26
7
5
13
13
12
25
3000

68
20
5
2
6
9
12
12
2000

83
42
12
8
16
23
15
30
2000

83
34
14
13
17
21
27
28
1600

2006 .
.

83
82
32
37
16
7
12
19
15
22
22
17
26
28
28
29

14
? ( %
, 2006 ., N=1600 ; 100%, )






,

,

83
34
14
13
17
21
27
28

.
,

, . , ""

, "" "" .
2006 . , 70% (
" ") , . 2008 .
,

, :
, . ("", 30%),

1824
85
37
14
20
08
15
27
28

2539
85
34
18
16
11
18
28
31

4054
82
38
13
10
18
23
27
30

55
82
28
11
12
26
24
25
25

( 17%) ( 50%, ,

, ).
2006 . "" 38% ., 10% ,
52% .
"" .


(. 15).
?
2006 . .
. 39% (
45% 52% ""), 48, 13%

2 (82) 2006

17

15
. ?
? ( % )
2004 .
2005 .
2006 .
* "" "" ""

10
18
8
7
19
12
10
16
6

23
21
+2
18
21
3
14
20
6


13
6
+7
11
6
5
14
7
7

6
10
4
9
7
+2
8
8
0
>
2
4
2
2
4
2
2
4
2

""
5
19
14
6
14
8
5
16
11

2
28
26
3
27
24
2
28
26

1
25
24
2
20
18
1
18
17

2
34
32
2
27
25
2
18
16

2
6
4
3
5
2
2
6
4

>
1
3
2
1
3
2
2
2
0

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0
24
24
1
15
14
1
9
8

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2
3
2
4
3
+1
3
4
1

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5
3
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8
1
7
6
3
3

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4
3
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4
3

7
4
3


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7
7
1
5
4
1
5
4
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13
13
1
13
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1
16
15
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14
2
12
13
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11
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18


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2 (82) 2006


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.
, 55
( 30% ), , (90,5:9,5). ,
( 25 40 ),
.
( 52:48). ( 18 25 ) .
(55:45).

62:38.
1 
 
.

2 (82) 2006

19

(41,5:33,5) ,
" ",


.
(79:9) , 55 ,
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.
, 1965 . (
40 55), (44:36,5).
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40,

(64,5:23,5). (
18 25 ) (70:15).
.


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20

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(70,5:12,5). ,
,

, , ,

.


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2 (82) 2006


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( 44,5:24,5;
42,5:23,5; 43,5:31,5).
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.

2 (82) 2006

21

, ,
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()

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(22%) , ""
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(39%). ""

(31%) (41%)
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. 1950 . (
55 )
.,
,
(49%). ( 35
55 ) (40%).
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1970 . (, 35
),

(18%).
(60%)

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(28%). ,

2 (82) 2006

23

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.
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, .
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( 21
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( % , 2006 ., N=1600 )

, 1985 .

?
,

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,

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24

2 (82) 2006

22

69

85

73

16

11





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,
.
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1980- 1990- - ,
, . ,
1992 . (N=1500 ) 13% , " ";
21%
, , ,
. , , ,
, .
.

19941997 . , ,
1217% ,
35 45% 1. , ,
, ,
.
2000 . (
1998 ., 12%
" "
52%),

. , 2006 .
26% ,
, , 34% , , 40%
. , 1997 .
( "" )
0,41, 2006 . 0,76. ,
, .
1 , " ". ,

, ,
. .
19941995 .
,
: , ; ,
1 " 
". .: ..
// 
: .
1997. 6. . 3739.

2 (82) 2006

25

,
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1999 .,
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1 (. 2). 2001 .
,
, 1 " 
".

26

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69% ( , ).
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.
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2004 .,
). ,
, ,
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15 25%).
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(
2002 .).
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, 2003 .
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2 (82) 2006

43

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2 (82) 2006

45

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, (45%)
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.

,
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: "",
; "",
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.
1 2H02E002 25 
.
2 ., . : 
. .; : , 1994; Zarycki T.
Cultural Capital and the Political Role of the Intelligentsia in Poland //
Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics. 2003.
Vol. 19. N 4. Dec.
3 Bourdieu P. The Forms of Capital // Handbook of Theory and
Research for Sociology of Education / Ed. J.G.Richardson. N.Y.;
Westport (Conn.); L.: Greenwood Press, 1986.

. ., . .1.
, -


, ,
.
,
, ,
. , ,

, , . ,
,
, .
, , ,
. (" " , " ",
2) ,
.
1 Eyal G., Szelenyi I., Townsley E. Making Capitalism without Capita
lists. The New Ruling Elites in Eastern Europe. L.: Verso, 1998.
2 Ibid.

2 (82) 2006

47

" ",

" " .


. ""

. 2004 .

.
1550 , 15561 ,
.

, 1958
1983 .
.2, .

.
.

., 3. 1

:
,
(
, ). 

.
,
. 
, 
, ,
.
2004 ., 2004 . ,
: 17, 14. ,
,
(), 
(Biuro Bada Spoecznych BBC).
2 Studenci Warszawy. Studium dugofalowych przemian postaw i
wartoci / Ed. S.Nowak. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa uniwersytetu
Warszawskiego, 1991.
3 Bourdieu P., Passeron J. C. La reproduction. Elments pour une
thorie du systme denseignement. P.: Editions de Minuit, 1970.

48

, , 1, .
, ,
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.
, (33,3%) , ,
2.
, (),
1000 .
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1 .

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.

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1 Domaski H. Selekcja ze wzgldu na pochodzenie spoeczne do
szkoy redniej i na studia wysze // Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wysze.
2000. N 16 (2); Domaski H. Hierarchie i bariery spoeczne w latach
dziewiziesitych. Warszawa: Instytut Spraw Publicznych, 2000;
/ . ..
. .: , 2004;
: / .
... .: ,
2004; ., ., . :
, , // 
: . . . 2004. 1 (69);
wierzbowska Kowalik E. Wyksztaicenie rodowisk rodzinnych i
miejsce zamieszkania jako wyznaczniki szans na podjie
studiw // Nauka i Szkolnictwo Wysze. 2000. N 16 (2).
2
,
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2 (82) 2006

51

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).
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. .1,
1 Bourdieu P., Passeron J. C. Op. cit.

52

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2 (82) 2006

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27
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1995
.

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.

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.

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1980

2028

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80

1995
.

1996
.

1997
.

1998
.

1999
.

2000
.

2001
.

2002
.

2003
.

1980

2028

2095

2107

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2107

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1995
.

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.

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.

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.

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.

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.

1980

2028

2095

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* 31 1999 . .; 2000 . .; 2000 . ..

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115

List of Questions for the General Population

(Page numbers in brackets indicate where opinions and characteristics of various groups of population are presented)

9. What could you say about your mood in the recent days? 1) Excellent mood; 2) Normal, calm condition; 3) I
experience strain, irritation; 4) I feel fear, distress; 5) Difficult to answer. (76)
9a. Speaking in general to what extent are you satisfied with the life you are leading now? 1) Quite satisfied;
2) Mainly satisfied; 3) Partly satisfied, partly not; 4) Mainly not satisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Difficult to
answer. (83, 88, 93, 98, 103, 110)
10. How would you evaluate the financial position of your family at present? 1)Very good; 2) Good; 3) Average;
4) Bad; 5) Very bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (76, 83, 88, 93, 98, 103, 110)
11. How would you evaluate the economic situation in your town, rural district? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad;
4) Very bad; 5) Difficult to answer. (77, 83, 88, 93, 98, 103, 110)
12. How would you evaluate the economic situation in Russia? 1) Good; 2) Average; 3) Bad; 4) Very bad; 5) Difficult
to answer. (77, 83, 88, 93, 98, 104, 111)
13. What do you think, which of the statements given below describes better the situation having been developed?
1) Everything is not so bad and its possible to live; 2) Life is difficult but its possible to bear it; 3) Its impossible to
bear our disastrous situation any longer; 4) Difficult to answer. (77, 83, 88, 93, 99, 104, 111)
13A. What do you think, will you (your family) live better or worse then now in a year? 1) Better to a great extent;
2) Somewhat better; 3) The same matter as now; 4) Somewhat worse; 5) Worse to a great extent; 6) Difficult to
answer. (77, 84, 89, 93, 99, 104, 111)
13B. Which of the following statements most exactly describes your attitude to the present life? 1) "I simply cant
adapt to the present life"; 2) "Ive got accustomed to the fact that I had to refuse from customary way of life, to
live, limiting myself in great and small"; 3) I have to "spin", seize upon any opportunity to earn only to provide a
tolerable life for my family and me"; 4) "I succeeded in using new opportunities to achieve more in life"; 5) "I live
in the same way as before: nothing has particularly changed for me in the recent years"; 6) Difficult to answer.
(78, 84, 89, 94, 99, 104, 111)
14. What do you think, market reforms should be continued now or ceased? 1) Market reforms should be continued;
2) Market reforms should be ceased; 3) I dont know, its difficult to answer. (78, 84, 89, 94, 99, 105, 111)
19. How would you evaluate the political situation in Russia in general? 1) Safe, good; 2) Calm; 3) Strained;
4) Critical, explosive; 5) Difficult to answer. (79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 105, 111)
20. Generally speaking, how much are you now satisfied with your life? 1) Quite satisfied; 2) Rather satisfied; 3) Partly
satisfied, partly not; 4) Rather unsatisfied; 5) Not satisfied at all; 6) Dont know. (76)
22. What do you think, will our life improve more or less during the coming year or there will be no improvement? 1) Will
improve; 2) There will be no improvement; 3) Difficult to answer. (79, 84, 89, 94, 99, 105, 111)
26. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of V.Putin as the President of Russia? (84, 89, 94, 99, 105, 111)
26*. How would you rate on a scale from 1 to 10 the performance of Boris Yeltsin as Russias president/Vladimir
Putin as acting president/Vladimir Putin as Russias president? Average on the scale. (79)
27. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of M.Fradkov, chairman of the minister cabinet? (84, 89, 94,
99, 105, 112)
27*. How would you evaluate from 1 to 10 the activity of chairman of the minister cabinet? (79)
28. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the political life? 1) Considerable improvement of
the situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Consider
able change of the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (80, 84, 89, 94, 99, 105, 112)
29. What do you think, what awaits Russia in the nearest months in the economic life? 1) Considerable improvement of the
situation; 2) Some improvement of the situation; 3) Some change of the situation to the worse; 4) Considerable change
of the situation to the worse; 5) Difficult to answer. (80, 85, 89, 94, 99, 105, 112)
31a. Which of the following issues are you concerned with most of all and consider them the most urgent?
1) Corruption, taking of bribes; 2) Unemployment growth; 3) AIDS rate increase; 4) Nationalism growth,
deterioration interethnic relations; 5) Poverty, pauperization of the majority of population; 6) Increasing
environment pollution; 7) Threaten of explosions and other terrorist actions in the place I live; 8) Increas
ing number of crimes; 9) unavailability of many types of health services; 10) Drug use growth; 11) Rude
ness, cruelty of militia men; 12) Economics crisis, production decline in industry and agriculture; 13) Crisis of
ethics, culture, morals; 14) Dramatic stratification into the rich and the poor, inequitable distribution of
incomes; 15) Growth of paid education, its nonavailability; 16) Limitation of civil rights, democratic
freedom (freedom of speech, press, movements); 17) Prices increase; 18) Weakness, helplessness of
governmental power; 19) Conflicts in the countrys leadership; 20) Delays in paying salaries, pensions,

2 (82) 2006

116

benefits, etc.; 21) Warfare in Chechnya; 22) Lack of life perspectives for children; 23) Lack of attention to the
elderly people problems; 24) Other; 25) Difficult to answer. (85, 90, 95, 100, 105, 112)
32. What do you think, to what extent mass violence of the population against the decrease of the living standard
and for the defense of their rights is possible now in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly
possible; 3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 106, 113)
33. If such rallies and protest demonstrations happen, will you personally take part in them? 1) Most probably yes;
2) Most probably no; 3) Dont know. (80, 85, 91, 95, 101, 106, 113)
33c. Is the protest movement with political demands possible in your town/rural district? 1) Quite possible; 2) Hardly
possible; 3) I dont know, difficult to answer. (80, 85, 91, 95, 101, 107, 113)
35. How much money does your family need now per capita month to lead a normal, to your idea, life? (82, 87, 92,
97, 102, 109, 115)
37. The income that would provide in respondents opinion the "the minimum living standard"? (82, 87, 92, 97,
102, 109, 115)
42. To speak of the major purchases for the family (such as furniture, refrigerator, household electronics, TV set)
do you think this is on the whole a good or a bad time now for such purchases? 1) Good; 2) Neither good nor
bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 114)
43. To speak in general, do you think this is a bad or a good time now to save up money? 1) Good; 2) Neither good
nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 114)
L15. How has the financial situation of your family changed during the last year? 1) Rather improved; 2) Remained
the same; 3) Rather got worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 113)
L16. How do you think the financial situation of your family will change in the nearest year? 1) Rather will improve; 2) Will
remain the same; 3) Rather will get worse; 4) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 114)
L17. Will you please tell us what makes the life of your family most difficult at present? 1) Low incomes, lack of
money; 2) Fear of losing a job; 3) Poor health, problems with medical treatment; 4) Bad dwelling; 5) Everyday
life difficulties; 6) Impossibility of giving good education to children; 7) Bad relations within the family;
8) Drinking or drug addiction of a family member; 9) Fatigue and exhaustion; 10) Hopelessness and
absence of prospects in life; 11) Lack of free time; 12) Something else;13) Difficult to answer. (87, 92, 97,
101, 108, 115)
L33. Which of the following population groups would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) We hardly make both ends meet,
there is not enough money even for food; 2) There is enough money for food but clothes buying causes serious difficulties;
3) There is enough money for food and clothes but buying the durable goods (TVset, refrigerator, etc.) is difficult for us; 4) We
can easily buy durable goods. To buy really expensive things is difficult for us; 5) We can afford rather expensive
purchases apartments, dacha and many others. (79, 86, 91, 96, 107, 113)
L88. To speak of the economical situation of the country on the whole, do you think the following 12 months will be a good
or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good; 2) Good, but not in everything; 3) Neither good, nor bad; 4) Bad,
but not in everything; 5) Bad; 6) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 114)
L88a. To speak of the following five years, will they be a good or a bad time for the country economy? 1) Good;
2) Neither good nor bad; 3) Bad; 4) Difficult to answer. (81, 86, 91, 96, 101, 107, 114)
LL10. What do you think, since what average monthly money income per capita a family may be considered a rich
one? (82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 109, 115)
LL11. What do you think, with what average monthly money income at the rate for one person a family may be
considered poor one? 82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 109, 115)
1f. What stratum of the society would you rather ascribe yourself to? 1) To the lowest one; 2) To the workers; 3) To
the lowest part of the middle stratum; 4) To the middle part of the middle strata; 5) To the higher stratum;
6) Difficult to answer. (77, 83, 88, 93, 98, 103, 110)
6+10. General respondents earnings during the last month. (82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 109, 115)
8A. Did you have any job or occupation last month, that brought additional income besides your main job or
occupation? 1) Yes; 2) I had odd extra earnings; 3) No. (82)
10. How much money did you personally earn for extra work during the last month? (82, 87, 92, 97, 102, 108, 114)
15b:5. Average income per capita during the last month: (87, 92, 97, 102, 109, 115)
25:5. Average per capita income: (82)
026. Please, point out in the list given below the items youve got in your family: 1) Colored TV set; 2) Photo camera;
3) Radio clock; 4) Mixer; 5) Electric drill; 6) Stereo radio system; 7) Separate freezing camera; 8) Microwave;
9) Video taperecorder; 10) Video camera; 11) Vacuum cleaner; 12) Home computer; 13) Piano; 14) Motor car
bought new; 15) Motor car bought secondhand; 16) Countryhouse (dacha), a house at garden plot; 17) House
in a village; 18) Plot where you grow vegetables, fruit; 19) CD player; 20) Home cinema; 21) Have got nothing
of the listed. (82, 92, 97, 102, 109, 115)
29. What mark on the scale from 1 to 10 wouls you give to your position in the society? (1 high; 10 low)?
(82)

117

2 (82) 2006

SUMMARY

1. Public Opinion through the Political Looking


Glass (by Yury Levada). The process of the state
separating from society that had taken place in
European countries as far back as in the XIX century
and provided legal frameworks for modern law states
remains an issue of the future for Russia. Therefore
neither public opinion nor the state (institutions) are
unable to view each other "from outside".
In such situation the routine set of questions of
participation/non-participation of citizens in political life, the availability of interest in and possibility
of such participation, etc., makes a researcher look
for correlation between mass imagination and a
world of fictitious, pseudo-political formations and
categories. In order to understand the meaning of
the findings received it is necessary to make it clear
all the time what "politics" and "political activity"
mean (in modern situation and public opinion), in
what way mass participation in it is (or may be)
expressed, there being no criterion of actual political
participation in public opinion (both appropriate institutional basis and mass experience of whatever
participation are lacking).
For the majority of respondents power is associated mainly with particular public figures -- the
President, the government, local officials. Depersonalized institutions ("the state", "the law") come
forward quite seldom. Respondents loyal to the present authorities more often demonstrate the wish to
see effective officials as heads of the country, and the
opposition share romantic notions about enthusiastic
devotion to the people. Todays personalization of
power is inseparably connected with the trend of depersonalizing the power bearers themselves.
The principal foundation of the complex of the
Russian citizens attitudes towards power structures
activities (lack of interest, unwillingness to participate, and possibility of deception) is made up of
deeply rooted detachment of an ordinary person
from the state affairs.

Its not surprising that the supporters of the acting


President pay more attention to the power activity
("is controlling...") than his opponents, but the differences in opinions are relatively insignificant.
Both have one thing in common: control over
authorities and mutual control of power and citizens
are rarely mentioned, and mutual fraud is referred to
most often. Consequently citizens dependency on
power proves to be to a great degree ostentatious,
"sly".
As for any under-institutionalized society the
transition of power from one group to another in the
history of our country of recent decades turns out to
be an arduous ordeal which exposes and threatens
the entire construction of power relations.
2. The Russian Mirror for Byelorussian President
(by Leonid Kesselman). Basing on the data of mass
surveys carried out by Public Opinion Foundation
and Levada-Center the author analyses the perception by various social groups of elections in
Byelorussia, the causes of positive attitude to
A.G.Lukashenko, the prospects for his electing the
President of a united state of Russia and Byelorussia.
3. Three Time Measures or the Dynamics of
Status Subjective Evaluations (by Larisa Kosova).
The article analyses the changes in the functioning
of vertical mobility channels fixed in the findings of
mass surveys during recent 15 years. In ideal type
case two "sleeves" are distinguished in the stream of
upward mobility. One of them comprises those
whose mobility is based on individual efforts, own
resources, aiming at personal achievements; the
other one consists of the people whose social positions depend on outer support, first of all on social
programs. The correlation of these various ways of
social existence in the total mobility stream allows
us to evaluate the character and direction of society
movement.

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118

Data analysis shows that after 2000 the correlation of these "sleeves" in the overall stream of vertical mobility has changed. In 1992---1997 the share
of those who evaluated their status as increased was
significantly less than that of those who had lost
their social positions. Upward mobility based on
individual achievements was mentioned by the
strata characterized by the greatest social resources
and their success was based on personal efforts,
individual achievement attitudes. At present a new
component has appeared in the stream of upward
mobility which has been increasing since 2000 according to the surveys. It is connected with raising
wages and pensions as well as with paying debts to
pensioners and working in budget sphere. The increase is noted by those who depend on the state
budget, for whom the transition from destitution to
poverty, from working without payment to getting
though low but regularly paid wages (pensions,
benefits) means increasing their status positions.
This is the fundamental difference of mobility processes taking place at present from those we observed
in19921997.
4. Russia Residents Attitude to Legal Institutions: the Survey of Recent Research (by Olga
Gryaznova). The relationship between population
and legal institutions is considered on the basis of
the findings of public opinion polls. Special attention is paid to the trust of people towards legal institutions, to the issue of militiamen arbitrariness, to
the types of offences committed by legal institutions
representatives that bring about greatest concern of
the population. The research has revealed the high
level of mistrust to legal institutions and fear of
anti-legal actions on the part of their representatives. This fact in its turn is accounted for not
only by characteristics of the institutions per se but
by structural peculiarities of the social system existing in Russia.
5. The Cultural Capital and Accessibility of
Higher Education (by Tomasz Zarycki). On the
basis of the results of a comparative study of students of Moscows and Warsaws universities. The
article discusses the results of a comparative survey
of students of Moscows and Warsaws universities.
Findings concerning the accessibility of higher education institutions in capital cities of Poland and
Russia are the main focus of the paper. They give an
image in which a considerable difference in the role
of cultural capital, the notion introduced by Pierre
Bourdieu, can be seen as an interpretation of a situation in two counties. While students in Warsaw
identify with intelligentsia more often, there are
more representative of less educated families among
119

them than in Moscows universities, where the


mechanism of social reproduction of the countrys
cultural elites is very clearly dominating. This effect
may be related to the much higher level of corruption in Moscow, confirmed also by the survey. In
both countries however, the traditional system of
entrance exams based on the verification of extensive cultural knowledge of candidates, seems to be
the main reason behind the high level of concentration of students from families with highest level of
cultural capital in the best universities of both countries. The findings seem to confirm the thesis of
special role of cultural capital in the countries of
Central and Eastern Europe, although the mechanism of its influence on the processes of social reproduction appear to be differentiated.
6. Youth at the Secondary Employment Market
(by Vladimir Zvonovsky, Regina Belousova). Since
young people are unable to offer themselves as
qualified and experienced labor force their leading
motive for secondary employment, especially
among teenagers, is providing for their own interests
or supporting their families. In most cases additionally earning youth dont think of acquiring labor
skills. Nevertheless additional work irrespective of
goals contributes to acquiring professional and communicative skills even though to a minimal degree.
Therefore one of the objectives of our research was
showing the influence of additional employment on
developing high quality labor resources that meet
market demands.
In most general terms its possible to distinguish
two kinds of youth secondary employment: a temporary one that is "spontaneous" or "periodical" and
permanent additional work. The research of secondary
employment structure carried out in Russia show considerable prevalence of temporary work over permanent additional one. For example, in 1999 according to
these research occasional earnings made up about 75%
while permanent ones did about 25% in the total
amount of additional earnings.
The findings of our research have revealed practically the same youth employment structure in
Samara region. Occasional work makes up about
80% of all additional earnings and permanent work
accounts for about 20%. It is due to this fact that in
the majority of cases we used a combined index of
additional work that included both types of secondary employment.
8. Information: Surveys Findings
I. Technical Notes
II. Attitudes, Opinions and Evaluations of the
Population (January, 2006)

2 (82) 2006