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Umbrella Corporation

R E S E A R C H F I L E S

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History
In the 1950s, Ozwell E. Spencer and Edward Ashford discovered the Progenitor virus while studying the highly dangerous "Ebola virus" in Africa. The Progenitor virus possessed mutagenic characteristics, which would drastically alter the physical and mental make up of its host. Furthermore, the two scientists noted that the virus possessed the uncanny ability to rejuvenate deceased organisms. Ashford and Spencer were planning to use the virus to create biological weapons. Following Ashford's death, Spencer and his new partner James Marcus, managed to seize control of the project's development, and soon began to work on the prototypes of a malicious biological weapon. After years of experimentation, Marcus and Spencer realized that Progenitor Virus experienced trouble bonding with its host's DNA. Marcus managed to resolve the issue infecting a parasitic organism that had a simple-minded purpose in life (to feed, specifically) with the virus, and then allow the organism, in this case, a leech to attach to another organism. This ground breaking discovery led to more research, eventually leading up to the creation of the tyrant virus, named "t" by Marcus. Once an organism is infected by the virus, it will eventually mutate into a deadly organism. Characteristics According to research conducted by the Umbrella Corporation, only one in ten million hosts exposed to the tyrant virus possess the potential to mutate into Tyrants. This is due to the presence of Beta Hetero Nonserotonin, a special hormone that is secreted by the brain during its prepubescent years. Furthermore, the hormone is only secreted when one is placed under a significant amount of stress or fear. According to Wesker, the host's mindset might be a crucial factor in determining the resultant mutations. One possible explanation for this might be the presence of certain hormones and chemicals. If this is assumed to be correct, then Tyrants are truely fear and anger incarnate, as the conditions for the extractions of Beta Hetero Nonserotonin is nothing short of absolute terror. This could explain the terrifying visage and forms of the tyrants, along with their love for reckless destruction and mayhem. If the virus is able to find a suitable host, it will dramatically increase one's size, strength, speed, and agility. It will also lead to the development of several lengthy acicular blade-like structures on ones arm. While t-virus is rather advantageous to its host, it should be noted that the subjected host will be forced to endure a prodigious increase in adrenaline, causing the heart to expand and protrude through the chest. Furthermore, most of the original breeds of Tyrants were plagued with grotesque facial deformities, as well as an acute decline in intelligence. The first human to ever exemplify the characteristics of a Tyrant was Lisa Trevor. During her teenage years, Lisa was abducted by a group of Ozwell Spencers henchmen. Ever since the abduction, Lisa has undergone a plethora of experiments, which have led to her immense physical and mental deterioration. After serving as host to the t-virus, Lisa played a pivotal role in solidifying the Tyrant project, and later, the Nemesis T-Type project. Albert Wesker, James Marcus' proteg, ordered that Lisa be slain in an undisclosed portion of the Arklay Mountains in order to avoid future "mishaps". Progenitor virus (also known as the Mother virus) was discovered by Lord Ozwell E. Spencer, Sir Edward Ashford, and James Marcus. These three gentlemen had a certain economic position and decided to begin research upon the virus. Most of the research was carried out by Marcus, as Ashford died in 1968 and Spencer was already occupied by his burgeoning chemical corporation, Umbrella. Marcus had little resources to pool into the investigation, until Spencer agreed to employ

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him as a researcher and later Director of his Corporation's Training facility, putting the vast resources of Umbrella into his hands. Marcus overbid his hand, greedy for the power to finally invest serious amounts into his research, demanded numerous resources to perfect and improve what he envisioned was his life's work. This led to friction between Marcus and Spencer who, to compensate from the crippling economic demands laid by Marcus, demanded that he create a virus with a 100% effectiveness rate, much to the confusion of Marcus and his assistants, new Umbrella Trainees Albert Wesker and William Bikin. The Umbrella Corporation used its finances to secretly develop the virus under the radar of international authorities. In time, Marcus further evolved the virus, creating the first effective bioweapon to be produced in large quantity and be closely studied by the Umbrella Corporation. By adding the virus to leeches, the attributes of both were combined, and the T-virus soon saw the light circa 1978. Though most of the research for the virus took place within the Arklay Laboratory underneath the Spencer estate near Raccoon City and the Umbrella Training facility under Marcus' orders, covered by the American Umbrella offices, Spencer's Umbrella empire in Europe raced against Marcus to adequate the T-virus to create a virus with an even greater destructiveness. Marcus' dreams to overthrow Spencer and his attitude towards the virus as a "money-spinning tool" for Umbrella were never fulfilled, as he was murdered before he could enact them. Birkin came to be known within Umbrella circles as the true creator of the T-virus. During those years, vast numbers of t-viral strains were developed in the Arklay Laboratory, and tested upon one solitary test subject: Lisa Trevor. For years, she was subject to intense biological torture, which, despite all odds, she survived. As well, William Birkin, grown conceited as being credited as the creator of the t-virus, spawned a myriad of biological weapons to serve as backup to the virus, to ensure a 100% death ratio in any populace the virus should be released. Among these are the Hunters (created by fusion of a human fertilized egg with T-virus infected reptilian DNA), the Ivies (flowers grown to unnatural proportions and given animal instincts, locomotion and rudimentary defence mechanisms), the Chimeras (a mixture between a fly and human given vague humanoid appearance, increased size and mass, improved claws, and better reflexes), the Cerberus' (infected dogs), and most importantly, the crowning achievement of Birkin's career for the time: the Tyrants. Later, Lisa Trevor's body, by now a melting pot of unthinkable disease, had deteriorated to inhuman levels. Noting she was, while not a Zombie, incredibly stronger, slightly more intelligent, and impervious to all damage, Birkin decided to test the NE- Parasite (by then reputed to kill all its hosts, no matter how strong, in a matter of twenty minutes) in her. The results astounded even Birkin: Lisa's body, by then a hideous amalgam of all viruses ever tested on her, overcame the parasite and absorbed its rejuvenation properties, giving her even more destructive capabilities, greater strength, and total invulnerability to gunfire. Even with shackles she could not be bound, so after she outlived her capacity when Birkin extracted what would become the G-virus deep from her, he had her killed and disposed of (it is revealed in a remake of the original game that Lisa Trevor was still alive). When the time came, in early-1998, James Marcus revived, rejuvenated by the immense power of the first T-virus strains, coordinated into a steady pace by his own DNA and that of his leeches. For more than three decades, the T-virus threat had been averted, but at the time of his awakening, the Arklay woodland slowly was corrupted by the infectious agent. Before long, the Arklay laboratories had fallen; as the former Umbrella Training Facility was thought deserted, an Umbrella team (likely to

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be the U.B.C.S.) was dispatched to destroy the infection from there, before Marcus wiped out the entire platoon with his army of leeches. From there, stories started stemming from the forest; several killings took place and an elite team of paramilitary units, the S.T.A.R.S. Bravo team, was sent from Raccoon City to destroy the threat, oblivious to its real cause. Only four of these members, Rebecca Chambers, Enrico Marini, Kenneth J. Sullivan, and Richard Aiken survived the night. All of them ended up holed up in the massive Spencer Estate and its adjacent areas, where later the S.T.A.R.S. Alpha team entered as well, after suffering a similar fate at the hands of a pack of Cerberus'. Later on, the remaining members of S.T.A.R.S. met up at the underground laboratory where the Tyrant T-002 was kept. This Tyrant killed, albeit temporarily, Albert Wesker, and was destroyed by a rocket blast in the second brawl it offered the remaining S.T.A.R.S.. After the demolition of the manor, the virus sources were thought stopped definitively, but when William Birkin's subterranean laboratories were attacked by Umbrella's Black Ops in September 1998 in an effort to retrieve his G-virus, another outbreak ensued. This infection encompassed all of Raccoon and ended in the forced termination of the entire city. Umbrella was immediately exposed as creator of the virus due to the enormous amount of evidence produced from the scarce survivors, and was shut down. Still, another outbreak was induced in late 1998, on Rock Fort Island, this time by the revived Albert Wesker and his new organization, the Agency. This ended in the partial demolition of the Umbrella installations there and the total destruction of the South Pole Umbrella Research Center. Yet another occurring on Sheena Island; an Umbrella owned Tyrant Factory. Hundreds of people from across the globe were kidnapped and taken there to be made into Tyrants. This infection was caused by the - now mad with power - Commander Vincent Goldman. The island was "sterilized." Another occurred on an Umbrella-owned luxury cruiser, the Spencer Rain caused by an ex-Umbrella terrorist. All crew and passengers were transformed into Zombies with the virus.The ship was destroyed when it crashed into an island which housed the -also infected- Umbrella Atlantic Facility, and a secret underwater Missile Silo. A bioterrorist attack in 2005 India was halted by WilPharma's t-vaccine. This attack was actually planned by a WilPharma researcher, who wanted to demonstrate power of the virus and its vaccine to potential buyers on the black market. The last known outbreak occurred in 2005, within the Harvardville Airport, where the infection began after a single zombie entered the building and began to attack people within the building. A smallscale outbreak happened at the nearby WilPharma Corporation bio-dome facility, after a bomb was detonated. Both facilities were eventually sterilized, however. No matter how many outbreaks have been halted, the T-virus remains a constant threat to global safety. Infection Effects The T-virus is built like many viruses, but not all. As the virus makes contact with a cell's membrane, it inserts its genetic coding into the cell. The cell absorbs the viral genome into its own genetic makeup, which takes over the cell's functions. The cell begins to produce offspring of the original virus. The new viruses are then released from the host cell and infect the neighbouring cells, which starts the process all over again.

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The T-virus kills and replaces mitochondrial organelles with a replica of itself. The virus then combines with other cells to produce energy. The energy produced is just enough to power the motor neurons and the basic lower brain functions. Not only that, but this bypasses the entire circulatory system, which makes the heart and lungs redundant systems that can be disposed of. The reanimated host body is then left with the intense need to feed in order to replenish energy supplies without having to sacrifice its own tissue. Actions taken by the host in this time period greatly resemble that of "zombies" depicted in horror movies, and are thus dubbed by that name. However, the T-virus can only properly function by consuming the cell in order to produce its energy. This slow breakdown of cells leads to the gradual breakdown of the host, causing necrosis. The virus incorporates itself into the host's DNA, which substantially alters it. This is why creatures, such as bees and spiders, only have very minor mutation, such as increased size, when compared to the human mutation caused by the virus. Should the human host be alive at the time of T-virus infection, all higher brain functions are destroyed. This leaves only the telencephalon, better known as the cerebrum, to govern behaviour. This leaves the infected host with a very animalistic behaviour. As the virus spreads, it damages the hypothalamus. This produces a massive flood of neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones such as norepinephrine and dopamine. These effects, combined with the painful symptoms of the infection, induce a psychotic rage, persistent hunger, and increased aggressiveness in those infected. Should the human host be dead at the time of infection, only enough energy is produced to power the lower brain functions. These functions are responsible for the most primal instincts, such as walking and eating. In either case, their late-stage appearance and behaviour are characteristics of their name-sake, a zombie. Should a late-stage human host be rendered unconscious, the body will lay in a dormant phase appearing to be dead. In actuality the host is rapidly mutating due to the T-virus becoming hyperactive. Within the time frame of an hour, the decayed skeletal and muscular system is reconstructed into a stronger and more durable form. Development can be seen of sharp canine teeth and razor claws, fresh blood seeps into remaining skin giving it a reddish hue, advances in decomposition, and intact eyes become a bright white. Umbrella researchers at the Arklay Laboratory have dubbed this stage "V-ACT", referring to the resulting creature as a "Crimson Head" zombie. To awaken, the brain must be jolted back to consciousness with a slight but important increase in intelligence, and large increase in agility and aggressiveness. As a consequence of this rapid mutation, cellular breakdown hits a critical point where the host cannot regenerate properly and can be killed permanently. If by chance a human T-virus host should survive past the secondary Crimson Head mutation with little or no damage, the virus may actually strengthen the damaged/remaining cells, resulting in a Licker, aCrimson Head mutation taken to an extreme. The closest piece of evidence of this possibility would be the Regis Licker or "Suspended" that is encountered in Raccoon City's Apple Inn; as the specimen seemed to be going through the stages of mutation resulting in the change from a Crimson Head to a Licker. This is evident due to the "licking" and hanging abilities present in both Suspen-Dead and Lickers, but also the layer of skin still attached along with the majority of human physical traits. In regular Lickers, the host possesses a long, powerful tongue, from which it derives its name, and enormous claws. The skin has all but disappeared, revealing the underlying muscle, and the brain is exposed. It is not known though how much more mutation can actually occur past the form of Lickers, as all known untampered specimens were destroyed in the destruction of Raccoon City.

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Albert Wesker states in a file that he sees similarities in the apparently random mutations endowed by the virus (as examples he mentions the mutations undergone bySergei Vladimir and what he knew of James Marcus' mutations) and explains he believes that the host's mindset is a crucial factor in explaining the mutation (e.g.; Vladimir becomes what Wesker calls "a monster whose very body is the picture of suffering", revealing what Wesker considered to be Vladimir's true self, and the rejuvenation experienced by Marcus, an aged man who understandably desired control and the restoration of his vibrant youth, characteristics that were carried to his own eventual mutations, including his true madness and the horrific mutation that overcame him in the end), and briefly wonders where does this theory fit with his own mutations. This theory fits in with the introduction of one of the steroids necessary for the creation of the massproduced Tyrant, the Beta Hetero Nonserotonin, and it could signify the virus manifests itself in different forms depending upon the presence or absence of certain hormones in the human brain. Following this thread, it is not a ridiculous assumption to believe either certain viruses are better at producing certain types of mutations depending upon said hormones. Means of Infection The T-virus is capable of various methods of subject infection. Research files supplied in the Arklay Mountains facility identify the virus as having a protein structure. This description has very little (if any) difference from the true writer's intent. As such, it is likely that any known methods of viral of Umbrella's experimentation (known as Bio-Organic Weapons) with the T-virus were initiated by direct injection of the virus into the host. This was considered Umbrellas primary means of infection. Water: One of the theories for the initial outbreak at the Arklay Research Facility is that the scientists and researchers there were infected once the T-virus contaminated the water supply. However, this theory is practically confirmed to be false because Dr. Marcus admitted he was the one who released the T-virus at the Spencer Mansion, in addition to contaminating the Umbrella-owned train, theEcliptic Express. However, the virus can be transmitted by water, as proved when rats which had consumed samples of the T-virus infected water supply of Raccoon City, leading to the historical zombie epidemic. Air: Though there are discrepancies between canonical and non-canonical material over whether or not the T-virus is an airborne virus, when the virus broke out in the Arklay Research Facility the cleanup workers wore bio-chemical protection suits. This is the main argument for those who feel that the virus is an airborne pathogen, if only for a short period of time. However, the use of hazmat protective suits does not prove that the virus is airborne, but only that the workers were cautious in protecting themselves, perhaps from accidental contact with the virus (ie. touch). Throughout the Resident Evil titles, only the live-action movies have shown it to be Airborne, yet only in the first movie, with the second and third showing it only passing through direct contact (see under). Direct Fluidic Transmission: Anyone attacked by an infected host in close combat, be it by bite, scratch, gash, or stab will have the virus transferred to their bloodstream via contact with infected bodily fluids and tissues. The Umbrella Corp. believes this to be a secondary means of infection. For story purposes, however, most of the main characters in the games were never canonically bitten or stabbed, though even highly infectious real world viruses do not always infect the victim after one exposure (but given the relentless attacks of those infected, one exposure might not necessarily mean a single scratch or bite). Charles Ashford in order to reverse the inevitable cellular breakdown in his daughter Angela. The virus acts by stimulating pre and post-mortem cellular growth, with the unfortunate side effect of basically killing the host in the process. To counter this, Ashford developed an anti-virus. When the Tvirus was used, and kept in check by the anti-virus, Angela could avoid the debilitation that had kept her father confined to a wheelchair.

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The effects of the virus in the movies do not differ widely from the game virus. There are a few exceptions: The rate of infection varies, but is generally much shorter than the games, depending on the severity of an infected person's wounds. In the movies, a severely injured Rain lasts less than two and a half hours, while Carlos Oliveira goes for more than three before showing any outward signs of infection. In both cases, the subject lasts longer in the games. Bio-weapons like the Licker are produced differently in the movies. A Licker is created by direct injection. Similarly, a scratch from a licker can cause mutation. A stronger strain of the T-virus also exists, accidentally created by Sam Isaacs when he treated zombies with a serum derived from the blood of the Alice clones. The resulting "Enhanced Zombie" carried a much stronger viral load; once bitten, even multiple doses of the anti-virus could not remove the infection. There are four known serums that will cure those infected by the T-virus, but only in its earlier stages, before it becomes completely active. The first is an unnamed vaccine developed by Douglas Rover of the Umbrella Medical Service at Raccoon General Hospital (depicted in Resident Evil 3: Nemesis) as a last-minute effort to halt the rapid spread of the T-virus. However, most of the hospital's staff had already succumbed to infection before the vaccine could be properly produced even in small amounts. This vaccine could be cultivated by using a specialized synthesizer and inserting a medium base into the system, then combining the necessary chemicals using the control panel. The exact components that were used to create this prototype are unknown; as most of the documentation regarding its production were either stolen by Nicholai Ginovaef or destroyed after Nicholai used C-4 to demolish the hospital, taking with it any evidence of the Umbrella Corporation's involvement with the hospital in the process. However, Carlos Oliveira was able to create a single dose of the vaccine for Jill Valentine (who had been infected by the T-virus) and manage to escape moments before the hospital's destruction. While the vaccine apparently did not immediately cure Jill of the Virus, it did send it into hibernation, until it eventually died out. It also apparently created powerful anti-bodies within Jill, making her immune to most other viruses, even possibly Uroburos. The second serum is Daylight (depicted in Resident Evil: Outbreak), developed by Greg Muller and Peter Jenkins of the Raccoon University. The actual ingredients for Daylight are T-Blood (a blood sample of a T-virus infected creature, namely Thanatos), V-Poison (a sample of poison from an infected Wasp) and P-Base (an unknown chemical liquid that requires preparing before being mixed). Once all the ingredients have been collected, they can be mixed together in a special chemical mixer. The mixture takes about five to seven minutes to make and thirty seconds to one minute to duplicate. The third is a reagent designated "AT1521," developed by the research team operating from within Umbrella's official Raccoon City facility. Surviving members of the team (including Linda and Carter) return to the facility in order to retrieve the serum for full-scale production of a cure to help prevent the spread of the t-virus in Resident Evil: Outbreak File #2. It has similar features to the Daylight serum; and it was suggested that it was a prototype or, as Carter states, a 'sample'. The exact details of the serum itself are unknown due to the short role it played in the storyline (the sample being destroyed by the rampaging Tyrant T-0400TP not long after its initial appearance). However, Linda did remember the reagent's base, and thus was able to remake a sample. The fourth is an antivirus known as the t-vaccine created by WilPharma, unfortunately most of the samples were destroyed by Curtis Miller right after the Harvardville Airport t-virus outbreak, and the last t-vaccine sample was taken by Frederic Downing so that he could sell it to General Miguel Grand along with the T- and G-virus samples, but he was caught by Claire Redfield and Leon S.

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Kennedy before he could sell it, it is possible that the US Government used the last antivirus sample to produce more in case of future outbreaks.

There are also some prototype antibodies for the T-virus used by the U.B.C.S.. They were only mentioned by in a pocketbook kept by a deceased UBCS mercenary in the St. Michael Clock Tower. There is one seen only within the movie world, called Anti-virus, is a dedicated, engineered antivirus created by Umbrella. This one is only effective if the patient does not have a large amount of the Tvirus in their bodies, or the infection is caught in the early stages. This one was shown in the first and second movie but its effects were different and it was developed by Dr. Charles Ashford for his daughter, Angela.

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Progenitor
The Progenitor virus (also known as the Mother or Founder virus)[citation needed] is an ancient virus which pre-dates the tyrant virus.

The Progenitor virus was a highly potent non-carcinogenic (Cancer-causing)Mutagen that became central in the Ndipaya culture.[citation needed] "Stairway to the Sun" (also known simply as the 'Progenitor flower'), was discovered by Westerners in the 19th century, and the virus that was extracted from it would become the base from which the Umbrella Corporation's most successful bio-organic weapons research would stem several decades later. Derived from the "Stairway to the Sun", it was rediscovered in the Kijuju region of West Africa on December 4, 1966 by Lord Ozwell E. Spencer, Doctor James Marcus[2] and his student Brandon Bailey,[2] in an attempt to prove the validity of Henry Travis, a man who mentioned the flower over a century previous. In March of the following year, Spencer made plans to start up a company and the Umbrella Corporation was founded by the three, with Spencer providing most of the funding, to disguise the research they hoped to carry out. Sir Ashford died because of a Progenitor virus infection in 1968.[4] Despite sir Ashford's death, his colleague Dr. Marcus would continue his research into the Progenitor virus as planned. Dr. Marcus, however, was much more interested in the effects the Progenitor virus would produce when exposed to organic subjects, whilst Spencer had plans for the virus to be utilized towards military applications.[citation needed] Eventually this research would begin to yield results, and would eventually show Marcus and Spencer that cells infected with the virus would undergo a very violent and uncontrolled cellular change through the mutation of the host's genes. This caused increased aggressiveness and rapid growth in non-mammals, while mammals would exhibit various new attributes, including the symptoms displayed in the non-mammal specimens.[5] However, the results weren't suitable for Umbrella's plans, as the subjects would prove to be inefficient and uncoordinated bio-organic weapons.[5] As Marcus and Spencer became obsessively fixated on the possibilities the Progenitor virus offered, this fixation eventually took a dark turn. The first human subjects to be infected were Lisa Trevor and her mother, Jessica, who were administered the virus on November 10, 1967. Jessica was administered the Type-A strain but displayed no reaction to the treatment and was killed by Umbrella afterwards. Lisa was administered the Type-B strain and underwent severe mutation, becoming extremely aggressive, suffering dramatic decline in intelligence and horrible disfigurement. Lisa would then become Umbrella's test subject for several decades.

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Project Tyrant
The Tyrant virus, more commonly known as the "t-virus", is the first mutagenic virus discovered by the founders of Umbrella Pharmaceutical, Inc.. While the tyrant virus is responsible for the creation of the majority of their Bio-Organic Weapons (or B.O.W.s), the original intent was to create the perfect B.O.W.: the Tyrant.
On December 4th, 1966, the Progenitor virus (also known as the Mother or Founder virus) was discovered by Lord Ozwell E. Spencer and James Marcus. These gentlemen, along with Sir Edward Ashford, a family friend of Spencer, held a certain economic position and decided to begin research upon the virus. Most of the research was carried out by Marcus, after Ashford died in July 1968[3]and Spencer was already occupied by his burgeoning chemical corporation, Umbrella. Marcus had little resources to pool into the investigation, until Spencer agreed to employ him as a researcher and later Director of his corporation's Training facility, putting the vast resources of Umbrella into his hands. Marcus overbid his hand, greedy for the power to finally invest serious amounts into his research, demanded numerous resources to perfect and improve what he envisioned was his life's work. This led to friction between Marcus and Spencer who, to compensate from the crippling economic demands laid by Marcus, demanded that he create a virus with a 100% effectiveness rate, much to the confusion of Marcus and his assistants, new Umbrella Trainees Albert Wesker and William Birkin. The Umbrella Corporation used its finances to secretly develop the virus under the radar of international authorities. In time, Marcus further evolved the virus, creating the first effective bioweapon to be produced in large quantity and be closely studied by the Umbrella Corporation. By adding the virus to leeches, the attributes of both were combined, and the t-virus soon saw the light in 1978. Though most of the research for the virus took place within the Arklay Laboratory underneath the estate facade, some eight miles North-west of Raccoon City, and the Umbrella Training facility under Marcus' orders, covered by the American Umbrella offices, Spencer's Umbrella empire in Europe raced against Marcus to adequate the t-virus to create a virus with an even greater destructiveness. Marcus' dreams to overthrow Spencer and his attitude towards the virus as a "money-spinning tool" for Umbrella were never fulfilled, as he was murdered before he could enact them. Birkin came to be known within Umbrella circles as the true creator of the T-virus. During those years, vast numbers of t-viral strains were developed in the Arklay Laboratory, and tested upon one solitary test subject: Lisa Trevor. For years, she was subject to intense biological torture, which, despite all odds, she survived. As well, William Birkin, grown conceited as being credited as the creator of the t-virus, spawned a myriad of biological weapons to serve as backup to the virus, to ensure a 100% death ratio in any populace the virus should be released. Among these are the Hunters (created by fusion of a human fertilized egg with t-virus infected reptilian DNA),[8] the Ivies (flowers grown to unnatural proportions and given animal instincts, locomotion and rudimentary defense mechanisms),[citation needed] the Chimeras (a mixture between a fly and human given vague humanoid appearance, increased size and mass, improved claws, and better reflexes),[citation needed] the Cerberus (infected dogs - specifically Dobermans), and most importantly, the crowning achievement of Birkin's career for the time: the Tyrant.

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Later, Lisa Trevor's body, by now a melting pot of unthinkable disease, had deteriorated to inhuman levels. Noting she was, while not a zombie, incredibly stronger, slightly more intelligent, and impervious to all damage, Birkin decided to test the NE- Parasite (by then reputed to kill all its hosts, no matter how strong, within five minutes of gaining control over it) in her. The results astounded even Birkin: Lisa's body, by then a hideous amalgam of all viruses ever tested on her, overcame the parasite and absorbed its rejuvenation properties, giving her even more destructive capabilities, greater strength, and total invulnerability to gunfire. Even with shackles she could not be bound. After she outlived her capacity when Birkin extracted what would become the G-virus deep from within her, he had her killed and disposed of. Though, due to the properties of the primitive Gvirus within her veins, death would not take her away that easily. She would spend the next decade hiding underneath the courtyard. When the time came in early-1998, James Marcus revived, rejuvenated by the immense power of the first t-virus strains, coordinated into a steady pace by his own DNA and that of his leeches. For more than three decades, the t-virus threat had been averted, but at the time of his awakening, the Arklay woodland was slowly corrupted by the infectious agent. Before long, the Arklay laboratories had fallen. The Research facility was seemingly infected by infected water, causing its employees to fall to anarchy over the relatively long period of time between May 11[9]and late June, 1998. The believed abandoned Training facility too, fell. Two umbrella teams sent to evaluate it for reactivation were killed by the creatures from within and outside of the facility. From there, stories started stemming from the forest; several killings took place and an elite team of paramilitary units, the S.T.A.R.S. Bravo team, was sent from Raccoon City to destroy the threat, oblivious to its real cause. Only four of these members, Rebecca Chambers, Enrico Marini, Kenneth J. Sullivan, and Richard Aiken survived the night. All of them ended up holed up in the massive Spencer estate and its adjacent areas, where the next day, the S.T.A.R.S. Alpha team entered as well, after suffering a similar fate at the hands of the pack of Cerberi. Later on, the remaining members of S.T.A.R.S. met up at the underground laboratory where the Tyrant T-002 was kept. This Tyrant killed, albeit temporarily, Albert Wesker, and was killed by a rocket blast in the second brawl it offered the remaining S.T.A.R.S.. After the demolition of the manor, the virus sources were thought stopped definitively, but when William Birkin's subterranean laboratories were attacked by Umbrella's Black Ops in September 1998 in an effort to retrieve his G-virus, another outbreak ensued. This infection encompassed all of Raccoon and ended in the forced termination of the entire city. Umbrella was immediately exposed as creator of the virus due to the enormous amount of evidence produced from the scarce survivors, and was shut down. Still, another outbreak was induced in late 1998, on Rock Fort Island, this time by the revived Albert Wesker and his new employers, referred to only as the Organization. This ended in the partial demolition of the Umbrella installations there and the total destruction of the South Pole Umbrella Research Center. Yet another occurred in 1998, this time on Sheena Island; an Umbrella-owned "Tyrant Plant". Hundreds of adolescents from across the globe were kidnapped and taken there to be dissected, to retrieve a hormone important for Tyrant development.[10] This infection was caused by the - now mad with power - commander Vincent Goldman. The island was "sterilized" when facility's selfdestruct system was activated. Another occurred in 2002 on an Umbrella-owned luxury liner, the Spencer Rain, which was caused by an ex-Umbrella researcher-turned bio-terrorist named Morpheus D. Duvall, who was fired after the company used him as a scapegoat for the disaster at the Arklay facility.[citation needed] The ship's

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crew and its passengers were transformed into zombies, or were killed by the B.O.W. cargo being shipped out. The liner was destroyed when it crashed into an island which housed the -also infestedUmbrella Atlantic Facility.

Also in this year, an Amazonian organ-trafficing crime syndicate got hold of "t" and the similarly named, but otherwise unrelated, "T-Veronica virus". Receiving "t" and B.O.W.s through a black market group involving Ada Wong, the syndicate's leader, Javier Hidalgo, prepared himself war warfare. He also purchased T-Veronica throughAlbert Wesker, and proceeded to use it to treat his wife and from an unfortunate degenerative condition. After his daughter ran off, Javier, in a fit of rage, released the t-virus throughout the surrounding area. The virus spread to at least two villages, transforming their inhabitants into zombies. Leon S. Kennedy and Jack Krauser ended Javier's rule with the assistance of his daughter. A bioterrorist attack in 2005 India was halted by WilPharma's t-vaccine. This attack was actually planned by a WilPharma researcher, who wanted to demonstrate power of the virus and its vaccine to potential buyers on the black market. The last known outbreak occurred in 2005, within the Harvardville Airport, where the infection began after a single zombie entered the building and began to attack people within the building. A smallscale outbreak happened at the nearby WilPharma Corporation bio-dome facility, after a bomb was detonated. Both facilities were eventually sterilized, however. No matter how many outbreaks have been halted, the t-virus remains a constant threat to global safety. Development Timelife February 3, 1978: Marcus begins his experiment on the Leeches by infecting them with the Progenitor virus. September 19, 1978: Marcus confirms the existence of the t-virus. October 23, 1978: Marcus ceases experimenting on rodents, citing Humans as being the perfect guinea pig to prove its abilities. January 13, 1979: Marcus ends his research with the Leeches. February 11, 1979: Spencer has employees attempt to steal Marcus' research. 1988: Marcus is assassinated and credit for the virus' creation goes to his student William Birkin, who was a conspirator. 1993: An experimental t-virus variant designated "T-JCCC203" is used in human experimentation. 2002: A merger between a "t" antibody and the G-virus is created. The virus is named "tG".

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Incidents These are the following list of biohazard incidents involving the t-virus. There are other small scale outbreaks in other parts of the world but information of them is unavailable. Mansion Incident (1998) - Unleashed by the reanimated James Marcus to exact his revenge on Umbrella. Raccoon City outbreak (1998) - Unleashed due to the failed attempt by the Umbrella Security Service to steal the G-virus from William Birkin, later spread by rats. Rockfort Island Outbreak (1998) - Unleashed due to the attack on Rockfort Island committed by the H.C.F.led by Albert Wesker Antarctica Outbreak (1998) - Accidentally released Sheena Island outbreak (1998) - Unleashed by facility commander Vincent Goldman Morpheus D. Duvall Crisis (2002) - Unleashed by former Umbrella executive Morpheus D. Duvall onboard theSpencer Rain and also caused another outbreak on Umbrella's Atlantic Facility Operation: Javier (2002) - Unleashed by drug lord Javier Hidalgo to the amazonian ecosystem Raid at Umbrella's Caucasus Research Facility (2003) - Unleashed by Albert Wesker India Bioterrorist Attack (2005) - Unleashed by Miguel Grand's guerrilla forces Harvardville Outbreak (2005) - Unleashed by Curtis Miller

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Infection Effects The t-virus is built like many viruses, but not all. As the virus makes contact with a cell's membrane, it inserts its genetic coding into the cell. The cell absorbs the viral genome into its own genetic makeup, which takes over the cell's functions. The cell begins to produce offspring of the original virus. The new viruses are then released from the host cell and infect the neighboring cells, which starts the process all over again. The t-virus kills and replaces mitochondrial organelles with a replica of itself.[citation needed] The virus then combines with other cells to produce energy.[citation needed] The energy produced is just enough to power the motor neurons and the basic lower brain functions.[citation needed] The reanimated host body is then left with the intense need to feed in order to replenish energy supplies without having to sacrifice its own tissue.[citation needed]Actions taken by the host in this time period greatly resemble that of "zombies" depicted in horror movies, and are thus dubbed by that name.[citation needed] However, the t-virus can only properly function by consuming the cell in order to produce its energy. This slow breakdown of cells leads to the gradual breakdown of the host, causing necrosis. The virus incorporates itself into the host's DNA, which substantially alters it. This is why creatures, such as bees and spiders, only have very minor mutation, such as increased size, when compared to the human mutation caused by the virus. Should the human host be alive at the time of t-virus infection, all higher brain functions are destroyed. This leaves only the cerebellum to govern behaviour. This leaves the infected host with a very animalistic behaviour. As the virus spreads, it damages the hypothalamus. This produces a massive flood of neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones such as norepinephrine and dopamine. These effects, combined with the painful symptoms of the infection, induce a psychotic rage, persistent hunger, and increased aggressiveness in those infected. Should the human host be dead at the time of infection, only enough energy is produced to power the lower brain functions. These functions are responsible for the most primal instincts, such as walking and eating. In either case, their late-stage appearance and behaviour are characteristics of their name-sake, a zombie. Should a late-stage human host be rendered unconscious, the body will lay in a dormant phase appearing to be dead. In actuality the host is rapidly mutating due to the t-virus becoming hyperactive. Within the time frame of an hour, the decayed skeletal and muscular system is reconstructed into a stronger and more durable form. Development can be seen of sharp canine teeth and razor claws, fresh blood seeps into remaining skin giving it a reddish hue, advances in decomposition, and intact eyes become a bright white. Umbrella researchers at the Arklay Research Facility have dubbed this stage "V-ACT", referring to the resulting creature also known as a "Crimson Head". To awaken, the brain must be jolted back to consciousness with a slight but important increase in intelligence, and large increase in agility and aggressiveness. As a consequence of this rapid mutation, cellular breakdown hits a critical point where the host cannot regenerate properly and can be killed permanently.

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If by chance a human t-virus host should survive past the secondary Crimson Head mutation with little or no damage, the virus may actually strengthen the damaged/remaining cells, resulting in a Licker, a Crimson Head mutation taken to an extreme. The closest piece of evidence of this possibility would be the Regis Licker or "Suspended" that is encountered in Raccoon City's Apple Inn; as the specimen seemed to be going through the stages of mutation resulting in the change from a Crimson Head to a Licker. This is evident due to the "licking" and hanging abilities present in both Suspended and Lickers, but also the layer of skin still attached along with the majority of human physical traits. In regular Lickers, the host possesses a long, powerful tongue, from which it derives its name, and enormous claws. The skin has all but disappeared, revealing the underlying muscle, and the brain is exposed. It is not known though how much more mutation can actually occur past the form of Lickers, as all known un-tampered specimens were destroyed in the destruction of Raccoon City. Wesker states that he sees similarities in the apparently random mutations endowed by the virus (as examples he mentions the mutations undergone by Sergei Vladimir and what he knew of James Marcus' mutations) and explains he believes that the host's mindset is a crucial factor in explaining the mutation (e.g.; Vladimir becomes what Wesker calls "a monster whose very body is the picture of suffering", revealing what Wesker considered to be Vladimir's true self, and the rejuvenation experienced by Marcus, an aged man who understandably desired control and the restoration of his vibrant youth, characteristics that were carried to his own eventual mutation, including his true madness and the horrific mutation that overcame him in the end), and briefly wonders where does this theory fit with his own mutations. This theory fits in with the introduction of one of the steroids necessary for the creation of the massproduced Tyrant, the Beta Hetero Nonserotonin, and it could signify the virus manifests itself in different forms depending upon the presence or absence of certain hormones in the human brain. Following this thread, it is not a ridiculous assumption to believe either certain viruses are better at producing certain types of mutations depending upon said hormones. Means of Infection The t-virus is capable of various methods of subject infection. Research files supplied in the Arklay Mountains facility identify the virus as having a protein structure. As such, it is likely that any known methods of viral of Umbrella's experimentation (known as Bio-Organic Weapons) with the t-virus were initiated by direct injection of the virus into the host. This was considered Umbrellas primary means of infection. Water: One of the theories for the initial outbreak at the Arklay Research Facility is that the scientists and researchers there were infected once the t-virus contaminated the water supply. Air: Though there are discrepancies between canonical and non-canonical material over whether or not the t-virus is an airborne virus, when the virus broke out in the Arklay Research Facility, the clean-up workers wore bio-chemical protection suits. This is the main argument for those who feel that the virus is an airborne pathogen, if only for a short period of time. However, the use of hazmat protective suits does not prove that the virus is airborne, but only that the workers were cautious in protecting themselves, perhaps from accidental contact with the virus (ie. touch). In Resident Evil: Code Veronica, it is implied that the t-virus escaped from the Rockfort Island laboratory through a broken ventilation duct, resulting in a temporary airborne outbreak that contaminated nearby personnel and spread from there via the attacking zombies. Throughout the Resident Evil titles, only the live-action movies have shown it to be Airborne - yet only in the first movie, with the second and third showing it only passing through direct contact (see under).

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Direct Fluidic Transmission: Anyone attacked by an infected host in close combat, be it by bite, scratch, gash, or stab will have the virus transferred to their bloodstream via contact with infected bodily fluids and tissues. The Umbrella Corp. believes this to be a secondary means of infection. For story purposes, however, most of the main characters in the games were never canonically bitten or stabbed, though even highly infectious real world viruses do not always infect the victim after one exposure (but given the relentless attacks of those infected, one exposure might not necessarily mean a single scratch or bite). Known Antigens: There are four known serums that will cure those infected by the t-virus, but only in its earlier stages, before it becomes completely active. Umbrella Medical vaccine The first is an unnamed vaccine developed by Douglas Rover of the Umbrella Medical Service at Raccoon General Hospital as a last-minute effort to halt the rapid spread of the t-virus. However, most of the hospital's staff had already succumbed to infection before the vaccine could be properly produced even in small amounts. This vaccine could be cultivated by using a specialized synthesizer and inserting a medium base into the system, then combining the necessary chemicals using the control panel. The exact components that were used to create this prototype are unknown; as most of the documentation regarding its production were either stolen by Nicholai Ginovaef or destroyed after Nicholai used C-4 to demolish the hospital, taking with it any evidence of the Umbrella Corporation's involvement with the hospital in the process. However, Carlos Oliveira was able to create a single dose of the vaccine for Jill Valentine and managed to escape moments before the hospital's destruction. While the vaccine apparently did not immediately cure Jill of the virus, it did send it into hibernation, until it eventually died out. It also apparently created powerful anti-bodies within Jill, making her immune to most other viruses, even possibly Uroboros. Daylight Daylight was developed by Greg Muller and Peter Jenkins of the Raccoon University. The actual ingredients for Daylight are: T-Blood - a blood sample of a t-virus infected creature, namely Thanatos; V-Poison - a sample of poison from an infected Wasp; and P-Base - an unknown chemical liquid that requires preparing before being mixed. Once all the ingredients have been collected, they can be mixed together in a special chemical mixer. The mixture takes about five to seven minutes to make and thirty seconds to one minute to duplicate. The Tyrant Virus AT1521 "AT1521" was developed by the research team operating from within Umbrella's official Raccoon City facility. Linda and Carter, surviving developers of the vaccine returned to the facility on October 1, 1998 to retrieve it in hopes of wide-spread production of the vaccine. The exact details of the serum itself are unknown due to the short role it played in the storyline (the sample being destroyed by the rampaging Tyrant T-0400TP not long after its initial appearance). However, Linda did remember the reagent's base, and thus was able to remake a sample.

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T-vaccine The fourth is an anti-"t" agent known as the t-vaccine created by Wil Pharma. Unfortunately, most of the samples were destroyed by Frederic Downing right after the Harvardville Airport t-virus outbreak, and the last t-vaccine sample was taken by Downing so that he could sell it to bioterrorist general Miguel Grand along with the t- and G-virus samples, but he was caught by Claire Redfield and Leon S. Kennedy before he could sell it. It is possible that the US Government used the last anti-virus sample to produce more in case of future outbreaks. Antibodies There are also some prototype antibodies for the t-virus used by the UBCS. They were only mentioned by in a pocketbook kept by a deceased UBCS mercenary in the St. Michael Clock Tower. It should be noted that no "zombified" UBCS members were encountered in the Clock Tower. Regular Anti-viral pills can slow down t-virus mitosis temporarily. Anti-virus There is one seen only within the movie world, generically called "Anti-virus". It is a dedicated, engineered anti-virus created by Umbrella. This one is only effective if the patient does not have a large amount of the t-virus in their bodies, or the infection is caught in the early stages. This one was shown in the first and second movie but its effects were different and were developed by Dr. Ashford for his daughter Angela. Trivia As the "t" and Uroboros viruses are variants of Progenitor, it can be deduced that for someone to coexist with either of the three viruses, they must have a specific genetic trait. This trait is incredibly rare, and that only 30 people statistically have it in the United States - with a population of 300,000,000. This 1 in 10 million chance of having this trait means that Tyrant development is kept short of suitable candidates. This was the reason why Umbrella sought to clone Sergei, a carrier of this gene.