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endorsed by University of Cambridge International Examinations

for Cambridge IGCSE


seCond edition

Teachers Resource Kit

RoseMarie Gallagher Paul Ingram


17 Cracking hydrocarbons
Aim: to break the long-chain molecules in liquid paraffin into molecules with shorter chains. You will need:
n n n n

liquid paraffin

aluminium oxide pellets (catalyst)

n n n

bromine water (corrosive)

n n n

ceramic wool

boiling tube with delivery tube and bung to fit six test-tubes, four test-tube bungs, test-tube rack water trough

spatula dropper wooden splint

retort stand, clamp, and boss Bunsen burner and heat-resistant mat safety glasses

Liquid paraffin is a mixture of hydrocarbons that have molecules with long carbon chains. These long-chain molecules can be broken into shorter molecules in a process called cracking. Cracking requires heat and a catalyst.

4 Start heating the boiling tube, below the catalyst. (See the diagram.) 5 Allow gas to bubble off for 10 seconds or so. Then place a test-tube full of water over the end of the delivery tube, as in the diagram. 6 When the test-tube is full of gas, put the bung in quickly, under the water. Then move the test-tube to the test-tube rack. 7 Fill the other three test-tubes with gas in the same way. Then turn off the Bunsen burner. Remove the delivery tube from the water immediately, to prevent suck-back. 8 Now answer the questions in your table, for the samples of liquid paraffin and gas.

1 Prepare a larger copy of the table shown below. 2 Fill the trough with water. Place four test-tubes and bungs in it so that the test-tubes are full of water, ready for use. 3 Place a little liquid paraffin in the other two test-tubes. Stand them in the test-tube rack.

1 Place a small piece of ceramic wool in the bottom of the boiling tube. Then, using the dropper, add 10 drops of liquid paraffin to the wool. 2 Using the spatula, place pellets of catalyst half-way along the boiling tube. 3 Clamp the boiling tube as in the diagram, with the clamp near the open end. Connect the delivery tube to it.

1 What is a hydrocarbon? 2 In studying the liquid paraffin and the gas, what evidence did you obtain that: a larger molecules had been converted to smaller ones? b an unsaturated hydrocarbon had been obtained from a saturated hydrocarbon?

Questions What does it look like? Does it smell? Does it burn easily? (Test with a lighted splint.) What happens when it is shaken with bromine water?

Liquid paraffin

The gas that forms

ceramic wool + oil catalyst delivery tube bung


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19A Testing for anions

Aim: to practice carrying out the tests for anions that your syllabus requires. You will need: 1M solutions of these five potassium salts: chloride, iodide, carbonate, sulfate, nitrate (irritants) n dilute nitric acid, 1M (corrosive) n silver nitrate solution, 0.05M (harmful) n limewater (harmful) n dilute hydrochloric acid, 1M (corrosive) n barium nitrate solution, 1M (harmful) n red litmus paper n sodium hydroxide solution, 1M n small piece of aluminium foil (corrosive)
n n n

five test-tubes and a test-tube rack Bunsen burner and heat-resistant mat

n n

test-tube holder graduated dropping pipettes

n n

boiling tube safety glasses

Anions are negative ions. The carbonate ion is identified by the release of carbon dioxide. The other anions in the tests below are identified by precipitates that form.

Use a CLEAN dropping pipette for each different solution you use.

Prepare a larger copy of this table, to record your observations in. solution 1 2 3 4 5 compound in solution potassium chloride potassium iodide potassium carbonate potassium sulfate potassium nitrate anion present (name and formula) test A A B C D

observation during test

Test A: for the chloride and iodide ions a Put about 3 cm of solution 1 in one test-tube, and about 3 cm3 of solution 2 in another.

Test C: for the sulfate ion a Put about 3 cm3 of solution 4 in a test-tube. Add a few drops of nitric acid and about 1 cm3 of barium nitrate solution. b Observe and note the colour of the precipitate. Test D: for the nitrate ion a Put about 3 cm3 of solution 5 in a boiling tube. b Add about 3 cm3 of sodium hydroxide solution, and one piece of aluminium foil. c Using a test-tube holder, heat the boiling tube carefully until the solution starts to boil. (Make sure the tube is pointed away from you, and keep your safety glasses on.) d Test the gas that forms with red litmus paper.

b To each, add a few drops of nitric acid, and about 1 cm3 of silver nitrate solution. c Observe and record the colour of the precipitate. Test B: for the carbonate ion a Put about 3 cm3 of solution 3 in a test-tube. Add about 3 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid. b Using a dropper, collect some of the gas that is released, and bubble it through a test-tube containing limewater.

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4 Atoms combining
Core curriculum
1 This is about the bonding in molecules of water, methane, and hydrogen chloride. a b First, draw hydrogen atoms in the boxes, to complete the structures of the molecules. Then use and 3 to show their bonding. (Use 3 for an electron from hydrogen.)




hydrogen chloride

This diagram shows the structure of a common substance. a Extend the structure to the right, by adding four more ions. b i Name the substance that has this structure.

Na+ Cl Na+


Cl Na+ Cl



Which type of bonding does it have?

iii Which word describes the structure, giant or molecular? c From the structure, it is possible to predict many properties of the substance. Underline the most likely property for the solid, in each pair below. i ii solubility in water melting point / C soluble / insoluble 59 / 801 good / poor

iii electrical conductivity d

Complete the diagrams for the ions in the structure, to show their electron arrangement. Show the missing electron shells. (The dark circles show the nucleii.)




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WORKSHEET e Explain how electrons are transferred, when the ions in d are formed from their atoms.

These diagrams show part of the structures of diamond and graphite.






a b c

Which do these structures represent, elements or compounds? Fill in the three missing labels, for the atom and two structures. Describe the differences in the bonding and structure of graphite and diamond. bonding


One of the two substances is very hard, and the other is soft. Explain this difference.


Which substance is therefore used in cutting tools, and which is used as a lubricant? cutting tools: lubricant:

One substance is an insulator, and the other is a good conductor of electricity. Explain this difference.

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