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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

MAY SEMESTER 2009 PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT EMQM5103 ASSIGNMENT

LECTURER DR HARIKRISHNAN KANTHEN

STUDENT ANAS BIN ALAM FAIZLI

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

MAY SEMESTER 2009 PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT EMQM5103 ASSIGNMENT (45%)

PART A (30%): ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

QUESTION 1 (6%)

a) What is a key difference between an Affinity Diagram and other tools?

An Affinity Diagram or KJ which was named after Kawakita Jiro is a special kind of brainstorming tool. It is useful when chaos exists, too many ideas, breakthrough thinking is required and broad issues have to be identified.

It also work and is built from bottom-up, with the basic elements and then working up, which is different from other tools which is mostly built from topdown.

Some unique features when building an affinity diagram is affinitized silently go for gut reactions and handle disagreements simply.

b) Why is an Affinity Diagram called a creative, silent (non-verbal) activity?

Building an Affinity Diagram is a creative rather than a logical process that encourages participation because everyone's ideas find their way into the exercise. It concentrates on the right-brain thought (creative) rather than the left

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

brain thought (logical). There is no discussion when building the diagram. It is called silent anyway. This has advantages where no single people monopolizing or trying to control the conversation and encourage unconventional thinking which is opposed to the semantic battles which are bad.

c) When shouldn't we use the Affinity Diagram?

Affinity diagram will not work if the information or data involved is too little. If that is the case, then you should be using other decision making tools to identify the priority items. Majority of the quality intellects agreed that a minimum of fifteen (15) information should be identified to justify using an affinity diagram. This however should be taken as a rule of thumb only.

QUESTION 2 (6%)

a) In the meeting, the facilitator focuses the group by describing the four rules of Brainstorming (which he will help to drive during the meeting, what they are?

1. All ideas or correct. Do not judge other peoples idea. Accept all ideas to encourage the flow of ideas. 2. Creativity is encouraged by not allowing ideas to be evaluated or discussed until everyone has run dry 3. Throw out as many ideas as possible, quantity over quality, the more ideas there is the higher the chances of getting a valuable idea. 4. Any and all ideas are considered legitimate and often the most far-fetched are the most fertile 5. Change and merge ideas. Expand on other's suggestions, changing, modifying and mixing existing ideas. This will encourage new ideas.

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

b) Why does Brainstorming use divergent thinking instead of conventional thinking that we often use to jump to solutions that are easy to find?

Brainstorming is simply listing all ideas put forth by a group in response to a given problem or question. In 1939, a team led by advertising executive Alex Osborn coined the term "brainstorm."

Brainstorming allows the mind of the participant to reach its full potential, pushing its creative thinking by discussing openly without any fear of failure, no judgment which encourages the use of divergent thinking which will achieve plenty of ideas. This differs from the conventional thinking as the list developed from brainstorming will have both illogical and unconventional ideas and also the good ideas.

However, a brainstorm cannot help you positively identify causes of problems, rank ideas in a meaningful order, select important ideas, or check solutions because it will have everything including the bad ideas.

QUESTION 3 (6%)

a) What is the main limitation that you should keep in mind when working with a cause and effect diagram?

The cause and effect diagram or affectionately called Ishikawa Diagram has an important limitation due to the nature of the diagram. As a result of this, it is not particularly useful for extremely complex problems, when the problem is caused

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

by a combination of factors or the problems are interrelated. Comes to this it will be difficult to use the diagram to depict and solve the problem.

b) Primary cause areas in a cause & effect diagram are frequently arranged into four major categories, what are the recommended categories for

administration and service? Causes in a C&E diagram are frequently arranged into four major categories. These categories can be anything, but you will often see:

Manpower, methods, materials, and machinery (recommended for manufacturing)

Equipment,

policies,

procedures,

and

people

(recommended

for

administration and service) These guidelines can be helpful but should not be used if they limit the diagram. The categories you use should suit your needs. The titles from the affinity diagram can also be used to create the cause and effects branches.

c) When do we use process map? Process map is used when an organization requires to:

To establish what is happening, its predictability and reasoning To check and ensure that the process is working efficiently To understand where waste and inefficiency exists To develop new process for reducing or eliminating inefficiency

QUESTION 4 (6%)

a) What does Histogram do? Histogram is a graphical representative of data that: Displays large amounts of data that are difficult to interpret in tabular form

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Data classed is displayed on the x-axis while number of occurrences on yaxis Shows the relative frequency of occurrence of the various data values Reveals the centering, variation, and shape of the data Illustrates quickly the underlying distribution of the data Provides useful information for predicting future performance of the process Helps to indicate if there has been a change in the process

An example can be seen on Figure B.5

b) Why would you use Histogram in Quality Improvement Project?

Histogram is used to summarize data from a process that has been collected over a period of time, and graphically present its frequency distribution in bar form.

Histogram also allows the visualization of large quantities of data which would be difficult to understand and analyze. This help identifies and control variation.

It gives quick assessment to data and variation which exist in the process. The shape also illustrates possible causes of quality problem.

Example is when looking at a manpower loading histogram for a typical construction project, normally it starts with minimum manpower and then peak during peak-time and then slows down during mobilization, and then it is normal. If not, then there is a problem with the loading which can be easily seen with a histogram.

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

c) Give examples when you can use Histogram during the following phases of Quality Improvement Project:

1) Measure phase: During a measuring phase, a histogram can be used to kicked off or begin the understanding of the statistical nature of the problem.

2) Analyze phase: During the analyze phase, a histogram can be used to identify potential Xs (causes of quality problems) which can be investigated further and then help eliminates it.

3) Improve phase: During the improve phase, a histogram will valuably assist to characterize and confirm the solutions which has been selected for the problem. The variance will show the improvement.

4) Control phase: During the control phase, a histogram gives a visual reference to help track and maintain our improvements. The easiest way is to keep the old histogram as a baseline and see the changes happened when control implementations are made.

QUESTION 5 (6%)

a) What are the basic components of control chart?

A control chart is used to notice special causes of variation as soon as they occur.

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Control chart has the following three basic components:


1. A centerline, usually the mathematical average of all the samples plotted. 2. Upper and lower statistical control limits that define the constraints of

common cause variations.


3. Performance data plotted over time.

b) What is the main difference between run chart and control chart?

A run chart displays process performance over time. In a run chart, events, shown on the y axis, are graphed against a time period on the x axis. It focuses on time patterns and is useful to solve problem which is related to time. For an example, more defects are made at 2pm compared to any hour of the day which is most probably because of post lunch effects. This can be found out using a run chart.

A control chart on the other hand focuses on acceptable limits of the process. A control chart helps to identify between the special cause (unusual variation) and the common cause. Unusual variation is something that normally does not

happened. Having been able to monitor this will help in eliminating this variation, and there are many instances when reducing this variation can saves money and it is good for the organization.

c) When should we use a check sheet?

A check sheet is a structured, form that can come in a tabular, location or graph format used to collect data. This is a generic tool which can be used for many purposes, albeit limited to data collection. It is best used when:

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location.

Data is collected on the frequency or patterns of events, problems, defects, defect location, defect causes, etc.

Data is collected from a production process. To distinguish between opinion and fact To gather data on the frequency of a problem occurring, and the type of problem occurring.

d) What are the three types of check sheet?

The three (3) types of check sheet are as follows:


1. Tabular Format. This is use to count the frequency of a specific

occurrence or to record a measurement.

Depending on the data

required, the data collector simply marks a checkmark on the column involves as per Figure A.1

Figure A.1 a tabular format check sheet

2. Location Format. This check sheet allows data collector to mark exact physical location of a defect or an occurrence. Figure A.2 is self explanatory.

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Figure A.2 a location check sheet format

3. Graphic Format. It is specifically designed so that the data can be recorded and displayed at the same time. Using this check sheet format, you can record raw data by plotting them directly onto a graph-like chart.

Figure A.3 a graphic check sheet format

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

PART B (70%):

Practical Exercise from the course Textbook (Kenneth H. Ross, Project Quality Management, pp 156-159)

Beads R Us is a producer of high-quality beads for commercial use. The production process is as described in the red bean experiment. Workers produce beads in lots of fifty by dipping a paddle into a bin of beads and withdrawing fifty at a time. Some of the beads are red; red beads are defective. If the production lot is less than fifty, the absent beads count as defects. Recently, management has become dissatisfied with the number of defects during production.

Beads R Us obtains materials from Bead World, one of three suppliers worldwide. Materials include defective beads, which must be eliminated prior to delivery to customers.

A major customer of Beads R Us has informed the management that it will reject any future delivery that included more than fifteen defective beads in a sample of fifty to be taken on the receiving dock at the time of delivery.

Beads R Us has engaged your project team on a consulting contract to analyze its process, identify any shortcomings, and recommends solutions.

Data Collection (refer to pp 157-158)

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS

Apply your quality knowledge and meet all contractual requirements. Specifically:

a) Analyze the process of bead production at Beads R Us. b) Identify any shortcomings that indicate inability to meet customer requirements. c) Recommend solutions that eliminate any shortcomings.

Recommendations should be presented to Bead R Us as a final report, with relevant quality tools attached for clarification and justification.

Tips (Refer to pp 158-159)

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Quality Improvement Project Client: Beads R Us

Scope of Works: Consulting contract to analyze process, identify shortcomings and recommend solutions.

Data Collection

Crosby, one of the quality father was quoted as saying that Quality is free because the cost which is spend on creating a quality environment will eventually save the organization more money in the long run. Whenever the organization made mistake, a losses will occur, often this cost will vary from insignificant amount to major huge losses. This is called the cost of non-conformance.

However, having quality implemented as a quality assurance and quality control check, this loss can be evaded. It has been proven that the cost of quality (cost to implement quality) is always less than the cost of non-conformance. This means that the cost of having quality is actually as Crosby has said is free.

In this report, we will evaluate the bead making process in Beads R Us, investigate the shortcomings and propose problem solving solutions to improve the quality in Beads R Us. Prior to analyzing, identifying and recommending solutions to Beads R Us, data collection is vital. Without collecting the data the other succeeding process cannot be executed.

The tools that will be used for data collection is a check sheet. A check sheet is a powerful tool for collecting data. It is used to compile and record data based on observation and there are few ways to do this either in a tabular, location or graphical format.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

First, we defined the events and data required to be monitored.

Five days

duration and six workers have been decided with two inspectors. This imitates one line of production in Beads R Us. The data collected will be more accurate rather than having Beads R Us themselves to submit the data based from their history and samples.

We had then secretly sent six members of our project team to Beads R Us as new employees to feel the experience with the production process at Beads R Us. After completing the five days week, they come back with their daily results and the check sheet as per Figure B.1.

Their performance is as per table below: Mon Worker1 Worker2 Worker3 Worker4 Worker5 Worker6 IIIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII Tue Wed IIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIIII IIIIIIIII I Thu IIIIII IIIIIIII IIIII IIIIIIIII I Fri

IIIIIIIII IIIIII IIIIIIIII II IIIIIIIII I IIIIIII IIIIIIIII I IIIIIIIII IIIIIIII IIIIIIIII III

Figure B.1 Using checksheet to get Results of a Red Bead Experiment

From the check sheet we translated the data collected into table below: Name Worker1 Worker2 Worker3 Worker4 Mon 17 8 9 10 Tue 6 7 9 16 Wed 7 10 14 8
14

Thu 6 8 16 11

Fri 5 11 12 9

Total 41 44 60 54

Average 8.2 8.8 12 10.8

Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Worker5 Worker6 Total Average

10 7 61 10.2

10 20 68 11.3

10 11 60 10.0

7 11 59 9.8

8 13 58 9.7

45 62 306

9 12.4 61.2 10.2

Figure B.2 Results of a Red Bead Experiment

This data will be our basis of discussion. Furthermore this data has been proven to be independent as Beads R Us is not aware that they are being assessed. Provided if they have that knowledge, perhaps Beads R Us will try to tamper with the results. Any employee that is employed with Beads R Us will probably go through and get this result too. Having six employees provided better variation and strength to the data that is represented.

Understanding the data

The check sheet could only be used as a tool to collect data. Further analyzing tools are required to understand the data which will bring more understanding to the problem. Now, we wanted to see how the six workers do using graphs which are one of Ishikawas basic tools. The graph will assist us to organize, summarize and display the data. It is still the same data; there was no variation or changes made to the number. The same data is transferred to a graphical form to illustrate and give faster understanding of the data. Using the graphs, defect trending can be seen and can also be compared with other sources of data. We can see the difference performance made by the six workers throughout the five working days period.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Figure B.3 Bar graph showing the results of the bead experiment

Figure B.4 Line graph showing the results of the red bead experiments

From this two graphs, it can be seen that on different days, there will be different worker having the highest or lowest defect and it varies from one day to another. There is no significant worker that is producing defects which is showing
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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

irregularities. However it is not fair also to blame a worker with high defect on a day when on another day he could have performed with the lowest number of defects. A good example is to refer to worker 6 where he registered 20 defects on Tuesday but only have 7 defects on Monday. He did not improve from

Monday to Tuesday but instead was getting worse on his second day. Refer to figure B.4.

Figure B.5 A cummulative line graph showing the red beads experiment

To study the performance of the six workers, a cummulative line graph has been prepared. Their performance from Monday is summed up and is carried

throughout to Friday. We can see their performance from Figure B.5. Adding up all the cummulative red beads defect by day from Monday to Friday, we will be able to see how Worker 6 have the highest number of defects followed by worker 4, worker 3, worker 5, worker 2 and finally worker 1 registering the lowest number of defects. The variation from the best worker and the highest worker is 19 beads which is an average of 4 beads a day. There is still a room of

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

improvement if all workers performed like worker 1 the number of average defects will surely go down and improve the quality benchmark all together.

Histograms

Histogram is a type of bar graph that deals with data that exist in a continous range from a low number to a high number. From the histogram we can see the distribution of the defects. The steps taken to develop the histogram is select measures, collect data, prepare frequency table (as figure below), design the histogram, draw and interpret the data.

Range Frequency 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 1 18 7 4

Figure B.6 Frequency distribution of the red beads experiment


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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

The class width that is chosen for this histogram is five. From this histogram, a glance can tell that the worker registered the highest count of 6 to 10 defects in a day with 18 frequencies of occurence. If we can minimize the number of defects that is outside this normal range, the number of average defects will go below 10 improving against the current average of 10.2

Scatter Diagrams

Figure B.7 Scatter Diagram showing the defect distribution throughout the week

Scatter diagram is used to identify the relationship between two existing variables, and in this case the worker and the days worked which is Monday to Friday. However looking at the scatter diagram above there is no apparent relationship between the two. What can be suggested is that relatively worker 1, 6 and 4 was doing great every day except for one day. Worker 2, 3 and 5 on another hand does not offer big variance between the days worked.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

The data shows that the workers variation is within acceptable results and that the problems are not coming from the worker. This is true as per Dr. Deming which was quoted as saying that 94 percent of the problems come from the system rather than the worker.

There are no significant variants between the workers performance themselves. Their performance goes up and down from Monday to Friday and there is no signal that shows if they continue to work for another five days, they can improve and the number of defects will go down.

In the following topic, the report will try to map out the process of bead making in Beads R Us and try to find ways and measures that can improve it.

Understanding the Process Flowchart

A flowchart identifies the sequence of events in a process. It shows how the process flows from the start to the end.

A flowchart enables an organization to find ways to improve the process. The beads making process in Beads R Us is a straight forward process. The worker dip the paddle until it is fully covered with the coating, and then it shakes the paddle until all the beads rolled off. After that two inspectors and one chief inspector will count the number of the defect and collect the defect data.

Refer Figure B.8 to see the flowchart for the production of the beads

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Figure B.8 Flowchart showing the Red Beads Process The management seems to believe that the problem lies on the worker but with such a straight forward process it seems hard to see if the worker can produce a resulting improvement. Prof Robert Merton stated that "a false definition of the situation will invoke new behavior which will make the false perception comes true" which is true in this case.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Analyzing Project Process Causes and Effect Diagrams

As the name implores it is a tool to see what causes the problem and what the effects of it are. You will be able to see graphically below and will understand why it is sometimes called a fishbone diagram because of its shape and sometimes is called an Ishikawa diagram honoring its developer Dr Kaoru Ishikawa. This is used to identify, explore and show all possible causes of a problem.

The cause and effect diagram was created using the four common categories for manufacturing industry, i.e methods, manpower, materials and machinery.

Causes which are relevant to a certain categories will be grouped with its categories, i.e bad communication is grouped under Methods.

Figure B.9 Cause and Effect diagram illustrating the Red Bead Results
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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

The six willing workers at Beads R Us share the details of the causes and root problems of the defects which if addressed will improve the defect rate at Beads R Us. This are the shortcomings identified for Beads R Us. Causes of problems: 1. Training is not good. New hires are not given any training. Beads R Us did not take any responsibility to train the new hires at all. They are just placed at the production line and are expected to follow their colleagues. 2. Communication is not good. Workers are not allowed to talk to each other. The management feels that it is a waste of good money if the worker is talking instead of working. 3. Management is not good. All credits are taken by the manager, instead if something goes wrong all the blame goes to the employees. 4. Leadership is not good. Management are never seen on the floor shop, they seldom come only to threaten punishment in hoping to push production. 5. Working environment is not good. Production floor is full with threatening posters and the workers do not understand the message and how to implement the slogans. 6. Quotas are unreasonable. The numbers assigned by the management as target is not realistic and is unachievable. The management again threaten workers with punishment. 7. Rewards are inconsistent and inequitable. Awards can be given to a

worker when there is a better or equivalent performing worker and is not consistent. The same worker can end up with a reward and is being

punished the next day.

However the problem is not with the worker but is with the process, supported more with the list below: 1. There was no evidence that any worker was better than another.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

2. Managers must not rush to blame employees. 3. Penalties bring negativity to the employees. 4. There is no need for two inspectors as they are merely counting the obvious defects and is not helping the process 5. A clear instruction is required 6. Intimidation creates fear which does nothing to improve a process. 7. Praise will encourage a person to perform the process as they have learned to perform it. It will not improve a process. 8. Banners and slogan used is threatening and is not helping the process 9. Incentives will not improve a process and have a short effect on employee morale. 10. The process has natural variation. Every day the result is different. 11. The process has to be able to adapt to customers requirement. Having understood the causes of the problems which are not the worker but the process and the system, the next step is to solve the problem. Even if the management decided to change the entire fleet of its workers, Beads R Us will find that the defect rate will still be the same as it has been proven by the quality tools during the understanding data and process step.

Solving Problems Brainstorming A brainstorming is a quality tools used to solve problems. The six willing workers and the project team including the inspectors gathered and throw out all the ideas. There are few rules in brainstorming which is needed to be followed in order to ensure divergent thinking is achieved and creativity is ensured. There are no wrong ideas and all ideas are welcomed. No judgment shall be made to any ideas. The team goes on and lists the ideas as below: 1. Listen to employees

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

2. Establish procedures and guidelines 3. Improve management skills 4. Make reward fair 5. Develop training plan 6. Inspectors are not required. The workers already know how to check defect beads. 7. Remove the reward and punishment system 8. Improve the process of beads making new machine or coating materials 9. Institute training on the job versus monitoring how colleague works 10. Adopt and institute leadership from the management by example 11. Drive out fear from the workers 12. Break down barriers between staff areas - management 13. Eliminate slogans and unachievable targets for the work force. 14. Eliminate numerical quotas for the work force and numerical goals for management. 15. Institute a vigorous program of education and self improvement for everyone. 16. Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the transformation. 17. Change the chief executive officer of Beads R Us 18. Move to another factory closer to the majority of the workers 19. Change industry to another manufacturing line with less defects

Affinity Diagrams The list that has been developed by the brainstorming now needs to be categorized and put into better purposes. This is where an affinity diagram came into the picture. It will make more sense of the brainstorming results. Refer the affinity diagram below which is the final product of the steps involves in the affinity process. The affinity has categorized all the solutions to eliminate

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

shortcomings into three categories, i.e leadership/management, technical performance and training.

Figure B.10 Affinity Diagram: Final product for the Red Bead Experiment

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

Nominal Group Technique and Multivoting What good if there are too many solutions and problem solving measures needed to be undertaken but we do not which is the priority? Nominal group technique and multivoting does just that. It was introduced in 1971 at the University of Wisconsin. In short, the technique is that everyone in the team voted for prioritization of the problems and then it is calculated and the list will be ranked based on priority. The project team casted their vote and came out with the results below:

Improvetheprocessnewmachine/newcoatings ImproveLeadership Eliminatenumericalquotasforworkers/mgmt Improvemanagementskills Establishproceduresandguidelines Puteverybodyworkingtogether Developtrainingplan Inspectorsnotrequired Removerewardandpunishmentsystem Adoptandinstituteleadership Breakdownbarriersbetweenstaff Eliminateslogansandunachievabletarget Institutetrainingonthejob Instituteeducationandimprovementprogram Driveoutfearfromtheworkers

Priorities 4,4,4,1,1 2,2,3,2,1,1 4,4,2,1 4,3,2 3,3,2 3,2,2 3,2,1 4,1,1 1,1,1,3,3 2,1,1,1 1,1,1 1 1 1 1

Total 14 11 11 9 8 7 7 6 5 5 3 1 1 1 1

Figure B.11 Nominal Group Technique and MultiVoting for Red Bead Experiment

From the Red Bead experiment, the project team has analyzed, identify the shortcomings and proposed solution. Figure B.11 listed the solutions that can be taken in a priority order. The top ten of the proposed solution is further elaborated below:
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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

1. Improve the process new machine / new coatings type The graphical charts which were earlier represented proved that the workers plays minimal role and is helpless in effecting the number of red beads (defects). According to Dr Deming, common causes are controlled by the management (85%) and the causes (15%) are controlled by the workers. The management needs to change the system and the process to enable the workers to work efficiently. 2. Improve leadership It is a relative complaint that the leadership in Beads R Us needs further improvement. With a clear guideline from the management the workers will be able to focus and this will also institute the feeling of belonging to the company and thus increase productivity. 3. Eliminate numerical quota for workers and management Comments and appraisal which is not beneficial to the worker should be stopped. Furthermore the quotas that are set by the top management are not and have never been achieved in Beads R Us. A target should follow S.M.A.R.T concept which are Spesific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and is Time Based. 4. Improve Management Skills The management is the one who setup the system and the process. The

management has to themselves find a method and ways to reduce the number of defect producing the beads. Solely blaming the workers will just not work. A good management skill will allow the management to capitalize a joint effort with the workers to get the most optimum results. 5. Ebstablish procedures and guidelines A good set of procedures will serve as a guideline and instill quality assurance in Beads R Us. Having this the training and quality inspection or monitoring could also be done according to the process and system in a more efficient manner.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

6. Put everybody working together. The management should be able to solicit the employees input. In order to achieve this spirit of team work is required. Top management has to find a way to get everybody working together toward a common vision and objective 7. Develop training plan A training plan will assist the employees to train new hires and provide the accommodating facilities to ensure continuous training in Beads R Us. This will also invite participation from the workers as it will be seen as a further benefit from Beads R Us. 8. Inspectors not required Having two inspectors to count the number of red beads does not seem to serve any purpose. The workers can count it themselves. Instead of having a quality control Beads R Us ends up pacifying the workers and demoralizing the workers. 9. Institute training on the job. Good charts and process map at manufacturing floor can assist the supervisors to educate the employees on the go. Everybody can become a supervisor and teacher. Employees with the experience will be able to off hands show the way to new hires or even existing hires every day. Every day is a learning process for everybody and the working place will feel more fun and motivate the workers. 10. Drive out fear. Management has to stop punishing and threatening the workers for the red beads defects whereas the blame should be placed on the process and the system. The intimidation does not do anything and has no significant result.

The quality tool that was used in this report was pivotal to ensure the understanding of the existing system in Beads R Us. This has enabled fact based analysis and decisions that will ensure the delivery of quality products and services in Beads R Us.

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Name: Anas Alam Faizli Centre of Graduate Studies

Student ID No. CGS 00385017 MPM Intake: January 2009

ASSIGNMENT EMQM5103

REFERENCE

1. Kenneth H. Rose, PMP (2005) Project Quality Management: Why, What and How, J. Ross Publishing, Inc 2. Mary Welton (1986) The Deming Management Method 3. Philip B Crosby (1984) Quality Without Tears, McGraw-Hill Book Company

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