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Driving_over_step.

xls To estimate ability of a vehicle to get over an obstacle Last modified 10/22/03 by Alex Slocum Enters numbers in BOLD, Results in RED Schematics Case for Push Case for Pull
L cg Y D h cg Lw Rw Fw X h
h Lw Fw Y D X hcg L cg

Rw

F Tr FNr

mg

F Tf

FNf

F Tr

FNr

mg F Tf F Nf

System Rear wheel diameter, Drw (mm) Front wheel diameter, Dfw (mm) Distance between wheels, Lw (mm) Distance center of front wheel to center of gravity, Lcg (mm) Step height, h (mm) Contact angle, theta (rad) Contact angle, theta (deg) Cosine of contact angle, CT Sine of contact angle, ST Machine mass, m (kg) Machine weight, mg (N) Rear wheel coefficient of friction, murw Front wheel coefficient of friction, mufw Maximum drive torque applied to both rear wheels, grw (N-mm) Maximum drive torque applied to both front wheels, gfw (N-mm) Enter 1 for 4WD, 0 for 2 WD, gamma Option 1: Nice and easy slow drive over the step Maximum rear wheel tractive force from drive torque, Frwmax (N) Maximum rear wheel force from drive torque, Ffwmax (N) Maximum rear wheel tractive force before slip, Frwmumax (N) Maximum front wheel tractive force before slip, Ffwmumax (N) Total tractive effort required by both rear wheels, FTr (N) Total tractive effort required by both front wheels, FTf (N) Normal force between both rear wheels and ground, FNr (N) Normal force between both front wheels and step FNf (N) Can the machine climb over the step? Option 2: Ramming speed!

Values 100 100 250 125 5 0.45 25.84 0.90 0.44 5 49 0.3 0.3 400 400 1 push 8 8 8.0 6.7 5.15 5.15 26.6 22.4 yes

pull

5.15 5.15 27.0 22.5 yes

Ideal forward velocity required to get over the step, v (mm/s) potential energy on top of step, DPE (N-m) Equations Case for push

313 0.25

F F

X Y

= 0 = F T ( 1 + cos ) F Nf sin = 0 = F Nr + F T sin + F Nf cos mg


T

M = 0 = F
FT =

2mg ( L w L cgsin ) 2hsin +2 L+Dsin +) (cos ( w mg ( 2 L cg + sin ) 2 Fh D + T sin ( 2L w + D

D sin h + F Nr L w + 2

D sin mg Lcg + 2

F Nr = F Nf =
Case for pull

mg F Nr F T sin cos

F F

X Y

= 0= F T (1 cos ) F Nr sin + = 0= F Nf + F T sin + F Nr cos F T h F


Nf

mg L L cg w D sin 2

M = 0=

D sin + mg L w 2 2mg L cgsin FT = 2hsin + (2 L w Dsin ) + cos + ( ) F Nr =

( 2 L w Dsin ) (+ cos ) 2 hsin

2mg L cg (1 + cos

F Nf = mg F Nr cos FT sin