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HelhiPatell CHEM 223 Lab #1 02/05/11

Title: Experiment 1: Melting Point Objective: There are 4 objectives in todays experiment. 1) Determining the melting point of trans-Cinnamic acid, Urea and a 1:1 mixture of both and observing the changes in each due to and impurities present 2) Identifying and unknown by comparing the melting point ranges of pure substances with that of their mixtures 3) Determining the melting range of an unknown compound given by your instructor. The unknown compound can be any of the compounds listed in the table in the lab manual. 4) Confirming the identity of your unknown compound from the previous part and recording a mixed melting point measurement with a reference sample provided by your lab instructor. Procedure: attached to the Pre-Lab Introduction:Intermolecular forces play a big role in the physical properties of a substance. IMFs and melting point have a directly proportional relationship. When a solid is heated, molecules jump around in the capillary tube. IMFs try to hold these molecules together but the energy absorbed from the heat is greater in strength and they break these IMFs/ the solid then melts to a liquid. Each compound is different and has a different IMF; therefore each compound has a specific temperature or range at which these IMFs can be broken. If the IMFs are weak, your solid can melt very easily and if your IMFs are strong, the solid will have to be heated to a high temperature in order to melt. From this it can be concluded that the stronger the IMFs are, the higher the melting point is. Results: Part A:

Compound Trans-cinnamic Urea 1:1 mixture of both Part B: Compound Unknown A Unknown A + cholesterol Unknown A + nitrobenzoic acid

Actual Melting Point 134C 133C-135C Should melt quickly

Experimental Melting Point 124.8C-132.3C 128.5C-135.3C 98.0C-126.6C

Actual MP Unknown 147C-148C (cholesterol) 140C-143C (nitrobenzoic acid)

Experimental MP --not calculated 117.5C --not calculated

Observation: Since Unknown A + cholesterol melted at 117.5C and cholesterol has a melting range of 147C-148C, it can be concluded that unknown A is not cholesterol and is nitrobenzoic acid. Part C: Unknown # 232 Meting Range: 147.3C-148.9C Identified as: Cholesterol Part D: Unknown #232 + Cholesterol mixed melting point range: 145.0C-146.9C Observation: Since the melting range of the unknown #232 and cholesterol were similar, it can be concluded that unknown #232 is cholesterol. Discussion: After conducting this experiment, it can be evidently concluded that Intermolecular forces paly a big role in determining the melting point and physical properties of a compound.

The stronger the intermolecular forces were for substances like cholesterol and nitrobenzoic acid, the higher the melting point was. The results in this experiment prove this theory correct.