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ModellingofSteamTurbineand itsGoverningSystem

DrMSRMurty

GENERATORCONTROLS

SV Steam CV

SV : stop valve CV contr. valve valve steam ST : turbine G : generator

GOVERNING SYSTEM Reference Speed

Grid

ST

Power

Fig. 1 STEAM TURBINE GOVERNING SCHEME

SET POINT

GOVERNOR Valve Position

TURBINE

ROTOR INERTIA

S P E E D

Mechanical Power

Fig2GOVERNINGSYSTEMFUNCTIONALBLOCKDIAGRAM

GoverningControlsystem
SpeedSensing :Mechanical(Flyballtype), Hydraulic(Pump),Electric(toothedWheel pickup) MWTransducerforPower Processing :Hydromechanical,Electro hydraulic,DigitalElectrohydraulic Amplification:Hydraulicamplifiersinvarious stages Actuation:HydraulicServomotor

TG Unit Operating Modes:


Isolated : S Open : Speed changes when gov valve is adjusted Interconnected : S Closed or grid connected: Speed is unaffected

TGUnitOnGrid:LoadControl
TGSpeed/Frequency doesnoteffectgrid frequency Aftersynchronization, changeinvalveopening cannotchangeTGunit speedbutchangesonly PowerOutput

InfiniteInertiaBus GRID

ControlRequirements
Startup:
To control machine speed proper synchronization for

Normal Operation: To Control MW and To


participate in the control of system frequency

Emergency:

Load Rejection/Circuit Breaker without

Opening To restore speed deviation quickly much transient overspeed

Governingsystem:Technology
MechanicalHydraulicControl(MHC) Electro HydraulicControl(EHC) Sensing,Processing,primaryamplification usingelectroniccircuitry Transistorversion(BHEL/KWUSiemens Iskamaticmodules) DigitalElectro HydraulicControl(DEHC) Microprocessorbased

Processing
Decideshowvalvepositionshouldbechanged whenspeedchanges Objective:Minimumupsetsinthesystem SpeedController,LoadController:structure andtuningdecidetransientperformance Droopcharacteristic(4%or5%):important governingparameter

ElectronicControllerFeatures
SeparationofSpeedControlandLoad(Power) Controlfunctionswithseparateprocessing philosophy SpeedController:Proportional Derivative action:AnticipatoryControl LoadController:Proportional Integralaction InteractionwithATRS andTSE

SimpleSpeedgoverningsystem
SETPOINT

Command
/Gate AMPLIFICATIONANDACTUATION

PROCESSING

Oil
SENSING

Gate

Servomotor

Speed & MW

ELECTR ONIC PART

Steam E H HYDRAULIC PART Control Valve

Electro-hydraulic Converter Sensing Hydraulic Amplification Actuation of Valve (Servomotor)

ST

Processing
Primary Amplification

Fig 3 ELECTRO HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR SCHEME

Speed Load Ref. LOAD CONTROLLER (PI)

Load

Fig 4 SPEED CONTROLLER AND LOAD CONTROLLER IN EHG

Spee d Ref.

SPEED CONTROLLER (PDP) SELECTION LOGIC (MIN MAX) VALVE OPENING COMMAN D

DroopCharacteristic
Speed Change Valve Opening Change SteamFlow Change Turbine Power Change =(Load)
SpeedOr Frequency

52Hz

104%

50Hz

100%

50

100

Load%

Frequency (Hz)

52

4% Drop
50

0%

50%

100%

Load

Fig 6 REGULATION OR DROOP CHARACTERSTIC

Unstable Spee d (%)

Oscillatory (Hunting)

Time (Sec) Fig 7 TYPICAL SPEED HUNTING TRANSIENT

Valve Opening

Speed / frequency

Dead band or insensitive Fig. 8zone DEAD BAND CHARACTERISTIC

STEAMTURBINESCHEMEWITHHPANDIP CONTROLS

Steam HPCV

HPT

G LPT

IPCV RH Reheate r Condenser

IPT

TransferFunctionofSteamVolume
Steam inflow Steam Vessel

Steam outflow

Steam pressure

Wi

1 ---------(1 + TV. s)

Wo

Functionalblockdiagramofturbine governingsystem

TURBINECONTROLLER

Speed Ref speed

SPEED CONTROLLER SELECTION LOGIC E H To Hyd. Amplifier

Load Ref Load

LOAD CONTROLLER KSVS KS

Speed Controller: Proportional Derivative Ks(1+VsTs.S) (1 + Ts . S) droop Load Controller : Proportional Integral KPL + 1 TILS
Feed forward provision
29

Output (Y)

PDP

Output (Y)

PI

SpeedController

LoadController

Parametersinfluencingtheperformance
RotorInertia Droop Speed/LoadControllerparameters Deadband Valvecharacteristics IPTurbinecontrol Pressurecontrolmodes

GovernorRegulationorDroop
4%Droop:4%SpeedChangewillcause100 %changeinPowerOutput(Gain:25) Droopisnecessaryfor i)Sharingofload ii)Ensuringclosedloopstability:Lowervalueof droopincreasesgainandmakesthesystem oscillatory

GoverningSystemResponse
Responsetimesareimportant:delayin correctioncancausetransientspeedrisehigh andtriptheturbine Stabilityofgoverningsystemdependson processingalgorithm(PI,PID,PDPetc.,)and onsystemparameters&timeconstants

Performancespecifications:LoadRejection
Rejectiontozeroloadfromanyload Speedshallbereturnedtothesetpointas maybemodifiedbyspeeddrooporregulation Nomorethanoneunderspeeddeviation exceeding5% Nomorethanoneoverspeeddeviation exceeding5%afterinitialoverspeed deviation

Performancespecifications:Sustained conditions
Steadystategoverningspeedband:Notmore than0.3%(atnoloadoranyload).Also calledspeedstabilityindex. Steadystategoverningloadband:Notmore than0.4%(at5%speeddroop)Alsocalled powerstabilityindex.

StabilityIndex:Degreeofstability
Judgedbythemagnitudeofsustained oscillationsofspeedandpoweroutputfrom theturbinethatareproducedbythegovernor system Stabilityindexillustratestheregulating performanceforthegovernorandturbine GovernorDeadbandillustratesthe performanceforthegovernoralone

LoadRejection
GoverningSystemPerformancecanbejudged byfullloadrejectionbehavior:Transient SpeedRise(TSR),hunting EmergencyGovernorshouldnotgetactivated Influencingparameters:RotorAcceleration Time(Ta),Droop,SpeedControllergains, Incrementaldroop

LOADREJECTIONRESPONSE
Load

100%

Speed (%)

TSR
(6 10%)

0%

5%Droop

100%

Time(sec)

InteractionwithBoilerControls
DESH SH1 SH2 150ata 540C Q

DrumLevel control
3

DRUM Q

Spray

GOVERNOR
H T P IP T

Temperature Control
. Flue . Gas . Fuel Air

FW WW

COND

BOILER

MasterPressure Control

RH

STEAM HPCV

LPT

HPT

SPEED LOAD Extraction Steam Pressure GOV, SYSTEM LPCV


CONDENSER

TO PROCESS EXTRACTION TURBINE CONTROL SCHEME

TypicalSteamandPowerSystem
Headers
Stream Generators

VHP

PRDS

HP

MP

LP

UBs

Steam Turbine
HRSGs

G G

C Process G GAS TURBINE Process Process Process

107/ 510 Kg/Cm2


o

45/ 400 C

20/ 340

5.5/ 220

SteamandPowersystemDynamics
Steam System
Fuel System Upsets in one system can influence the other

Power System

ModellingandSimulation

Instantaneousresponse
AssumesuddenLoadReductionandinstantaneouschangein generation
Power p.u 1.0 Load,PL .8 GenerationPg Frequency 50Hz

Time(Sec.)

Time(Sec.)

RotorInertia
Atsteadystate: TurbineTorque(Pm)=LoadTorque((Pel) Duringtransient: Speed=((Pm Pel)/Ta)dt Ta=Accelerationtimeorinertiaconstant (functionofmomentofinertia) Typicalvalues:Ta=9 12sec

Acceleration/Deceleration

Deviationareaisindicativeof acceleration/deceleration Pg

PL

me

Delayduetothecumulativeeffectsof Governor,hydraulicpassages,turbine Pg

PL

me

n or f
SettlingSpeedhigher

Frequency or Speed variation Due to the above :

GovernorResponse

Hydraulicrelaystimeconstant
Xp Xsm

Inflow(Qi) Xp Qi=volumetric displacementofoil =Ap.dxsm/dt KpXp=Apsxsm


Xp 1 Tsm.S Xsm

Levergain

HPTURBINETIMECONSTSANT
T4=Steammassinsideturbine MassflowthroughHPturbineKg/Sec207.4 VolumexDensity =0.844(m3)(1/0.02337) =36.114 T4=36.114/207.4=0.17Sec. VHPincludes: Volumeininletportionupto1st stage. allpipingconnections blading IPTurbine:0.27Sec LPTurbine:0.47Sec TReheaterr :10to20Sec.

NALCO

NALCO

GNFC Bharuch

GNFC Bharuch

GNFC Bharuch

GNFC Bharuch