Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

Federal Rules of Evidence

FEDERAL RULES OF EVIDENCE Published by he Le!al Infor"a ion Ins i u e# Cornell La$ School# Dec% &'('% For decisions in er)re in! he rules )lus s a e evidence "a erials# visi he LII Evidence )a!e% AR*ICLE I% +ENERAL PROVISIONS No es Rule ('(% Sco)e *hese rules !overn )roceedin!s in he cour s of he Uni ed S a es and before Uni ed S a es ban,ru) cy -ud!es and Uni ed S a es "a!is ra e -ud!es# o he e. en and $i h he e.ce) ions s a ed in rule (('(% No es Rule ('&% Pur)ose and Cons ruc ion *hese rules shall be cons rued o secure fairness in ad"inis ra ion# eli"ina ion of un-us ifiable e.)ense and delay# and )ro"o ion of !ro$ h and develo)"en of he la$ of evidence o he end ha he ru h "ay be ascer ained and )roceedin!s -us ly de er"ined% No es Rule ('/% Rulin!s on Evidence 0a1 Effec of erroneous rulin!% Error "ay no be )redica ed u)on a rulin! $hich ad"i s or e.cludes evidence unless a subs an ial ri!h of he )ar y is affec ed# and 0(1 Ob-ec ion% 2 In case he rulin! is one ad"i in! evidence# a i"ely ob-ec ion or "o ion o s ri,e a))ears of record# s a in! he s)ecific !round of ob-ec ion# if he s)ecific !round $as no a))aren fro" he con e. 3 or 0&1 Offer of )roof% 2 In case he rulin! is one e.cludin! evidence# he subs ance of he evidence $as "ade ,no$n o he cour by offer or $as a))aren fro" he con e. $i hin $hich 4ues ions $ere as,ed% Once he cour "a,es a defini ive rulin! on he record ad"i in! or e.cludin! evidence# ei her a or before rial# a )ar y need no rene$ an ob-ec ion or offer of )roof o )reserve a clai" of error for a))eal% 0b1 Record of offer and rulin! *he cour "ay add any o her or fur her s a e"en $hich sho$s he charac er of he evidence# he for" in $hich i $as offered# he ob-ec ion "ade# and he rulin! hereon% I "ay direc he "a,in!

of an offer in 4ues ion and ans$er for"% 0c1 5earin! of -ury In -ury cases# )roceedin!s shall be conduc ed# o he e. en )rac icable# so as o )reven inad"issible evidence fro" bein! su!!es ed o he -ury by any "eans# such as "a,in! s a e"en s or offers of )roof or as,in! 4ues ions in he hearin! of he -ury% 0d1 Plain error No hin! in his rule )recludes a,in! no ice of )lain errors affec in! subs an ial ri!h s al hou!h hey $ere no brou!h o he a en ion of he cour % No es Rule ('6% Preli"inary 7ues ions 0a1 7ues ions of ad"issibili y !enerally% Preli"inary 4ues ions concernin! he 4ualifica ion of a )erson o be a $i ness# he e.is ence of a )rivile!e# or he ad"issibili y of evidence shall be de er"ined by he cour # sub-ec o he )rovisions of subdivision 0b1% In "a,in! i s de er"ina ion i is no bound by he rules of evidence e.ce) hose $i h res)ec o )rivile!es% 0b1 Relevancy condi ioned on fac % 8hen he relevancy of evidence de)ends u)on he fulfill"en of a condi ion of fac # he cour shall ad"i i u)on# or sub-ec o# he in roduc ion of evidence sufficien o su))or a findin! of he fulfill"en of he condi ion% 0c1 5earin! of -ury% 5earin!s on he ad"issibili y of confessions shall in all cases be conduc ed ou of he hearin! of he -ury% 5earin!s on o her )reli"inary "a ers shall be so conduc ed $hen he in eres s of -us ice re4uire# or $hen an accused is a $i ness and so re4ues s% 0d1 *es i"ony by accused% *he accused does no # by es ifyin! u)on a )reli"inary "a er# beco"e sub-ec o cross2 e.a"ina ion as o o her issues in he case% 0e1 8ei!h and credibili y% *his rule does no li"i he ri!h of a )ar y o in roduce before he -ury evidence relevan o $ei!h or credibili y% No es Rule ('9% Li"i ed Ad"issibili y 8hen evidence $hich is ad"issible as o one )ar y or for one )ur)ose bu no ad"issible as o ano her )ar y or for ano her )ur)ose is ad"i ed# he cour # u)on re4ues # shall res ric he

evidence o i s )ro)er sco)e and ins ruc he -ury accordin!ly% No es Rule (':% Re"ainder of or Rela ed 8ri in!s or Recorded S a e"en s 8hen a $ri in! or recorded s a e"en or )ar hereof is in roduced by a )ar y# an adverse )ar y "ay re4uire he in roduc ion a ha i"e of any o her )ar or any o her $ri in! or recorded s a e"en $hich ou!h in fairness o be considered con e")oraneously $i h i % No es AR*ICLE II% ;UDICIAL NO*ICE Rule &'(% ;udicial No ice of Ad-udica ive Fac s 0a1 Sco)e of rule% *his rule !overns only -udicial no ice of ad-udica ive fac s% 0b1 <inds of fac s% A -udicially no iced fac "us be one no sub-ec o reasonable dis)u e in ha i is ei her 0(1 !enerally ,no$n $i hin he erri orial -urisdic ion of he rial cour or 0&1 ca)able of accura e and ready de er"ina ion by resor o sources $hose accuracy canno reasonably be 4ues ioned% 0c1 8hen discre ionary% A cour "ay a,e -udicial no ice# $he her re4ues ed or no % 0d1 8hen "anda ory% A cour shall a,e -udicial no ice if re4ues ed by a )ar y and su))lied $i h he necessary infor"a ion% 0e1 O))or uni y o be heard% A )ar y is en i led u)on i"ely re4ues o an o))or uni y o be heard as o he )ro)rie y of a,in! -udicial no ice and he enor of he "a er no iced% In he absence of )rior no ifica ion# he re4ues "ay be "ade af er -udicial no ice has been a,en% 0f1 *i"e of a,in! no ice% ;udicial no ice "ay be a,en a any s a!e of he )roceedin!% 0!1 Ins ruc in! -ury% In a civil ac ion or )roceedin!# he cour shall ins ruc he -ury o acce) as conclusive any fac -udicially no iced% In a cri"inal case# he cour shall ins ruc he -ury ha i "ay# bu is no re4uired o# acce) as conclusive any fac -udicially no iced% No es

AR*ICLE III% PRESU=P*IONS IN CIVIL AC*IONS AND PROCEEDIN+S Rule /'(% Presu") ions in +eneral Civil Ac ions and Proceedin!s In all civil ac ions and )roceedin!s no o her$ise )rovided for by Ac of Con!ress or by hese rules# a )resu") ion i")oses on he )ar y a!ains $ho" i is direc ed he burden of !oin! for$ard $i h evidence o rebu or "ee he )resu") ion# bu does no shif o such )ar y he burden of )roof in he sense of he ris, of non)ersuasion# $hich re"ains hrou!hou he rial u)on he )ar y on $ho" i $as ori!inally cas % No es Rule /'&% A))licabili y of S a e La$ in Civil Ac ions and Proceedin!s In civil ac ions and )roceedin!s# he effec of a )resu") ion res)ec in! a fac $hich is an ele"en of a clai" or defense as o $hich S a e la$ su))lies he rule of decision is de er"ined in accordance $i h S a e la$% No es AR*ICLE IV% RELEVANC> AND I*S LI=I*S Rule 6'(% Defini ion of ?Relevan Evidence? ?Relevan evidence? "eans evidence havin! any endency o "a,e he e.is ence of any fac ha is of conse4uence o he de er"ina ion of he ac ion "ore )robable or less )robable han i $ould be $i hou he evidence% No es Rule 6'&% Relevan Evidence +enerally Ad"issible3 Irrelevan Evidence Inad"issible All relevan evidence is ad"issible# e.ce) as o her$ise )rovided by he Cons i u ion of he Uni ed S a es# by Ac of Con!ress# by hese rules# or by o her rules )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y% Evidence $hich is no relevan is no ad"issible% No es Rule 6'/% E.clusion of Relevan Evidence on +rounds of Pre-udice# Confusion# or 8as e of *i"e Al hou!h relevan # evidence "ay be e.cluded if i s )roba ive value is subs an ially ou $ei!hed by he dan!er of unfair )re-udice# confusion of he issues# or "isleadin! he -ury# or by considera ions of undue delay# $as e of i"e# or needless )resen a ion of cu"ula ive evidence% No es Rule 6'6% Charac er Evidence No Ad"issible *o Prove Conduc 3 E.ce) ions3 O her Cri"es 0a1 Charac er evidence !enerally Evidence of a )erson@s charac er or a rai of charac er is no ad"issible for he )ur)ose of

)rovin! ac ion in confor"i y here$i h on a )ar icular occasion# e.ce) A 0(1 Charac er of accused 2 In a cri"inal case# evidence of a )er inen rai of charac er offered by an accused# or by he )rosecu ion o rebu he sa"e# or if evidence of a rai of charac er of he alle!ed vic i" of he cri"e is offered by an accused and ad"i ed under Rule 6'6 0a10&1# evidence of he sa"e rai of charac er of he accused offered by he )rosecu ion3 0&1 Charac er of alle!ed vic i" 2 In a cri"inal case# and sub-ec o he li"i a ions i")osed by Rule 6(&# evidence of a )er inen rai of charac er of he alle!ed vic i" of he cri"e offered by an accused# or by he )rosecu ion o rebu he sa"e# or evidence of a charac er rai of )eacefulness of he alle!ed vic i" offered by he )rosecu ion in a ho"icide case o rebu evidence ha he alle!ed vic i" $as he firs a!!ressor3 0/1 Charac er of $i ness 2 Evidence of he charac er of a $i ness# as )rovided in rules :'B# :'C# and :'D% 0b1 O her cri"es# $ron!s# or ac s Evidence of o her cri"es# $ron!s# or ac s is no ad"issible o )rove he charac er of a )erson in order o sho$ ac ion in confor"i y here$i h% I "ay# ho$ever# be ad"issible for o her )ur)oses# such as )roof of "o ive# o))or uni y# in en # )re)ara ion# )lan# ,no$led!e# iden i y# or absence of "is a,e or acciden # )rovided ha u)on re4ues by he accused# he )rosecu ion in a cri"inal case shall )rovide reasonable no ice in advance of rial# or durin! rial if he cour e.cuses )re rial no ice on !ood cause sho$n# of he !eneral na ure of any such evidence i in ends o in roduce a rial% No es Rule 6'9% =e hods of Provin! Charac er 0a1 Re)u a ion or o)inion% In all cases in $hich evidence of charac er or a rai of charac er of a )erson is ad"issible# )roof "ay be "ade by es i"ony as o re)u a ion or by es i"ony in he for" of an o)inion% On cross2 e.a"ina ion# in4uiry is allo$able in o relevan s)ecific ins ances of conduc % 0b1 S)ecific ins ances of conduc % In cases in $hich charac er or a rai of charac er of a )erson is an essen ial ele"en of a char!e# clai"# or defense# )roof "ay also be "ade of s)ecific ins ances of ha )erson@s conduc % No es Rule 6':% 5abi 3 Rou ine Prac ice Evidence of he habi of a )erson or of he rou ine )rac ice of an or!aniEa ion# $he her corrobora ed or no and re!ardless of he )resence of eye$i nesses# is relevan o )rove ha he conduc of he )erson or or!aniEa ion on a )ar icular occasion $as in confor"i y $i h he habi or rou ine )rac ice% No es Rule 6'B% Subse4uen Re"edial =easures

8hen# af er an in-ury or har" alle!edly caused by an even # "easures are a,en ha # if a,en )reviously# $ould have "ade he in-ury or har" less li,ely o occur# evidence of he subse4uen "easures is no ad"issible o )rove ne!li!ence# cul)able conduc # a defec in a )roduc # a defec in a )roduc @s desi!n# or a need for a $arnin! or ins ruc ion% *his rule does no re4uire he e.clusion of evidence of subse4uen "easures $hen offered for ano her )ur)ose# such as )rovin! o$nershi)# con rol# or feasibili y of )recau ionary "easures# if con rover ed# or i")each"en % No es Rule 6'C% Co")ro"ise and Offers o Co")ro"ise 0a1 Prohibi ed uses% Evidence of he follo$in! is no ad"issible on behalf of any )ar y# $hen offered o )rove liabili y for# invalidi y of# or a"oun of a clai" ha $as dis)u ed as o validi y or a"oun # or o i")each hrou!h a )rior inconsis en s a e"en or con radic ionA 0(1 furnishin! or offerin! or )ro"isin! o furnish or acce) in! or offerin! or )ro"isin! o acce) a valuable considera ion in co")ro"isin! or a e") in! o co")ro"ise he clai" 3 and 0&1 conduc or s a e"en s "ade in co")ro"ise ne!o ia ions re!ardin! he clai"# e.ce) $hen offered in a cri"inal case and he ne!o ia ions rela ed o a clai" by a )ublic office or a!ency in he e.ercise of re!ula ory# inves i!a ive# or enforce"en au hori y% Per"i ed uses% *his rule does no re4uire e.clusion if he evidence is offered for )ur)oses no )rohibi ed by subdivision 0a1% E.a")les of )er"issible )ur)oses include )rovin! a $i ness@s bias or )re-udice 3 ne!a in! a con en ion of undue delay3 and )rovin! an effor o obs ruc a cri"inal inves i!a ion or )rosecu ion% No es Rule 6'D% Pay"en of =edical and Si"ilar E.)enses Evidence of furnishin! or offerin! or )ro"isin! o )ay "edical# hos)i al# or si"ilar e.)enses occasioned by an in-ury is no ad"issible o )rove liabili y for he in-ury% No es Rule 6('% Inad"issibili y of Pleas# Plea Discussions# and Rela ed S a e"en s E.ce) as o her$ise )rovided in his rule# evidence of he follo$in! is no # in any civil or cri"inal )roceedin!# ad"issible a!ains he defendan $ho "ade he )lea or $as a )ar ici)an in he )lea discussionsA 0(1 a )lea of !uil y $hich $as la er $i hdra$n3 0&1 a )lea of nolo con endere3 0/1 any s a e"en "ade in he course of any )roceedin!s under Rule (( of he Federal Rules of Cri"inal Procedure or co")arable s a e )rocedure re!ardin! ei her of he fore!oin! )leas3 or 061 any s a e"en "ade in he course of )lea discussions $i h an a orney for he )rosecu in!

au hori y $hich do no resul in a )lea of !uil y or $hich resul in a )lea of !uil y la er $i hdra$n% 5o$ever# such a s a e"en is ad"issible 0i1 in any )roceedin! $herein ano her s a e"en "ade in he course of he sa"e )lea or )lea discussions has been in roduced and he s a e"en ou!h in fairness be considered con e")oraneously $i h i # or 0ii1 in a cri"inal )roceedin! for )er-ury or false s a e"en if he s a e"en $as "ade by he defendan under oa h# on he record and in he )resence of counsel% No es Rule 6((% Liabili y Insurance Evidence ha a )erson $as or $as no insured a!ains liabili y is no ad"issible u)on he issue $he her he )erson ac ed ne!li!en ly or o her$ise $ron!fully% *his rule does no re4uire he e.clusion of evidence of insurance a!ains liabili y $hen offered for ano her )ur)ose# such as )roof of a!ency# o$nershi)# or con rol# or bias or )re-udice of a $i ness% No es Rule 6(&% Se. Offense Cases3 Relevance of Alle!ed Vic i"@s Pas Se.ual Fehavior or Alle!ed Se.ual Predis)osi ion 0a1 Evidence !enerally inad"issible% *he follo$in! evidence is no ad"issible in any civil or cri"inal )roceedin! involvin! alle!ed se.ual "isconduc e.ce) as )rovided in subdivisions 0b1 and 0c1A 0(1 Evidence offered o )rove ha any alle!ed vic i" en!a!ed in o her se.ual behavior% 0&1 Evidence offered o )rove any alle!ed vic i"@s se.ual )redis)osi ion% 0b1 E.ce) ions% 0(1 In a cri"inal case# he follo$in! evidence is ad"issible# if o her$ise ad"issible under hese rulesA 0A1 evidence of s)ecific ins ances of se.ual behavior by he alle!ed vic i" offered o )rove ha a )erson o her han he accused $as he source of se"en# in-ury# or o her )hysical evidence3 0F1 evidence of s)ecific ins ances of se.ual behavior by he alle!ed vic i" $i h res)ec o he )erson accused of he se.ual "isconduc offered by he accused o )rove consen or by he )rosecu ion3 and 0C1 evidence he e.clusion of $hich $ould viola e he cons i u ional ri!h s of he defendan % 0&1 In a civil case# evidence offered o )rove he se.ual behavior or se.ual )redis)osi ion of any alle!ed vic i" is ad"issible if i is o her$ise ad"issible under hese rules and i s )roba ive value subs an ially ou $ei!hs he dan!er of har" o any vic i" and of unfair )re-udice o any )ar y% Evidence of an alle!ed vic i"@s re)u a ion is ad"issible only if i has been )laced in con roversy by he alle!ed vic i"% 0c1 Procedure o de er"ine ad"issibili y%

0(1 A )ar y in endin! o offer evidence under subdivision 0b1 "us 22 0A1 file a $ri en "o ion a leas (6 days before rial s)ecifically describin! he evidence and s a in! he )ur)ose for $hich i is offered unless he cour # for !ood cause re4uires a differen i"e for filin! or )er"i s filin! durin! rial3 and 0F1 serve he "o ion on all )ar ies and no ify he alle!ed vic i" or# $hen a))ro)ria e# he alle!ed vic i"@s !uardian or re)resen a ive% 0&1 Fefore ad"i in! evidence under his rule he cour "us conduc a hearin! in ca"era and afford he vic i" and )ar ies a ri!h o a end and be heard% *he "o ion# rela ed )a)ers# and he record of he hearin! "us be sealed and re"ain under seal unless he cour orders o her$ise% No es Rule 6(/% Evidence of Si"ilar Cri"es in Se.ual Assaul Cases 0a1 In a cri"inal case in $hich he defendan is accused of an offense of se.ual assaul # evidence of he defendan @s co""ission of ano her offense or offenses of se.ual assaul is ad"issible# and "ay be considered for i s bearin! on any "a er o $hich i is relevan % 0b1 In a case in $hich he +overn"en in ends o offer evidence under his rule# he a orney for he +overn"en shall disclose he evidence o he defendan # includin! s a e"en s of $i nesses or a su""ary of he subs ance of any es i"ony ha is e.)ec ed o be offered# a leas fif een days before he scheduled da e of rial or a such la er i"e as he cour "ay allo$ for !ood cause% 0c1 *his rule shall no be cons rued o li"i he ad"ission or considera ion of evidence under any o her rule% 0d1 For )ur)oses of his rule and Rule 6(9# ?offense of se.ual assaul ? "eans a cri"e under Federal la$ or he la$ of a S a e 0as defined in sec ion 9(/ of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code1 ha involved22 0(1 any conduc )roscribed by cha) er ('DA of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code3 0&1 con ac # $i hou consen # be $een any )ar of he defendan @s body or an ob-ec and he !eni als or anus of ano her )erson3 0/1 con ac # $i hou consen # be $een he !eni als or anus of he defendan and any )ar of ano her )erson@s body3 061 derivin! se.ual )leasure or !ra ifica ion fro" he inflic ion of dea h# bodily in-ury# or )hysical )ain on ano her )erson3 or 091 an a e") or cons)iracy o en!a!e in conduc described in )ara!ra)hs 0(12061% No es Rule 6(6% Evidence of Si"ilar Cri"es in Child =oles a ion Cases

0a1 In a cri"inal case in $hich he defendan is accused of an offense of child "oles a ion# evidence of he defendan @s co""ission of ano her offense or offenses of child "oles a ion is ad"issible# and "ay be considered for i s bearin! on any "a er o $hich i is relevan % 0b1 In a case in $hich he +overn"en in ends o offer evidence under his rule# he a orney for he +overn"en shall disclose he evidence o he defendan # includin! s a e"en s of $i nesses or a su""ary of he subs ance of any es i"ony ha is e.)ec ed o be offered# a leas fif een days before he scheduled da e of rial or a such la er i"e as he cour "ay allo$ for !ood cause% 0c1 *his rule shall no be cons rued o li"i he ad"ission or considera ion of evidence under any o her rule% 0d1 For )ur)oses of his rule and Rule 6(9# ?child? "eans a )erson belo$ he a!e of four een# and ?offense of child "oles a ion? "eans a cri"e under Federal la$ or he la$ of a S a e 0as defined in sec ion 9(/ of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code1 ha involved22 0(1 any conduc )roscribed by cha) er ('DA of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code# ha $as co""i ed in rela ion o a child3 0&1 any conduc )roscribed by cha) er ((' of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code3 0/1 con ac be $een any )ar of he defendan @s body or an ob-ec and he !eni als or anus of a child3 061 con ac be $een he !eni als or anus of he defendan and any )ar of he body of a child3 091 derivin! se.ual )leasure or !ra ifica ion fro" he inflic ion of dea h# bodily in-ury# or )hysical )ain on a child3 or 0:1 an a e") or cons)iracy o en!a!e in conduc described in )ara!ra)hs 0(12091% No es Rule 6(9% Evidence of Si"ilar Ac s in Civil Cases Concernin! Se.ual Assaul or Child =oles a ion 0a1 In a civil case in $hich a clai" for da"a!es or o her relief is )redica ed on a )ar y@s alle!ed co""ission of conduc cons i u in! an offense of se.ual assaul or child "oles a ion# evidence of ha )ar y@s co""ission of ano her offense or offenses of se.ual assaul or child "oles a ion is ad"issible and "ay be considered as )rovided in Rule 6(/ and Rule 6(6 of hese rules% 0b1 A )ar y $ho in ends o offer evidence under his Rule shall disclose he evidence o he )ar y a!ains $ho" i $ill be offered# includin! s a e"en s of $i nesses or a su""ary of he subs ance of any es i"ony ha is e.)ec ed o be offered# a leas fif een days before he scheduled da e of rial or a such la er i"e as he cour "ay allo$ for !ood cause% 0c1 *his rule shall no be cons rued o li"i he ad"ission or considera ion of evidence under any o her rule% No es AR*ICLE V% PRIVILE+ES

Rule 9'(% +eneral Rule E.ce) as o her$ise re4uired by he Cons i u ion of he Uni ed S a es or )rovided by Ac of Con!ress or in rules )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y# he )rivile!e of a $i ness# )erson# !overn"en # S a e# or )oli ical subdivision hereof shall be !overned by he )rinci)les of he co""on la$ as hey "ay be in er)re ed by he cour s of he Uni ed S a es in he li!h of reason and e.)erience% 5o$ever# in civil ac ions and )roceedin!s# $i h res)ec o an ele"en of a clai" or defense as o $hich S a e la$ su))lies he rule of decision# he )rivile!e of a $i ness# )erson# !overn"en # S a e# or )oli ical subdivision hereof shall be de er"ined in accordance $i h S a e la$% No es Rule 9'&% A orney2Clien Privile!e and 8or, Produc 3 Li"i a ions on 8aiver *he follo$in! )rovisions a))ly# in he circu"s ances se ou # o disclosure of a co""unica ion or infor"a ion covered by he a orney2clien )rivile!e or $or,2)roduc )ro ec ion% 0a1 Sco)e of $aiver% 8hen he disclosure is "ade in a Federal )roceedin! or o a Federal office or a!ency and $aives he a orney2clien )rivile!e or $or,2)roduc )ro ec ion# he $aiver e. ends o an undisclosed co""unica ion or infor"a ion in a Federal or S a e )roceedin! only ifA 0(1 he $aiver is in en ional3 0&1 he disclosed and undisclosed co""unica ions or infor"a ion concern he sa"e sub-ec "a er3 and 0/1 hey ou!h in fairness o be considered o!e her% 0b1 Inadver en disclosure% 8hen "ade in a Federal )roceedin! or o a Federal office or a!ency# he disclosure does no o)era e as a $aiver in a Federal or S a e )roceedin! ifA 0(1 he disclosure is inadver en 3 0&1 he holder of he )rivile!e or )ro ec ion oo, reasonable s e)s o )reven disclosure3 and 0/1 he holder )ro") ly oo, reasonable s e)s o rec ify he error# includin! 0if a))licable1 follo$in! Federal Rule of Civil Procedure &:0b10910F1% Disclosure =ade in a S a e Proceedin!%G 8hen he disclosure is "ade in a S a e )roceedin! and is no he sub-ec of a S a e2cour order concernin! $aiver# he disclosure does no o)era e as a $aiver in a Federal )roceedin! if he disclosureA 0(1 $ould no be a $aiver under his rule if i had been "ade in a Federal )roceedin!3 or

0&1 is no a $aiver under he la$ of he S a e $here he disclosure occurred% 0d1 Con rollin! Effec of a Cour Order%G A Federal cour "ay order ha he )rivile!e or )ro ec ion is no $aived by disclosure connec ed $i h he li i!a ion )endin! before he cour Gin $hich even he disclosure is also no a $aiver in any o her Federal or S a e )roceedin!% 0e1 Con rollin! effec of a )ar y a!ree"en %G An a!ree"en on he effec of disclosure in a Federal )roceedin! is bindin! only on he )ar ies o he a!ree"en # unless i is incor)ora ed in o a cour order% 0f1 Con rollin! Effec of *his Rule%G No $i hs andin! Rules ('( and (('(# his rule a))lies o S a e )roceedin!s and o Federal cour 2 anne.ed and Federal cour 2"anda ed arbi ra ion )roceedin!s# in he circu"s ances se ou in he rule% And no $i hs andin! Rule 9'(# his rule a))lies even if S a e la$ )rovides he rule of decision% 0!1 Defini ions%G In his ruleA 0(1 ?a orney2clien )rivile!e? "eans he )ro ec ion ha a))licable la$ )rovides for confiden ial a orney2clien co""unica ions3 and 0&1 ?$or,2)roduc )ro ec ion? "eans he )ro ec ion ha a))licable la$ )rovides for an!ible "a erial 0or i s in an!ible e4uivalen 1 )re)ared in an ici)a ion of li i!a ion or for rial% AR*ICLE VI% 8I*NESSES Rule :'(% +eneral Rule of Co")e ency Every )erson is co")e en o be a $i ness e.ce) as o her$ise )rovided in hese rules% 5o$ever# in civil ac ions and )roceedin!s# $i h res)ec o an ele"en of a clai" or defense as o $hich S a e la$ su))lies he rule of decision# he co")e ency of a $i ness shall be de er"ined in accordance $i h S a e la$% No es Rule :'&% Lac, of Personal <no$led!e A $i ness "ay no es ify o a "a er unless evidence is in roduced sufficien o su))or a findin! ha he $i ness has )ersonal ,no$led!e of he "a er% Evidence o )rove )ersonal ,no$led!e "ay# bu need no # consis of he $i ness@ o$n es i"ony% *his rule is sub-ec o he )rovisions of rule B'/# rela in! o o)inion es i"ony by e.)er $i nesses% No es Rule :'/% Oa h or Affir"a ion

Fefore es ifyin!# every $i ness shall be re4uired o declare ha he $i ness $ill es ify ru hfully# by oa h or affir"a ion ad"inis ered in a for" calcula ed o a$a,en he $i ness@ conscience and i")ress he $i ness@ "ind $i h he du y o do so% No es Rule :'6% In er)re ers An in er)re er is sub-ec o he )rovisions of hese rules rela in! o 4ualifica ion as an e.)er and he ad"inis ra ion of an oa h or affir"a ion o "a,e a rue ransla ion% No es Rule :'9% Co")e ency of ;ud!e as 8i ness *he -ud!e )residin! a he rial "ay no es ify in ha rial as a $i ness% No ob-ec ion need be "ade in order o )reserve he )oin % No es Rule :':% Co")e ency of ;uror as 8i ness 0a1 A he rial% A "e"ber of he -ury "ay no es ify as a $i ness before ha -ury in he rial of he case in $hich he -uror is si in!% If he -uror is called so o es ify# he o))osin! )ar y shall be afforded an o))or uni y o ob-ec ou of he )resence of he -ury% 0b1 In4uiry in o validi y of verdic or indic "en % In4uiry In o Validi y of Verdic or Indic "en % U)on an in4uiry in o he validi y of a verdic or indic "en # a -uror "ay no es ify as o any "a er or s a e"en occurrin! durin! he course of he -uryHs delibera ions or o he effec of any hin! u)on ha or any o her -urorHs "ind or e"o ions as influencin! he -uror o assen o or dissen fro" he verdic or indic "en or concernin! he -urorHs "en al )rocesses in connec ion here$i h% Fu a -uror "ay es ify abou 0(1 $he her e. raneous )re-udicial infor"a ion $as i")ro)erly brou!h o he -uryHs a en ion# 0&1 $he her any ou side influence $as i")ro)erly brou!h o bear u)on any -uror# or 0/1 $he her here $as a "is a,e in en erin! he verdic on o he verdic for"% A -urorHs affidavi or evidence of any s a e"en by he -uror "ay no be received on a "a er abou $hich he -uror $ould be )recluded fro" es ifyin!% No es Rule :'B% 8ho =ay I")each *he credibili y of a $i ness "ay be a ac,ed by any )ar y# includin! he )ar y callin! he $i ness% No es Rule :'C% Evidence of Charac er and Conduc of 8i ness 0a1 O)inion and re)u a ion evidence of charac er%

*he credibili y of a $i ness "ay be a ac,ed or su))or ed by evidence in he for" of o)inion or re)u a ion# bu sub-ec o hese li"i a ionsA 0(1 he evidence "ay refer only o charac er for ru hfulness or un ru hfulness# and 0&1 evidence of ru hful charac er is ad"issible only af er he charac er of he $i ness for ru hfulness has been a ac,ed by o)inion or re)u a ion evidence or o her$ise% 0b1 S)ecific ins ances of conduc % S)ecific ins ances of he conduc of a $i ness# for he )ur)ose of a ac,in! or su))or in! he $i ness@ charac er for ru hfulness# o her han convic ion of cri"e as )rovided in rule :'D# "ay no be )roved by e. rinsic evidence% *hey "ay# ho$ever# in he discre ion of he cour # if )roba ive of ru hfulness or un ru hfulness# be in4uired in o on cross2e.a"ina ion of he $i ness 0(1 concernin! he $i ness@ charac er for ru hfulness or un ru hfulness# or 0&1 concernin! he charac er for ru hfulness or un ru hfulness of ano her $i ness as o $hich charac er he $i ness bein! cross2 e.a"ined has es ified% *he !ivin! of es i"ony# $he her by an accused or by any o her $i ness# does no o)era e as a $aiver of he accused@s or he $i ness@ )rivile!e a!ains self2incri"ina ion $hen e.a"ined $i h res)ec o "a ers ha rela e only o charac er for ru hfulness% No es Rule :'D% I")each"en by Evidence of Convic ion of Cri"e 0a1 +eneral rule% For he )ur)ose of a ac,in! he charac er for ru hfulness of a $i ness# 0(1 evidence ha a $i ness o her han an accused has been convic ed of a cri"e shall be ad"i ed# sub-ec o Rule 6'/# if he cri"e $as )unishable by dea h or i")rison"en in e.cess of one year under he la$ under $hich he $i ness $as convic ed# and evidence ha an accused has been convic ed of such a cri"e shall be ad"i ed if he cour de er"ines ha he )roba ive value of ad"i in! his evidence ou $ei!hs i s )re-udicial effec o he accused3 and 0&1 evidence ha any $i ness has been convic ed of a cri"e shall be ad"i ed re!ardless of he )unish"en # if i readily can be de er"ined ha es ablishin! he ele"en s of he cri"e re4uired )roof or ad"ission of an ac of dishones y or false s a e"en by he $i ness% 0b1 *i"e li"i % Evidence of a convic ion under his rule is no ad"issible if a )eriod of "ore han en years has ela)sed since he da e of he convic ion or of he release of he $i ness fro" he confine"en i")osed for ha convic ion# $hichever is he la er da e# unless he cour de er"ines# in he in eres s of -us ice# ha he )roba ive value of he convic ion su))or ed by s)ecific fac s and circu"s ances subs an ially ou $ei!hs i s )re-udicial effec % 5o$ever# evidence of a convic ion "ore han (' years old as calcula ed herein# is no ad"issible unless he )ro)onen !ives o he adverse )ar y sufficien advance $ri en no ice of in en o use such evidence o )rovide he adverse )ar y $i h a fair o))or uni y o con es he use of such evidence% 0c1 Effec of )ardon# annul"en # or cer ifica e of rehabili a ion% Evidence of a convic ion is no ad"issible under his rule if 0(1 he convic ion has been he sub-ec of a )ardon# annul"en # cer ifica e of rehabili a ion# or o her e4uivalen )rocedure based

on a findin! of he rehabili a ion of he )erson convic ed# and ha )erson has no been convic ed of a subse4uen cri"e ha $as )unishable by dea h or i")rison"en in e.cess of one year# or 0&1 he convic ion has been he sub-ec of a )ardon# annul"en # or o her e4uivalen )rocedure based on a findin! of innocence% 0d1 ;uvenile ad-udica ions% Evidence of -uvenile ad-udica ions is !enerally no ad"issible under his rule% *he cour "ay# ho$ever# in a cri"inal case allo$ evidence of a -uvenile ad-udica ion of a $i ness o her han he accused if convic ion of he offense $ould be ad"issible o a ac, he credibili y of an adul and he cour is sa isfied ha ad"ission in evidence is necessary for a fair de er"ina ion of he issue of !uil or innocence% 0e1 Pendency of a))eal% *he )endency of an a))eal herefro" does no render evidence of a convic ion inad"issible% Evidence of he )endency of an a))eal is ad"issible% No es Rule :('% Reli!ious Feliefs or O)inions Evidence of he beliefs or o)inions of a $i ness on "a ers of reli!ion is no ad"issible for he )ur)ose of sho$in! ha by reason of heir na ure he $i ness@ credibili y is i")aired or enhanced% No es Rule :((% =ode and Order of In erro!a ion and Presen a ion 0a1 Con rol by cour % *he cour shall e.ercise reasonable con rol over he "ode and order of in erro!a in! $i nesses and )resen in! evidence so as o 0(1 "a,e he in erro!a ion and )resen a ion effec ive for he ascer ain"en of he ru h# 0&1 avoid needless consu") ion of i"e# and 0/1 )ro ec $i nesses fro" harass"en or undue e"barrass"en % 0b1 Sco)e of cross2e.a"ina ion% Cross2e.a"ina ion should be li"i ed o he sub-ec "a er of he direc e.a"ina ion and "a ers affec in! he credibili y of he $i ness% *he cour "ay# in he e.ercise of discre ion# )er"i in4uiry in o addi ional "a ers as if on direc e.a"ina ion% 0c1 Leadin! 4ues ions% Leadin! 4ues ions should no be used on he direc e.a"ina ion of a $i ness e.ce) as "ay be necessary o develo) he $i ness@ es i"ony% Ordinarily leadin! 4ues ions should be )er"i ed on cross2e.a"ina ion% 8hen a )ar y calls a hos ile $i ness# an adverse )ar y# or a $i ness iden ified $i h an adverse )ar y# in erro!a ion "ay be by leadin! 4ues ions% No es Rule :(&% 8ri in! Used o Refresh =e"ory

E.ce) as o her$ise )rovided in cri"inal )roceedin!s by sec ion /9'' of i le (C# Uni ed S a es Code# if a $i ness uses a $ri in! o refresh "e"ory for he )ur)ose of es ifyin!# ei her22 0(1 $hile es ifyin!# or 0&1 before es ifyin!# if he cour in i s discre ion de er"ines i is necessary in he in eres s of -us ice# an adverse )ar y is en i led o have he $ri in! )roduced a he hearin!# o ins)ec i # o cross2 e.a"ine he $i ness hereon# and o in roduce in evidence hose )or ions $hich rela e o he es i"ony of he $i ness% If i is clai"ed ha he $ri in! con ains "a ers no rela ed o he sub-ec "a er of he es i"ony he cour shall e.a"ine he $ri in! in ca"era# e.cise any )or ions no so rela ed# and order delivery of he re"ainder o he )ar y en i led here o% Any )or ion $i hheld over ob-ec ions shall be )reserved and "ade available o he a))ella e cour in he even of an a))eal% If a $ri in! is no )roduced or delivered )ursuan o order under his rule# he cour shall "a,e any order -us ice re4uires# e.ce) ha in cri"inal cases $hen he )rosecu ion elec s no o co")ly# he order shall be one s ri,in! he es i"ony or# if he cour in i s discre ion de er"ines ha he in eres s of -us ice so re4uire# declarin! a "is rial% No es Rule :(/% Prior S a e"en s of 8i nesses 0a1 E.a"inin! $i ness concernin! )rior s a e"en % In e.a"inin! a $i ness concernin! a )rior s a e"en "ade by he $i ness# $he her $ri en or no # he s a e"en need no be sho$n nor i s con en s disclosed o he $i ness a ha i"e# bu on re4ues he sa"e shall be sho$n or disclosed o o))osin! counsel% 0b1 E. rinsic evidence of )rior inconsis en s a e"en of $i ness% E. rinsic evidence of a )rior inconsis en s a e"en by a $i ness is no ad"issible unless he $i ness is afforded an o))or uni y o e.)lain or deny he sa"e and he o))osi e )ar y is afforded an o))or uni y o in erro!a e he $i ness hereon# or he in eres s of -us ice o her$ise re4uire% *his )rovision does no a))ly o ad"issions of a )ar y2o))onen as defined in rule C'(0d10&1% No es Rule :(6% Callin! and In erro!a ion of 8i nesses by Cour 0a1 Callin! by cour % *he cour "ay# on i s o$n "o ion or a he su!!es ion of a )ar y# call $i nesses# and all )ar ies are en i led o cross2e.a"ine $i nesses hus called% 0b1 In erro!a ion by cour % *he cour "ay in erro!a e $i nesses# $he her called by i self or by a )ar y% 0c1 Ob-ec ions%

Ob-ec ions o he callin! of $i nesses by he cour or o in erro!a ion by i "ay be "ade a he i"e or a he ne. available o))or uni y $hen he -ury is no )resen % No es Rule :(9% E.clusion of 8i nesses A he re4ues of a )ar y he cour shall order $i nesses e.cluded so ha hey canno hear he es i"ony of o her $i nesses# and i "ay "a,e he order of i s o$n "o ion% *his rule does no au horiEe e.clusion of 0(1 a )ar y $ho is a na ural )erson# or 0&1 an officer or e")loyee of a )ar y $hich is no a na ural )erson desi!na ed as i s re)resen a ive by i s a orney# or 0/1 a )erson $hose )resence is sho$n by a )ar y o be essen ial o he )resen a ion of he )ar y@s cause# or 061 a )erson au horiEed by s a u e o be )resen % No es AR*ICLE VII% OPINIONS AND EIPER* *ES*I=ON> Rule B'(% O)inion *es i"ony by Lay 8i nesses If he $i ness is no es ifyin! as an e.)er # he $i ness@ es i"ony in he for" of o)inions or inferences is li"i ed o hose o)inions or inferences $hich are 0a1 ra ionally based on he )erce) ion of he $i ness# and 0b1 hel)ful o a clear unders andin! of he $i ness@ es i"ony or he de er"ina ion of a fac in issue# and 0c1 no based on scien ific# echnical# or o her s)ecialiEed ,no$led!e $i hin he sco)e of Rule B'&% No es Rule B'&% *es i"ony by E.)er s If scien ific# echnical# or o her s)ecialiEed ,no$led!e $ill assis he rier of fac o unders and he evidence or o de er"ine a fac in issue# a $i ness 4ualified as an e.)er by ,no$led!e# s,ill# e.)erience# rainin!# or educa ion# "ay es ify here o in he for" of an o)inion or o her$ise# if 0(1 he es i"ony is based u)on sufficien fac s or da a# 0&1 he es i"ony is he )roduc of reliable )rinci)les and "e hods# and 0/1 he $i ness has a))lied he )rinci)les and "e hods reliably o he fac s of he case% No es Rule B'/% Fases of O)inion *es i"ony by E.)er s *he fac s or da a in he )ar icular case u)on $hich an e.)er bases an o)inion or inference "ay be hose )erceived by or "ade ,no$n o he e.)er a or before he hearin!% If of a y)e reasonably relied u)on by e.)er s in he )ar icular field in for"in! o)inions or inferences u)on he sub-ec # he fac s or da a need no be ad"issible in evidence in order for he o)inion or inference o be ad"i ed% Fac s or da a ha are o her$ise inad"issible shall no be disclosed o he -ury by he )ro)onen of he o)inion or inference unless he cour de er"ines ha heir )roba ive value in assis in! he -ury o evalua e he e.)er @s o)inion subs an ially ou $ei!hs heir )re-udicial effec % No es Rule B'6% O)inion on Ul i"a e Issue

0a1 E.ce) as )rovided in subdivision 0b1# es i"ony in he for" of an o)inion or inference o her$ise ad"issible is no ob-ec ionable because i e"braces an ul i"a e issue o be decided by he rier of fac % 0b1 No e.)er $i ness es ifyin! $i h res)ec o he "en al s a e or condi ion of a defendan in a cri"inal case "ay s a e an o)inion or inference as o $he her he defendan did or did no have he "en al s a e or condi ion cons i u in! an ele"en of he cri"e char!ed or of a defense here o% Such ul i"a e issues are "a ers for he rier of fac alone% No es Rule B'9% Disclosure of Fac s or Da a Underlyin! E.)er O)inion *he e.)er "ay es ify in er"s of o)inion or inference and !ive reasons herefor $i hou firs es ifyin! o he underlyin! fac s or da a# unless he cour re4uires o her$ise% *he e.)er "ay in any even be re4uired o disclose he underlyin! fac s or da a on cross2e.a"ina ion% No es Rule B':% Cour A))oin ed E.)er s 0a1 A))oin "en % *he cour "ay on i s o$n "o ion or on he "o ion of any )ar y en er an order o sho$ cause $hy e.)er $i nesses should no be a))oin ed# and "ay re4ues he )ar ies o sub"i no"ina ions% *he cour "ay a))oin any e.)er $i nesses a!reed u)on by he )ar ies# and "ay a))oin e.)er $i nesses of i s o$n selec ion% An e.)er $i ness shall no be a))oin ed by he cour unless he $i ness consen s o ac % A $i ness so a))oin ed shall be infor"ed of he $i ness@ du ies by he cour in $ri in!# a co)y of $hich shall be filed $i h he cler,# or a a conference in $hich he )ar ies shall have o))or uni y o )ar ici)a e% A $i ness so a))oin ed shall advise he )ar ies of he $i ness@ findin!s# if any3 he $i ness@ de)osi ion "ay be a,en by any )ar y3 and he $i ness "ay be called o es ify by he cour or any )ar y% *he $i ness shall be sub-ec o cross2e.a"ina ion by each )ar y# includin! a )ar y callin! he $i ness% 0b1 Co")ensa ion% E.)er $i nesses so a))oin ed are en i led o reasonable co")ensa ion in $ha ever su" he cour "ay allo$% *he co")ensa ion hus fi.ed is )ayable fro" funds $hich "ay be )rovided by la$ in cri"inal cases and civil ac ions and )roceedin!s involvin! -us co")ensa ion under he fif h a"end"en % In o her civil ac ions and )roceedin!s he co")ensa ion shall be )aid by he )ar ies in such )ro)or ion and a such i"e as he cour direc s# and hereaf er char!ed in li,e "anner as o her cos s% 0c1 Disclosure of a))oin "en % In he e.ercise of i s discre ion# he cour "ay au horiEe disclosure o he -ury of he fac ha he cour a))oin ed he e.)er $i ness% 0d1 Par ies@ e.)er s of o$n selec ion% No hin! in his rule li"i s he )ar ies in callin! e.)er $i nesses of heir o$n selec ion% No es

AR*ICLE VIII% 5EARSA> No es Rule C'(% Defini ions *he follo$in! defini ions a))ly under his ar icleA 0a1 S a e"en % A ?s a e"en ? is 0(1 an oral or $ri en asser ion or 0&1 nonverbal conduc of a )erson# if i is in ended by he )erson as an asser ion% 0b1 Declaran % A ?declaran ? is a )erson $ho "a,es a s a e"en % 0c1 5earsay% ?5earsay? is a s a e"en # o her han one "ade by he declaran $hile es ifyin! a he rial or hearin!# offered in evidence o )rove he ru h of he "a er asser ed% 0d1 S a e"en s $hich are no hearsay% A s a e"en is no hearsay if22 0(1 Prior s a e"en by $i ness% *he declaran es ifies a he rial or hearin! and is sub-ec o cross2e.a"ina ion concernin! he s a e"en # and he s a e"en is 0A1 inconsis en $i h he declaran @s es i"ony# and $as !iven under oa h sub-ec o he )enal y of )er-ury a a rial# hearin!# or o her )roceedin!# or in a de)osi ion# or 0F1 consis en $i h he declaran @s es i"ony and is offered o rebu an e.)ress or i")lied char!e a!ains he declaran of recen fabrica ion or i")ro)er influence or "o ive# or 0C1 one of iden ifica ion of a )erson "ade af er )erceivin! he )erson3 or 0&1Ad"ission by )ar y2o))onen % *he s a e"en is offered a!ains a )ar y and is 0A1 he )ar y@s o$n s a e"en # in ei her an individual or a re)resen a ive ca)aci y or 0F1 a s a e"en of $hich he )ar y has "anifes ed an ado) ion or belief in i s ru h# or 0C1 a s a e"en by a )erson au horiEed by he )ar y o "a,e a s a e"en concernin! he sub-ec # or 0D1 a s a e"en by he )ar y@s a!en or servan concernin! a "a er $i hin he sco)e of he a!ency or e")loy"en # "ade durin! he e.is ence of he rela ionshi)# or 0E1 a s a e"en by a cocons)ira or of a )ar y durin! he course and in fur herance of he cons)iracy% *he con en s of he s a e"en shall be considered bu are no alone sufficien o es ablish he declaran @s au hori y under subdivision 0C1# he a!ency or e")loy"en rela ionshi) and sco)e

hereof under subdivision 0D1# or he e.is ence of he cons)iracy and he )ar ici)a ion herein of he declaran and he )ar y a!ains $ho" he s a e"en is offered under subdivision 0E1% No es Rule C'&% 5earsay Rule 5earsay is no ad"issible e.ce) as )rovided by hese rules or by o her rules )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y or by Ac of Con!ress% No es Rule C'/% 5earsay E.ce) ions3 Availabili y of Declaran I""a erial *he follo$in! are no e.cluded by he hearsay rule# even hou!h he declaran is available as a $i nessA 0(1 Presen sense i")ression% A s a e"en describin! or e.)lainin! an even or condi ion "ade $hile he declaran $as )erceivin! he even or condi ion# or i""edia ely hereaf er% 0&1 E.ci ed u erance% A s a e"en rela in! o a s ar lin! even or condi ion "ade $hile he declaran $as under he s ress of e.ci e"en caused by he even or condi ion% 0/1 *hen e.is in! "en al# e"o ional# or )hysical condi ion% A s a e"en of he declaran @s hen e.is in! s a e of "ind# e"o ion# sensa ion# or )hysical condi ion 0such as in en # )lan# "o ive# desi!n# "en al feelin!# )ain# and bodily heal h1# bu no includin! a s a e"en of "e"ory or belief o )rove he fac re"e"bered or believed unless i rela es o he e.ecu ion# revoca ion# iden ifica ion# or er"s of declaran @s $ill% 061 S a e"en s for )ur)oses of "edical dia!nosis or rea "en % S a e"en s "ade for )ur)oses of "edical dia!nosis or rea "en and describin! "edical his ory# or )as or )resen sy") o"s# )ain# or sensa ions# or he ince) ion or !eneral charac er of he cause or e. ernal source hereof insofar as reasonably )er inen o dia!nosis or rea "en % 091 Recorded recollec ion% A "e"orandu" or record concernin! a "a er abou $hich a $i ness once had ,no$led!e bu no$ has insufficien recollec ion o enable he $i ness o es ify fully and accura ely# sho$n o have been "ade or ado) ed by he $i ness $hen he "a er $as fresh in he $i ness@ "e"ory and o reflec ha ,no$led!e correc ly% If ad"i ed# he "e"orandu" or record "ay be read in o evidence bu "ay no i self be received as an e.hibi unless offered by an adverse )ar y% 0:1 Records of re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y% A "e"orandu"# re)or # record# or da a co")ila ion# in any for"# of ac s# even s# condi ions# o)inions# or dia!noses# "ade a or near he i"e by# or fro" infor"a ion rans"i ed by# a )erson $i h ,no$led!e# if ,e) in he course of a re!ularly conduc ed business ac ivi y# and if i $as he re!ular )rac ice of ha business ac ivi y o "a,e he "e"orandu"# re)or # record or da a co")ila ion# all as sho$n by he es i"ony of he cus odian or o her 4ualified $i ness# or by cer ifica ion ha co")lies $i h Rule D'&0((1# Rule D'&0(&1# or a s a u e )er"i in! cer ifica ion# unless he source of infor"a ion or he "e hod or circu"s ances of )re)ara ion indica e lac, of rus $or hiness% *he er" ?business? as used in his )ara!ra)h includes business# ins i u ion# associa ion# )rofession# occu)a ion# and callin! of every ,ind# $he her or no conduc ed for )rofi % 0B1 Absence of en ry in records ,e) in accordance $i h he )rovisions of )ara!ra)h 0:1% Evidence

ha a "a er is no included in he "e"oranda re)or s# records# or da a co")ila ions# in any for"# ,e) in accordance $i h he )rovisions of )ara!ra)h 0:1# o )rove he nonoccurrence or none.is ence of he "a er# if he "a er $as of a ,ind of $hich a "e"orandu"# re)or # record# or da a co")ila ion $as re!ularly "ade and )reserved# unless he sources of infor"a ion or o her circu"s ances indica e lac, of rus $or hiness% 0C1 Public records and re)or s% Records# re)or s# s a e"en s# or da a co")ila ions# in any for"# of )ublic offices or a!encies# se in! for h 0A1 he ac ivi ies of he office or a!ency# or 0F1 "a ers observed )ursuan o du y i")osed by la$ as o $hich "a ers here $as a du y o re)or # e.cludin!# ho$ever# in cri"inal cases "a ers observed by )olice officers and o her la$ enforce"en )ersonnel# or 0C1 in civil ac ions and )roceedin!s and a!ains he +overn"en in cri"inal cases# fac ual findin!s resul in! fro" an inves i!a ion "ade )ursuan o au hori y !ran ed by la$# unless he sources of infor"a ion or o her circu"s ances indica e lac, of rus $or hiness% 0D1 Records of vi al s a is ics% Records or da a co")ila ions# in any for"# of bir hs# fe al dea hs# dea hs# or "arria!es# if he re)or hereof $as "ade o a )ublic office )ursuan o re4uire"en s of la$% 0('1 Absence of )ublic record or en ry% *o )rove he absence of a record# re)or # s a e"en # or da a co")ila ion# in any for"# or he nonoccurrence or none.is ence of a "a er of $hich a record# re)or # s a e"en # or da a co")ila ion# in any for"# $as re!ularly "ade and )reserved by a )ublic office or a!ency# evidence in he for" of a cer ifica ion in accordance $i h rule D'&# or es i"ony# ha dili!en search failed o disclose he record# re)or # s a e"en # or da a co")ila ion# or en ry% 0((1 Records of reli!ious or!aniEa ions% S a e"en s of bir hs# "arria!es# divorces# dea hs# le!i i"acy# ances ry# rela ionshi) by blood or "arria!e# or o her si"ilar fac s of )ersonal or fa"ily his ory# con ained in a re!ularly ,e) record of a reli!ious or!aniEa ion% 0(&1 =arria!e# ba) is"al# and si"ilar cer ifica es% S a e"en s of fac con ained in a cer ifica e ha he "a,er )erfor"ed a "arria!e or o her cere"ony or ad"inis ered a sacra"en # "ade by a cler!y"an# )ublic official# or o her )erson au horiEed by he rules or )rac ices of a reli!ious or!aniEa ion or by la$ o )erfor" he ac cer ified# and )ur)or in! o have been issued a he i"e of he ac or $i hin a reasonable i"e hereaf er% 0(/1 Fa"ily records% S a e"en s of fac concernin! )ersonal or fa"ily his ory con ained in fa"ily Fibles# !enealo!ies# char s# en!ravin!s on rin!s# inscri) ions on fa"ily )or rai s# en!ravin!s on urns# cry) s# or o"bs ones# or he li,e% 0(61 Records of docu"en s affec in! an in eres in )ro)er y% *he record of a docu"en )ur)or in! o es ablish or affec an in eres in )ro)er y# as )roof of he con en of he ori!inal recorded docu"en and i s e.ecu ion and delivery by each )erson by $ho" i )ur)or s o have been e.ecu ed# if he record is a record of a )ublic office and an a))licable s a u e au horiEes he recordin! of docu"en s of ha ,ind in ha office% 0(91 S a e"en s in docu"en s affec in! an in eres in )ro)er y% A s a e"en con ained in a docu"en )ur)or in! o es ablish or affec an in eres in )ro)er y if he "a er s a ed $as relevan o he )ur)ose of he docu"en # unless dealin!s $i h he )ro)er y since he docu"en $as "ade have been inconsis en $i h he ru h of he s a e"en or he )ur)or of he docu"en % 0(:1 S a e"en s in ancien docu"en s% S a e"en s in a docu"en in e.is ence $en y years or "ore he au hen ici y of $hich is es ablished% 0(B1 =ar,e re)or s# co""ercial )ublica ions% =ar,e 4uo a ions# abula ions# lis s# direc ories# or

o her )ublished co")ila ions# !enerally used and relied u)on by he )ublic or by )ersons in )ar icular occu)a ions% 0(C1 Learned rea ises% *o he e. en called o he a en ion of an e.)er $i ness u)on cross2 e.a"ina ion or relied u)on by he e.)er $i ness in direc e.a"ina ion# s a e"en s con ained in )ublished rea ises# )eriodicals# or )a")hle s on a sub-ec of his ory# "edicine# or o her science or ar # es ablished as a reliable au hori y by he es i"ony or ad"ission of he $i ness or by o her e.)er es i"ony or by -udicial no ice% If ad"i ed# he s a e"en s "ay be read in o evidence bu "ay no be received as e.hibi s% 0(D1 Re)u a ion concernin! )ersonal or fa"ily his ory% Re)u a ion a"on! "e"bers of a )erson@s fa"ily by blood# ado) ion# or "arria!e# or a"on! a )erson@s associa es# or in he co""uni y# concernin! a )erson@s bir h# ado) ion# "arria!e# divorce# dea h# le!i i"acy# rela ionshi) by blood# ado) ion# or "arria!e# ances ry# or o her si"ilar fac of )ersonal or fa"ily his ory% 0&'1 Re)u a ion concernin! boundaries or !eneral his ory% Re)u a ion in a co""uni y# arisin! before he con roversy# as o boundaries of or cus o"s affec in! lands in he co""uni y# and re)u a ion as o even s of !eneral his ory i")or an o he co""uni y or S a e or na ion in $hich loca ed% 0&(1 Re)u a ion as o charac er% Re)u a ion of a )erson@s charac er a"on! associa es or in he co""uni y% 0&&1 ;ud!"en of )revious convic ion% Evidence of a final -ud!"en # en ered af er a rial or u)on a )lea of !uil y 0bu no u)on a )lea of nolo con endere1# ad-ud!in! a )erson !uil y of a cri"e )unishable by dea h or i")rison"en in e.cess of one year# o )rove any fac essen ial o sus ain he -ud!"en # bu no includin!# $hen offered by he +overn"en in a cri"inal )rosecu ion for )ur)oses o her han i")each"en # -ud!"en s a!ains )ersons o her han he accused% *he )endency of an a))eal "ay be sho$n bu does no affec ad"issibili y% 0&/1 ;ud!"en as o )ersonal# fa"ily or !eneral his ory# or boundaries% ;ud!"en s as )roof of "a ers of )ersonal# fa"ily or !eneral his ory# or boundaries# essen ial o he -ud!"en # if he sa"e $ould be )rovable by evidence of re)u a ion% 0&61 JO her e.ce) ions%KJ*ransferred o Rule C'BK No es Rule C'6% 5earsay E.ce) ions3 Declaran Unavailable 0a1 Defini ion of unavailabili y% ?Unavailabili y as a $i ness? includes si ua ions in $hich he declaran 22 0(1 is e.e") ed by rulin! of he cour on he !round of )rivile!e fro" es ifyin! concernin! he sub-ec "a er of he declaran @s s a e"en 3 or 0&1 )ersis s in refusin! o es ify concernin! he sub-ec "a er of he declaran @s s a e"en des)i e an order of he cour o do so3 or 0/1 es ifies o a lac, of "e"ory of he sub-ec "a er of he declaran @s s a e"en 3 or 061 is unable o be )resen or o es ify a he hearin! because of dea h or hen e.is in! )hysical

or "en al illness or infir"i y3 or 091 is absen fro" he hearin! and he )ro)onen of a s a e"en has been unable o )rocure he declaran @s a endance 0or in he case of a hearsay e.ce) ion under subdivision 0b10&1# 0/1# or 061# he declaran @s a endance or es i"ony1 by )rocess or o her reasonable "eans% A declaran is no unavailable as a $i ness if e.e") ion# refusal# clai" of lac, of "e"ory# inabili y# or absence is due o he )rocure"en or $ron!doin! of he )ro)onen of a s a e"en for he )ur)ose of )reven in! he $i ness fro" a endin! or es ifyin!% 0b1 5earsay e.ce) ions% *he follo$in! are no e.cluded by he hearsay rule if he declaran is unavailable as a $i nessA 0(1 For"er es i"ony% *es i"ony !iven as a $i ness a ano her hearin! of he sa"e or a differen )roceedin!# or in a de)osi ion a,en in co")liance $i h la$ in he course of he sa"e or ano her )roceedin!# if he )ar y a!ains $ho" he es i"ony is no$ offered# or# in a civil ac ion or )roceedin!# a )redecessor in in eres # had an o))or uni y and si"ilar "o ive o develo) he es i"ony by direc # cross# or redirec e.a"ina ion% 0&1 S a e"en under belief of i")endin! dea h% In a )rosecu ion for ho"icide or in a civil ac ion or )roceedin!# a s a e"en "ade by a declaran $hile believin! ha he declaran @s dea h $as i""inen # concernin! he cause or circu"s ances of $ha he declaran believed o be i")endin! dea h% 0/1 S a e"en a!ains in eres % A s a e"en ha A 0A1 a reasonable )erson in he declaran Hs )osi ion $ould have "ade only if he )erson believed i o be rue because# $hen "ade# i $as so con rary o he declaran Hs )ro)rie ary or )ecuniary in eres or had so !rea a endency o invalida e he declaran Hs clai" a!ains so"eone else or o e.)ose he declaran o civil or cri"inal liabili y3 and 0F1 is su))or ed by corrobora in! circu"s ances ha clearly indica e i s rus $or hiness# if i is offered in a cri"inal case as one ha ends o e.)ose he declaran o cri"inal liabili y% 061 S a e"en of )ersonal or fa"ily his ory% 0A1 A s a e"en concernin! he declaran @s o$n bir h# ado) ion# "arria!e# divorce# le!i i"acy# rela ionshi) by blood# ado) ion# or "arria!e# ances ry# or o her si"ilar fac of )ersonal or fa"ily his ory# even hou!h declaran had no "eans of ac4uirin! )ersonal ,no$led!e of he "a er s a ed3 or 0F1 a s a e"en concernin! he fore!oin! "a ers# and dea h also# of ano her )erson# if he declaran $as rela ed o he o her by blood# ado) ion# or "arria!e or $as so in i"a ely associa ed $i h he o her@s fa"ily as o be li,ely o have accura e infor"a ion concernin! he "a er declared% 091 JO her e.ce) ions%KJ*ransferred o Rule C'BK 0:1 Forfei ure by $ron!doin!% A s a e"en offered a!ains a )ar y ha has en!a!ed or ac4uiesced in $ron!doin! ha $as in ended o# and did# )rocure he unavailabili y of he declaran as a $i ness% No es Rule C'9% 5earsay 8i hin 5earsay

5earsay included $i hin hearsay is no e.cluded under he hearsay rule if each )ar of he co"bined s a e"en s confor"s $i h an e.ce) ion o he hearsay rule )rovided in hese rules% No es Rule C':% A ac,in! and Su))or in! Credibili y of Declaran 8hen a hearsay s a e"en # or a s a e"en defined in Rule C'(0d10&10C1# 0D1# or 0E1# has been ad"i ed in evidence# he credibili y of he declaran "ay be a ac,ed# and if a ac,ed "ay be su))or ed# by any evidence $hich $ould be ad"issible for hose )ur)oses if declaran had es ified as a $i ness% Evidence of a s a e"en or conduc by he declaran a any i"e# inconsis en $i h he declaran @s hearsay s a e"en # is no sub-ec o any re4uire"en ha he declaran "ay have been afforded an o))or uni y o deny or e.)lain% If he )ar y a!ains $ho" a hearsay s a e"en has been ad"i ed calls he declaran as a $i ness# he )ar y is en i led o e.a"ine he declaran on he s a e"en as if under cross2e.a"ina ion% No es Rule C'B% Residual E.ce) ion A s a e"en no s)ecifically covered by Rule C'/ or C'6 bu havin! e4uivalen circu"s an ial !uaran ees of rus $or hiness# is no e.cluded by he hearsay rule# if he cour de er"ines ha 0A1 he s a e"en is offered as evidence of a "a erial fac 3 0F1 he s a e"en is "ore )roba ive on he )oin for $hich i is offered han any o her evidence $hich he )ro)onen can )rocure hrou!h reasonable effor s3 and 0C1 he !eneral )ur)oses of hese rules and he in eres s of -us ice $ill bes be served by ad"ission of he s a e"en in o evidence% 5o$ever# a s a e"en "ay no be ad"i ed under his e.ce) ion unless he )ro)onen of i "a,es ,no$n o he adverse )ar y sufficien ly in advance of he rial or hearin! o )rovide he adverse )ar y $i h a fair o))or uni y o )re)are o "ee i # he )ro)onen @s in en ion o offer he s a e"en and he )ar iculars of i # includin! he na"e and address of he declaran % No es AR*ICLE II% AU*5EN*ICA*ION AND IDEN*IFICA*ION Rule D'(% Re4uire"en of Au hen ica ion or Iden ifica ion 0a1 +eneral )rovision% *he re4uire"en of au hen ica ion or iden ifica ion as a condi ion )receden o ad"issibili y is sa isfied by evidence sufficien o su))or a findin! ha he "a er in 4ues ion is $ha i s )ro)onen clai"s% 0b1 Illus ra ions% Fy $ay of illus ra ion only# and no by $ay of li"i a ion# he follo$in! are e.a")les of au hen ica ion or iden ifica ion confor"in! $i h he re4uire"en s of his ruleA 0(1 *es i"ony of $i ness $i h ,no$led!e% *es i"ony ha a "a er is $ha i is clai"ed o be% 0&1 None.)er o)inion on hand$ri in!% None.)er o)inion as o he !enuineness of hand$ri in!# based u)on fa"iliari y no ac4uired for )ur)oses of he li i!a ion%

0/1 Co")arison by rier or e.)er $i ness% Co")arison by he rier of fac or by e.)er $i nesses $i h s)eci"ens $hich have been au hen ica ed% 061 Dis inc ive charac eris ics and he li,e% A))earance# con en s# subs ance# in ernal )a erns# or o her dis inc ive charac eris ics# a,en in con-unc ion $i h circu"s ances% 091 Voice iden ifica ion% Iden ifica ion of a voice# $he her heard firs hand or hrou!h "echanical or elec ronic rans"ission or recordin!# by o)inion based u)on hearin! he voice a any i"e under circu"s ances connec in! i $i h he alle!ed s)ea,er% 0:1 *ele)hone conversa ions% *ele)hone conversa ions# by evidence ha a call $as "ade o he nu"ber assi!ned a he i"e by he ele)hone co")any o a )ar icular )erson or business# if 0A1 in he case of a )erson# circu"s ances# includin! self2iden ifica ion# sho$ he )erson ans$erin! o be he one called# or 0F1 in he case of a business# he call $as "ade o a )lace of business and he conversa ion rela ed o business reasonably ransac ed over he ele)hone% 0B1 Public records or re)or s% Evidence ha a $ri in! au horiEed by la$ o be recorded or filed and in fac recorded or filed in a )ublic office# or a )ur)or ed )ublic record# re)or # s a e"en # or da a co")ila ion# in any for"# is fro" he )ublic office $here i e"s of his na ure are ,e) % 0C1 Ancien docu"en s or da a co")ila ion% Evidence ha a docu"en or da a co")ila ion# in any for"# 0A1 is in such condi ion as o crea e no sus)icion concernin! i s au hen ici y# 0F1 $as in a )lace $here i # if au hen ic# $ould li,ely be# and 0C1 has been in e.is ence &' years or "ore a he i"e i is offered% 0D1 Process or sys e"% Evidence describin! a )rocess or sys e" used o )roduce a resul and sho$in! ha he )rocess or sys e" )roduces an accura e resul % 0('1 =e hods )rovided by s a u e or rule% Any "e hod of au hen ica ion or iden ifica ion )rovided by Ac of Con!ress or by o her rules )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y% No es Rule D'&% Self2au hen ica ion E. rinsic evidence of au hen ici y as a condi ion )receden o ad"issibili y is no re4uired $i h res)ec o he follo$in!A 0(1 Do"es ic )ublic docu"en s under seal% A docu"en bearin! a seal )ur)or in! o be ha of he Uni ed S a es# or of any S a e# dis ric # Co""on$eal h# erri ory# or insular )ossession hereof# or he Pana"a Canal Lone# or he *rus *erri ory of he Pacific Islands# or of a )oli ical subdivision# de)ar "en # officer# or a!ency hereof# and a si!na ure )ur)or in! o be an a es a ion or e.ecu ion% 0&1 Do"es ic )ublic docu"en s no under seal% A docu"en )ur)or in! o bear he si!na ure in he official ca)aci y of an officer or e")loyee of any en i y included in )ara!ra)h 0(1 hereof# havin! no seal# if a )ublic officer havin! a seal and havin! official du ies in he dis ric or )oli ical subdivision of he officer or e")loyee cer ifies under seal ha he si!ner has he official ca)aci y and ha he si!na ure is !enuine% 0/1 Forei!n )ublic docu"en s% A docu"en )ur)or in! o be e.ecu ed or a es ed in an official ca)aci y by a )erson au horiEed by he la$s of a forei!n coun ry o "a,e he e.ecu ion or

a es a ion# and acco")anied by a final cer ifica ion as o he !enuineness of he si!na ure and official )osi ion 0A1 of he e.ecu in! or a es in! )erson# or 0F1 of any forei!n official $hose cer ifica e of !enuineness of si!na ure and official )osi ion rela es o he e.ecu ion or a es a ion or is in a chain of cer ifica es of !enuineness of si!na ure and official )osi ion rela in! o he e.ecu ion or a es a ion% A final cer ifica ion "ay be "ade by a secre ary of an e"bassy or le!a ion# consul !eneral# consul# vice consul# or consular a!en of he Uni ed S a es# or a di)lo"a ic or consular official of he forei!n coun ry assi!ned or accredi ed o he Uni ed S a es% If reasonable o))or uni y has been !iven o all )ar ies o inves i!a e he au hen ici y and accuracy of official docu"en s# he cour "ay# for !ood cause sho$n# order ha hey be rea ed as )resu") ively au hen ic $i hou final cer ifica ion or )er"i he" o be evidenced by an a es ed su""ary $i h or $i hou final cer ifica ion% 061 Cer ified co)ies of )ublic records% A co)y of an official record or re)or or en ry herein# or of a docu"en au horiEed by la$ o be recorded or filed and ac ually recorded or filed in a )ublic office# includin! da a co")ila ions in any for"# cer ified as correc by he cus odian or o her )erson au horiEed o "a,e he cer ifica ion# by cer ifica e co")lyin! $i h )ara!ra)h 0(1# 0&1# or 0/1 of his rule or co")lyin! $i h any Ac of Con!ress or rule )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y% 091 Official )ublica ions% Foo,s# )a")hle s# or o her )ublica ions )ur)or in! o be issued by )ublic au hori y% 0:1 Ne$s)a)ers and )eriodicals% Prin ed "a erials )ur)or in! o be ne$s)a)ers or )eriodicals% 0B1 *rade inscri) ions and he li,e% Inscri) ions# si!ns# a!s# or labels )ur)or in! o have been affi.ed in he course of business and indica in! o$nershi)# con rol# or ori!in% 0C1 Ac,no$led!ed docu"en s% Docu"en s acco")anied by a cer ifica e of ac,no$led!"en e.ecu ed in he "anner )rovided by la$ by a no ary )ublic or o her officer au horiEed by la$ o a,e ac,no$led!"en s% 0D1 Co""ercial )a)er and rela ed docu"en s% Co""ercial )a)er# si!na ures hereon# and docu"en s rela in! here o o he e. en )rovided by !eneral co""ercial la$% 0('1 Presu") ions under Ac s of Con!ress% Any si!na ure# docu"en # or o her "a er declared by Ac of Con!ress o be )resu") ively or )ri"a facie !enuine or au hen ic% 0((1 Cer ified do"es ic records of re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y% *he ori!inal or a du)lica e of a do"es ic record of re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y ha $ould be ad"issible under Rule C'/0:1 if acco")anied by a $ri en declara ion of i s cus odian or o her 4ualified )erson# in a "anner co")lyin! $i h any Ac of Con!ress or rule )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori y# cer ifyin! ha he recordA 0A1 $as "ade a or near he i"e of he occurrence of he "a ers se for h by# or fro" infor"a ion rans"i ed by# a )erson $i h ,no$led!e of hose "a ers3 0F1 $as ,e) in he course of he re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y3 and 0C1 $as "ade by he re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y as a re!ular )rac ice% A )ar y in endin! o offer a record in o evidence under his )ara!ra)h "us )rovide $ri en no ice of ha in en ion o all adverse )ar ies# and "us "a,e he record and declara ion available for ins)ec ion sufficien ly in advance of heir offer in o evidence o )rovide an adverse )ar y $i h a

fair o))or uni y o challen!e he"% 0(&1 Cer ified forei!n records of re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y% In a civil case# he ori!inal or a du)lica e of a forei!n record of re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y ha $ould be ad"issible under Rule C'/0:1 if acco")anied by a $ri en declara ion by i s cus odian or o her 4ualified )erson cer ifyin! ha he recordA 0A1 $as "ade a or near he i"e of he occurrence of he "a ers se for h by# or fro" infor"a ion rans"i ed by# a )erson $i h ,no$led!e of hose "a ers3 0F1 $as ,e) in he course of he re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y3 and 0C1 $as "ade by he re!ularly conduc ed ac ivi y as a re!ular )rac ice% *he declara ion "us be si!ned in a "anner ha # if falsely "ade# $ould sub-ec he "a,er o cri"inal )enal y under he la$s of he coun ry $here he declara ion is si!ned% A )ar y in endin! o offer a record in o evidence under his )ara!ra)h "us )rovide $ri en no ice of ha in en ion o all adverse )ar ies# and "us "a,e he record and declara ion available for ins)ec ion sufficien ly in advance of heir offer in o evidence o )rovide an adverse )ar y $i h a fair o))or uni y o challen!e he"% No es Rule D'/% Subscribin! 8i ness@ *es i"ony Unnecessary *he es i"ony of a subscribin! $i ness is no necessary o au hen ica e a $ri in! unless re4uired by he la$s of he -urisdic ion $hose la$s !overn he validi y of he $ri in!% No es AR*ICLE I% CON*EN*S OF 8RI*IN+S# RECORDIN+S# AND P5O*O+RAP5S Rule (''(% Defini ions For )ur)oses of his ar icle he follo$in! defini ions are a))licableA 0(1 8ri in!s and recordin!s% ?8ri in!s? and ?recordin!s? consis of le ers# $ords# or nu"bers# or heir e4uivalen # se do$n by hand$ri in!# y)e$ri in!# )rin in!# )ho os a in!# )ho o!ra)hin!# "a!ne ic i")ulse# "echanical or elec ronic recordin!# or o her for" of da a co")ila ion% 0&1 Pho o!ra)hs% ?Pho o!ra)hs? include s ill )ho o!ra)hs# I2ray fil"s# video a)es# and "o ion )ic ures% 0/1 Ori!inal% An ?ori!inal? of a $ri in! or recordin! is he $ri in! or recordin! i self or any coun er)ar in ended o have he sa"e effec by a )erson e.ecu in! or issuin! i % An ?ori!inal? of a )ho o!ra)h includes he ne!a ive or any )rin herefro"% If da a are s ored in a co")u er or si"ilar device# any )rin ou or o her ou )u readable by si!h # sho$n o reflec he da a accura ely# is an ?ori!inal?% 061 Du)lica e% A ?du)lica e? is a coun er)ar )roduced by he sa"e i")ression as he ori!inal# or fro" he sa"e "a ri.# or by "eans of )ho o!ra)hy# includin! enlar!e"en s and "inia ures# or by "echanical or elec ronic re2recordin!# or by che"ical re)roduc ion# or by o her e4uivalen echni4ues $hich accura ely re)roduces he ori!inal%

No es Rule (''&% Re4uire"en of Ori!inal *o )rove he con en of a $ri in!# recordin!# or )ho o!ra)h# he ori!inal $ri in!# recordin!# or )ho o!ra)h is re4uired# e.ce) as o her$ise )rovided in hese rules or by Ac of Con!ress% No es Rule (''/% Ad"issibili y of Du)lica es A du)lica e is ad"issible o he sa"e e. en as an ori!inal unless 0(1 a !enuine 4ues ion is raised as o he au hen ici y of he ori!inal or 0&1 in he circu"s ances i $ould be unfair o ad"i he du)lica e in lieu of he ori!inal% No es Rule (''6% Ad"issibili y of O her Evidence of Con en s *he ori!inal is no re4uired# and o her evidence of he con en s of a $ri in!# recordin!# or )ho o!ra)h is ad"issible if22 0(1 Ori!inals los or des royed% All ori!inals are los or have been des royed# unless he )ro)onen los or des royed he" in bad fai h3 or 0&1 Ori!inal no ob ainable% No ori!inal can be ob ained by any available -udicial )rocess or )rocedure3 or 0/1 Ori!inal in )ossession of o))onen % A a i"e $hen an ori!inal $as under he con rol of he )ar y a!ains $ho" offered# ha )ar y $as )u on no ice# by he )leadin!s or o her$ise# ha he con en s $ould be a sub-ec of )roof a he hearin!# and ha )ar y does no )roduce he ori!inal a he hearin!3 or 061 Colla eral "a ers% *he $ri in!# recordin!# or )ho o!ra)h is no closely rela ed o a con rollin! issue% No es Rule (''9% Public Records *he con en s of an official record# or of a docu"en au horiEed o be recorded or filed and ac ually recorded or filed# includin! da a co")ila ions in any for"# if o her$ise ad"issible# "ay be )roved by co)y# cer ified as correc in accordance $i h rule D'& or es ified o be correc by a $i ness $ho has co")ared i $i h he ori!inal% If a co)y $hich co")lies $i h he fore!oin! canno be ob ained by he e.ercise of reasonable dili!ence# hen o her evidence of he con en s "ay be !iven% No es Rule ('':% Su""aries *he con en s of volu"inous $ri in!s# recordin!s# or )ho o!ra)hs $hich canno convenien ly be

e.a"ined in cour "ay be )resen ed in he for" of a char # su""ary# or calcula ion% *he ori!inals# or du)lica es# shall be "ade available for e.a"ina ion or co)yin!# or bo h# by o her )ar ies a reasonable i"e and )lace% *he cour "ay order ha hey be )roduced in cour % No es Rule (''B% *es i"ony or 8ri en Ad"ission of Par y Con en s of $ri in!s# recordin!s# or )ho o!ra)hs "ay be )roved by he es i"ony or de)osi ion of he )ar y a!ains $ho" offered or by ha )ar y@s $ri en ad"ission# $i hou accoun in! for he non)roduc ion of he ori!inal% No es Rule (''C% Func ions of Cour and ;ury 8hen he ad"issibili y of o her evidence of con en s of $ri in!s# recordin!s# or )ho o!ra)hs under hese rules de)ends u)on he fulfill"en of a condi ion of fac # he 4ues ion $he her he condi ion has been fulfilled is ordinarily for he cour o de er"ine in accordance $i h he )rovisions of rule ('6% 5o$ever# $hen an issue is raised 0a1 $he her he asser ed $ri in! ever e.is ed# or 0b1 $he her ano her $ri in!# recordin!# or )ho o!ra)h )roduced a he rial is he ori!inal# or 0c1 $he her o her evidence of con en s correc ly reflec s he con en s# he issue is for he rier of fac o de er"ine as in he case of o her issues of fac % No es AR*ICLE IIA =ISCELLANEOUS RULES Rule (('(% A))licabili y of Rules 0a1 Cour s and -ud!es% *hese rules a))ly o he Uni ed S a es dis ric cour s# he Dis ric Cour of +ua"# he Dis ric Cour of he Vir!in Islands# he Dis ric Cour for he Nor hern =ariana Islands# he Uni ed S a es cour s of a))eals# he Uni ed S a es Clai"s Cour # and o he Uni ed S a es ban,ru) cy -ud!es and Uni ed S a es "a!is ra e -ud!es# in he ac ions# cases# and )roceedin!s and o he e. en hereinaf er se for h% *he er"s ?-ud!e? and ?cour ? in hese rules include Uni ed S a es ban,ru) cy -ud!es and Uni ed S a es "a!is ra e -ud!es% 0b1 Proceedin!s !enerally% *hese rules a))ly !enerally o civil ac ions and )roceedin!s# includin! ad"iral y and "ari i"e cases# o cri"inal cases and )roceedin!s# o con e") )roceedin!s e.ce) hose in $hich he cour "ay ac su""arily# and o )roceedin!s and cases under i le ((# Uni ed S a es Code% 0c1 Rule of )rivile!e% *he rule $i h res)ec o )rivile!es a))lies a all s a!es of all ac ions# cases# and )roceedin!s% 0d1 Rules ina))licable% *he rules 0o her han $i h res)ec o )rivile!es1 do no a))ly in he follo$in! si ua ionsA

0(1 Preli"inary 4ues ions of fac % *he de er"ina ion of 4ues ions of fac )reli"inary o ad"issibili y of evidence $hen he issue is o be de er"ined by he cour under rule ('6% 0&1 +rand -ury% Proceedin!s before !rand -uries% 0/1 =iscellaneous )roceedin!s% Proceedin!s for e. radi ion or rendi ion3 )reli"inary e.a"ina ions in cri"inal cases3 sen encin!# or !ran in! or revo,in! )roba ion3 issuance of $arran s for arres # cri"inal su""onses# and search $arran s3 and )roceedin!s $i h res)ec o release on bail or o her$ise% 0e1 Rules a))licable in )ar % In he follo$in! )roceedin!s hese rules a))ly o he e. en ha "a ers of evidence are no )rovided for in he s a u es $hich !overn )rocedure herein or in o her rules )rescribed by he Su)re"e Cour )ursuan o s a u ory au hori yA he rial of "isde"eanors and o her )e y offenses before Uni ed S a es "a!is ra e -ud!e3 revie$ of a!ency ac ions $hen he fac s are sub-ec o rial de novo under sec ion B':0&10F1 of i le 9# Uni ed S a es Code3 revie$ of orders of he Secre ary of A!ricul ure under sec ion & of he Ac en i led ?An Ac o au horiEe associa ion of )roducers of a!ricul ural )roduc s? a))roved February (C# (D&& 0B U%S%C% &D&1# and under sec ion : and B0c1 of he Perishable A!ricul ural Co""odi ies Ac # (D/' 0B U%S%C% 6DDf# 6DD!0c113 na uraliEa ion and revoca ion of na uraliEa ion under sec ions /(' 2 /(C of he I""i!ra ion and Na ionali y Ac 0C U%S%C% (6&( 2 (6&D13 )riEe )roceedin!s in ad"iral y under sec ions B:9( 2 B:C( of i le ('# Uni ed S a es Code3 revie$ of orders of he Secre ary of he In erior under sec ion & of he Ac en i led ?An Ac au horiEin! associa ions of )roducers of a4ua ic )roduc s? a))roved ;une &9# (D/6 0(9 U%S%C% 9&&13 revie$ of orders of )e roleu" con rol boards under sec ion 9 of he Ac en i led ?An ac o re!ula e in ers a e and forei!n co""erce in )e roleu" and i s )roduc s by )rohibi in! he shi)"en in such co""erce of )e roleu" and i s )roduc s )roduced in viola ion of S a e la$# and for o her )ur)oses?# a))roved February &&# (D/9 0(9 U%S%C% B(9d13 ac ions for fines# )enal ies# or forfei ures under )ar V of i le IV of he *ariff Ac of (D/' 0(D U%S%C% (9C( 2 (:&61# or under he An i2S"u!!lin! Ac 0(D U%S%C% (B'( 2 (B((13 cri"inal libel for conde"na ion# e.clusion of i")or s# or o her )roceedin!s under he Federal Food# Dru!# and Cos"e ic Ac 0&( U%S%C% /'( 2 /D&13 dis)u es be $een sea"en under sec ions 6'BD# 6'C'# and 6'C( of he Revised S a u es 0&& U%S%C% &9: 2 &9C13 habeas cor)us under sec ions &&6( 2 &&96 of i le &C# Uni ed S a es Code3 "o ions o vaca e# se aside or correc sen ence under sec ion &&99 of i le &C# Uni ed S a es Code3 ac ions for )enal ies for refusal o rans)or des i u e sea"en under sec ion 69BC of he Revised S a u es 06: U%S%C% :BD13 ac ions a!ains he Uni ed S a es under he Ac en i led ?An Ac au horiEin! sui s a!ains he Uni ed S a es in ad"iral y for da"a!e caused by and salva!e service rendered o )ublic vessels belon!in! o he Uni ed S a es# and for o her )ur)oses?# a))roved =arch /# (D&9 06: U%S%C% BC( 2 BD'1# as i")le"en ed by sec ion BB/' of i le ('# Uni ed S a es Code% No es Rule (('&% A"end"en s A"end"en s o he Federal Rules of Evidence "ay be "ade as )rovided in sec ion &'B& of i le &C of he Uni ed S a es Code% No es Rule (('/% *i le *hese rules "ay be ,no$n and ci ed as he Federal Rules of Evidence%

No es

Похожие интересы