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DESIGN OF 1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE

R. N. Nayak, Executive Director M. Krishnakumar, General Manager Anish Anand, Chief Design Engineer

Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. Gurgaon, INDIA

Indian Power System 2025 & Beyond


Peak Demand : 4,50,000 MW (3 times of 2012) Installed Capacity : 6,00,000MW (3 times of 2012) Power from ER/NER to NR/WR/SR : 80,000-90,000 MW (4 times of 2012) Inter Regional Capacity : 1,40,000MW (3.5 times of 2012) Next Level Transmission Network i.e. 1200kV UHVAC Network Main Transmission Level : 1200kV UHVAC/800kV HVDC Network 765kV EHVAC and 500kV HVDC System would be used as support Tr. Network 400kV AC System would be used as Sub-transmission Network

KISHENPUR

MOGA

TEHRI

MEERUT

MUNDKA AGRA JAIPUR GWALIOR KOTA

BAREILLY NER POOLING POINT

LUCKNOW BALIA FATEHPUR SASARAM SASAN BINA SATNA NKSTPP RANCHI SEONI SIPAT GAYA PURNEA

SILIGURI

DEHGAM

INDORE ITARSI

DHULE

WARDHA IB VALLEY

MUMBAI JEYPORE PUNE SOLAPUR HYDERABAD

VIJAYAWADA RAICHUR

LEGEND 1200KV UHVAC LINES 765KV UHVAC LINES 800kV HVDC BIPOLE

BANGALORE MADRAS

DESIGN & OPTIMIZATION OF 1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE

TYPICAL TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FLOW CHART Bundle Conductor studies Review of Existing systems & Practices Selection of clearances Insulator string design
Tower Fdn. Design/Study Tower Configuration Analysis

Tower Design Study

Line Cost & Optimization


Economic Evaluation Of Line

Results

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - STUDIES UNDERTAKEN


PRELIMINARY STUDIES UNDERTAKEN Clearances & Tower Configuration Analysis Thermal Rating & Surge Impedance Loading Conductor Surface Gradients & Corona Onset-gradients Insulation / insulator string design Electric Fields at ground Interference Performance
Radio Interference Audible Noise

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - STUDIES UNDERTAKEN


CONDUCTOR-BUNDLES ANALYSED
Hexagonal ACSR Lapwing
(Conductor Dia. 38.16 mm)

Octagonal ACSR Moose


(Conductor Dia. 31.77 mm)

Octagonal ACSR Bersimis


(Conductor Dia. 35.05 mm)

Octagonal ACSR Lapwing


(Conductor Dia. 38.16 mm)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONFIGURATION FEATURES

Basic Configuration : I V I ; Delta Air-gap / Live metal Clearance Requirements


Power Frequency Clearance : 2.3 m
(under Maxm. Swing 55 deg)

Switching Surge Clearance : 10 m


(under stationary condition / Swing 10 deg)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONFIGURATION FEATURES


Insulation Requirements
Total Required Creepage Distance : 21600 mm (18 mm/kV) Insulation / String length : 10 / 11 m Required Number of Insulators
320 kN : 55 Nos. (195 mm spacing, 390/400 mm creepage) 420 kN : 50 Nos. (205 mm spacing, 525 mm creepage)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONFIGURATION FEATURES


Phase to Phase Spacing
Minimum Electrical Requirement : 12 m Phase to Phase spacing based on Live-metal clearances : 27.5 - 30 m

Ground Clearance
Minimum Ground Clearance as per IE Rules : 16 m Ground Clearance proposed : 23 m
(based on 10 kV/m electric field limit)

1200 kV Tower Configuration Configuration Considered: I V I Delta


25 m 20 m 4 16 m

10 m

12 m

55 77m 10

2.3 m

11 m

15 m

15 m

15 m Sag

GCL = 23 m

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONFIGURATION FEATURES


Right of Way Requirements
Minimum Horizontal Clearance as per IE Rules : 13 m Right of way Requirement : 100 m
(based on 13 m clearance & maximum Swing 55 deg)

Right of way Requirement based on Electric Field Limitation : 110 m


(considering 2 kV/m electric field limit)
Lateral Distribution of Electric Field for 1200 kV & 765 kV Transmission Line
Electric Field at 1.8m above ground (kV/m) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
-6 0 -5 0 -4 0 -3 0 -2 0 -1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0

Distance from Centre Line (m ) 1200 kV TL 765 kV TL

1200 kV Transmission Line Right of Way


25 m 20 m 4 16 m

10 m

12 m

55 77m 10

2.3 m

11 m

55

15 m

15 m

15 m Sag

Minm. Clearance 13 m

GCL = 23 m

35 m

50 m

Right of Way = 100 m

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


Conductor Surface Gradients & Corona Onset Gradients for 1200 kV Line
Alt Conductor-bundle Conductor Surface Corona On-set Gradient Gradient (kV/cm) (kV/cm) Mean 1 2 3 4 Hexa Lapwing Octa Moose Octa Bersimis Octa Lapwing 14.76 14.34 13.02 12.00
15.77 14.9

Max 17.84 17.01 15.70 14.67


18.33 17.3

Fair Weather 20.73 21.10 20.89 20.73


20.89 20.89

Foul Weather 14.64 14.89 14.75 14.64


14.75 14.75

Quad Bersimis (765 kV)-Horizontal Quad Bersimis (765 kV)- Delta

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


Radio Interference for 1200 kV Line
Alt Conductor-bundle Radio Interference (dB/1uV/m) Max. 1 2 3 4 Hexa Lapwing Octa Moose Octa Bersimis Octa Lapwing 45.8 39.1 36.5 34.8
50.9 46.8

At 50m ROW 38.4 31.6 29.1 27.4


38.5 (at 42.5m) 40.4 (at 32m)

Quad Bersimis (765 kV)-Horizontal Quad Bersimis (765 kV)- Delta

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


Audible Noise for 1200 kV Line
Alt Conductor-bundle Audible Noise (dBA) Audible Noise (dBA) L5 level L50 level Max 1 2 3 4 Hexa Lapwing Octa Moose Octa Bersimis Octa Lapwing (765 kV)64.6 61.3 60.3 59.4 60.5 At 50m ROW 62.0 58.6 57.6 56.7 56.9 (at 42.5m) 56.9 (at 32m) Max 62.5 57.6 55.9 54.4 57.8 At 50m ROW 59.8 54.9 53.2 51.6 54.2 (at 42.5m) 53.7 (at 32m)

Quad Bersimis Horizontal

Quad Bersimis (765 kV)- Delta

59.1

55.9

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


Acceptable Radio Interference levels : 40-45 dB/1uV/m Acceptable Audible Noise levels : 55 58 dBA
Lateral Distribution of Radio Interference for 1200 kV Transmission Line
45 Radio Interference (dB/1uV/m) 40 35 30 25 20
-4 5 -3 0 -6 0 -1 5 15 30 45 60 0

Octa Bersimis Octa Moose

Distance from Centre Line (m )

Lateral Distribution of Audible Noise for 1200 kV Transmission Line


60 Audible Noise - L50 Wet (dBA) 58 56 54 52 50
15 -6 0 -4 5 -3 0 -1 5 30 45 60 0

ACCEPTABLE ALTERNATIVE OPTIONS


Octa Bersimis Octa Moose

Octagonal ACSR Moose Octagonal ACSR Bersimis

Distance from Centre Line (m )

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


Conductor Current Carrying Capacity & Thermal rating of 1200 kV Line
Alt Conductor-bundle Conductor Current Thermal Rating of kV Line carrying capacity 1200 (Amp) Ambient (MVA) Temp. 45 deg C 75 deg C 614 710 85 deg C 787 917 75 deg C 10209 11806 85 deg C 13086 15248

Maxm. Conductor Temp. 1 2 Octa Moose Octa Bersimis

Thermal Rating of 1200 kV Line : More than 10000 MVA Surge Impedance Loading of 1200 kV Line : Around 6000 MW

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF 1200 kV AC LINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DATA
Nominal System Voltage Maximum Voltage Switching Impulse Withstand Voltage (Wet) Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage 1200 kV 1250 kV 2100 kV > 3000 kVp

CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE
Conductor-bundle Octagonal ACSR Bersimis / Moose 457-600 mm spacing

ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES
Power Frequency live-metal clearance Switching surge clearance (1.75 pu) Phase to Phase Spacing Ground Clearance 2.3 m (55 deg swing) 10 m (Stationary/10 deg swing) 27.5-30 m 23 m (10 kV/m elect field limit)

INSULATOR STRINGS
For Suspension Towers (I V I) For Tension Towers I- Double Suspension, 300/320 kN (2x55), V Single V, 420 kN (2x50) Quad Tension, 320 kN (4x55)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN


Preliminary Line Design Considerations
Wind Zone 4 (47 m/sec basic wind speed) Reliability Level 2 (150 yr. return period loads) Ruling Span 400 m Maxm. Wind Span 400 m ; Maxm. Weight Span 600 m

Estimated Tower Weight


Standard Suspension Tower : I-V-I Octa Bersimis : 53 MT Octa Moose : 50 MT
( Comparative 765 kV Suspension Tower Wt. : 23 MT)

Estimated Transmission Line Cost : Rs. 30 33 million/km

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN 1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV


1200 kV Tower Size : Approx. 30% more than 765 kV

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN 1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV


1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Power Flow Capacity - Thermal Rating
14000 Thermal Rating (MVA) 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1 3800 765 kV Line 1200 kV Line 12000

POWER FLOW CAPACITY

Thermal Rating : 3 Times

1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Power Flow - Surge Impedance Loading


7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 6000 765 kV Line 2000 1200 kV Line

SIL (MW)

SIL : 3 Times

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN 1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV


1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Right of Way Requirement
120 100 ROW (m) 80 60 40 20 0 1 64 765 kV Line 1200 kV Line

RIGHT OF WAY
Right of Way Requirement : Approx. 55% more

100

1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Right of Way Utilization


Power Flow- SIL per unit ROW (MW/m) 80 60 40 20 0 1 30

ROW Utilization
765 kV Line 1200 kV Line

60

Power Flow per Unit ROW : 2 Times

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN 1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV


1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Capital Line Cost
Estimated Line Cost (Rs million/km) 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 15 33 765 kV Line 1200 kV Line

LINE COST
Capital Line Cost : 2 2.2 Times

1200 kV vis--vis 765 kV Cost Effectiveness


Line Cost per unit Power Flow - SIL (Rs/km-MW) 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 1 5500 7500 765 kV Line 1200 kV Line

COST EFFECTIVENESS Line Cost per Unit Power Flow : Approx. 70 %

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - Detailed Studies


Detailed Studies to be undertaken in respect of following
Reliability considerations Air-Gap Optimization Insulation Co-ordination Switching Surge Control Capital cost & line optimization Right of Way reduction measures Alternate insulation systems Low noise conductor Asymmetrical conductor-bundle Expandable (variable) conductor-bundle

THANK YOU

EVOLUTION OF INDIAN TRANSMISSION GRID

TRANSMISSION GRID AT THE TIME OF INDEPENDENCE


DELHI

KOLKATA

Installed Capacity : 1349 MW Local Grid Feeding to Local Load No State/ Regional Grid

MUMBAI

CHENNAI

TRANSMISSION GRID DEVELOPMENT OVER THE YEARS


1960s - State Grids 1970s - Regional Grids 2000 - Limited Inter- Regional Capacity

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


Late 1970s - First 400 kV Lines 1980s onward Standardized 400 kV Lines (twin bundle) Late 1980s-1990 First 500 kV HVDC Line Late 1990s-2000 First 765 kV Lines Triple Bundle 400 kV Lines

400 kV Twin Bundle Transmission Lines

400 kV Triple Bundle Transmission Line

+/- 500 kV HVDC Transmission Line

765 kV S/C Transmission Line (Horizontal Configuration)

POWER MAP OF INDIA

NATIONAL GRID BY 2007


Peak Demand : 1,00,000 MW Installed Capacity : 1,40,000MW Inter Regional Capacity : 18,400MW Power Mainly Flows on 400kV Network 765 kV UHVAC Line in operation

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


765 kV Delta Configuration Lines 400 kV Quad Bundle Lines 400 kV Multi-circuit Lines 400 kV Pole Structures

400 kV D/C Pole Structure 765 kV S/C Transmission Line (Delta Configuration) 400 kV Multi-circuit Transmission Line

INDIAN TRANSMISSION GRID FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

POWER MAP OF INDIA

NATIONAL GRID BY 2012


Peak Demand : 1,57,000 MW (1.5 times of 2007) Installed Capacity : 2,12,000MW (1.5 times of 2007) Power from ER/NER to NR/WR/SR : 20,000-25,000 MW (4 times of 2007) Inter Regional Capacity : More than 40,000MW (2.5 times of 2012) Strong 765kV EHVAC Network with backup 400kV Network

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS +/- 800 kV 6000 MW HVDC

+/- 800 KV HVDC TRANSMISSION LINE TOWER

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - Calculations


Power Frequency Clearance
Minm. Air-gap , L = Sqrt(2/3)*1200*1.1/(500*0.95) = 2.3 m
Basis : 500 kV/m Discharge gradient of air gap 1.1 factor for decrease in strength of total v/s single gap 0.95 air density correction factor (assumed)

Switching Surge Clearance


CFO = 1.32*1.75*sqrt(2/3)*1200 = 2263 kV
Basis : Switching surge S2 = 1.75pu, s = 10% , = 5% Switching surge flashover rate : 1 per 1000 R = CFO/S2 = 1.32 (From EPRI)

Air-gap , D = 10 m
Basis : EPRI Formula CFO = 1.2 * 3400 / (1 + 8/D)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - Calculations


Minimum Ground Clearance as per IE Rules
Ground Clearance = 5.2 + 0.3 * (1200 33)/33 = 16 m

Minimum Horizontal Clearance as per IE Rules


Ground Clearance = 2.0 + 0.3 * (1200 33)/33 = 13 m

Corona On-set Gradients


Ec = 21 * m * * (1 + 0.3 /sqrt(* r)) kV/cm
Basis : = Air density = 0.95 r = conductor radius in cm m = surface roughness factor =0.85 for fair weather = 0.6 for foul weather

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


CONDUCTOR PARAMETERS
Parameters Stranding Conductor Dia (mm) Weight (kg/m) UTS (kN) Rdc @ 20 deg C (ohm/km) ACSR Moose 54/3.53mm Al +7/3.53mm St 31.77 2.004 161 0.05552 ACSR Bersimis 42/4.57mm Al +7/2.54mm St 35.05 2.181 154 0.0418 ACSR Lapwing 45/4.77mm Al +7/3.18mm St 38.16 2.667 188 0.036

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF +/- 800 kV HVDC LINE
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DATA System Voltage Maximum Voltage Switching Impulse Withstand Voltage (Wet) Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage Minm. Corona Extinction Voltage (Dry) RIV at 1 MHz for 22 kV/cm conductor surface gradient (under dry condition) CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE Conductor-bundle ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES Live-metal clearance Pole to Pole Spacing Ground Clearance INSULATOR STRINGS For Suspension Towers (V V) For Tension Towers Single V Suspension, 400/420 kN (2x61) Quad Tension, 300/320 kN (4x61) 6.5 m 25-28 m 18-20 m
(15 kV/m charge free elect field limit)

+/- 800 kV DC 820 kV 1850 kV 2250 kVpeak 880 kV 1000 uV

Hexa ACSR Lapwing 457 mm spacing

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF 765 KV S/C LINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DATA Nominal Voltage Maximum System Voltage Power Frequency Withstand Voltage (Wet) Switching Impulse Withstand Voltage (Wet) Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage Minm. Corona Extinction Voltage (Dry) RIV at 1 MHz for 510 kVrms phase to earth CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE Conductor-bundle Quad ACSR Bersimis 457 mm spacing 765 kV 800 kV 830 kVrms 1550 kVrms 2400 kVpeak 510 kVrms 1000 uV

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF 765 KV S/C LINE ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES Power Frequency live-metal clearance Switching surge clearance (1.75 pu) Air-gap/stationary live-metal clearance Phase to Phase Spacing Ground Clearance INSULATOR STRINGS For Suspension Towers (I V I) I- Double Suspension, 120 kN (2x40) V Single V, 210 kN (2x35) Quad Tension, 210 kN (4x35) 1.3 m (55 deg swing) 4.4 m (25 deg swing) 5.1 / 5.6 m 15 m 15 m (10 kV/m elect field limit)

For Tension Towers

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF +/- 500 kV HVDC LINES ELECTRICAL SYSTEM DATA System Voltage Maximum Voltage Power Frequency Withstand Voltage (Wet) Switching Impulse Withstand Voltage (Wet) Lightning Impulse Withstand Voltage Minm. Corona Extinction Voltage (Dry) RIV at 1 MHz for 22 kV/cm conductor surface gradient (under dry condition) CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE Conductor-bundle Quad ACSR Bersimis Quad ACSR Lapwing 457 mm spacing +/- 500 kV DC 525 kV 700 kV 1000 kV 1800 kVpeak 550 kV 1000 uV

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF +/- 500 KV HVDC LINES ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES Live-metal clearance Pole to Pole Spacing Ground Clearance 3.75 m 12.5 13.5 m 12.5 m (10 kV/m charge free elect field limit) INSULATOR STRINGS For Suspension Towers (V V) For Tension Towers Single V Suspension, 160/210 kN (2x38/41) Quad Tension, 160/210 kN (4x38/41)

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN


- Variations in TL Parameters w.r.t. Sub-conductor Spacing
1200 kV Transmission Line Parameters - Variation w.r.t. Sub-conductor Spacing
Inductive/Capacitive Reactance 0.3 0.28 0.26 0.24 0.22 0.2 0.18 300 450 600 750 900 Sub-conductor Spacing (m m )

XL (Ohms/km) XC (Ohms-km)

1200 kV Transmission Line Parameters - Variations w.r.t. Sub-conductor Spacing


Surge Impedance Loading (MW) SI SIL 300 Surge Impedance (Ohms) 275 250 225 200 300 450 600 750 900 Sub-conductor Spacing (mm) 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN - CONDUCTOR-BUNDLE STUDIES


CONDUCTOR BUNDLES ADOPTED IN OTHER COUNTRIES FOR 1000 - 1200 KV LINES Country
ITALY JAPAN USA (BPA) USSR

System Voltage
1000 kV 1000 kV 1200 kV 1200 kV

Conductor-Bundle Adopted
Octagonal 31.5 mm ACSR Octagonal 36.4 / 34.2 mm ACSR Octagonal 42.4 mm Octagonal 24.1 mm

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


Comparative Line Cost Cost as per FR 765 kV S/C line (Rs lacs) 325 kms Tower Steel Conductor Earthwire Insulator Hardware Fittings Conductor & E/W Acc Sub-total Supply F&I & Taxes 15833 15007 194 2390 1270 500 35194 4526 48.72 46.18 0.60 7.35 3.91 1.54 108.29 13.93 112.26 92.35 0.60 23.11 7.82 3.08 239.21 30.76 2.30 2.00 1.00 3.14 2.00 2.00 106.88 84.70 0.60 23.11 7.82 3.08 226.18 29.09 2.19 1.83 1.00 3.14 2.00 2.00 Quad ACSR Bersimis per km cost (765 kV) (Rs lacs/km) Octa ACSR Bersimis per km costestimated (Rs lacs/km) Factor Octa ACSR Moose per km costestimated (Rs lacs/km) Factor

TRANSMISSION LINE DEVELOPMENTS


Comparative Line Cost Cost as per FR 765 kV S/C line (Rs lacs) 325 kms Erection Stringing Civil works River X-ing Total Cost 1564 1071 5321 473 48149 4.81 3.30 16.37 1.46 148.15 11.09 6.59 37.73 3.35 328.74 2.30 2.00 2.30 2.30 2.22 10.56 6.59 35.92 3.19 311.53 2.19 2.00 2.19 2.19 2.10 Quad ACSR Bersimis per km cost (765 kV) (Rs lacs/km) Octa ACSR Bersimis per km costestimated (Rs lacs/km) Factor Octa ACSR Moose per km costestimated (Rs lacs/km) Factor

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN


1200 KV VIS-A-VIS 765 KV 1200 KV S/C LINE
Approx. 12000 MVA

765 KV S/C LINE COMPARISON


Approx. 3800 MVA Approx. 3 times

POWER FLOW CAPACITY THERMAL RATING

POWER FLOW SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING Approx. 6000 MVA Approx. 2000 MVA Approx. 3 times

RIGHT OF WAY (ROW) REQUIREMENT 100 m 64 m CAPITAL LINE COST Approx. Rs. 30-33 million per km Approx. Rs. 15 million per km Approx. 2 2.2 times Approx. 55 % more

1200 KV TRANSMISSION LINE DESIGN


1200 KV VIS-A-VIS 765 KV
1200 KV S/C LINE 765 KV S/C LINE COMPARISON

RIGHT OF WAY UTILIZATION Normal Power Flow per Unit ROW Approx. 60 MVA Approx. 30 MVA Approx. 2 times per m per m COST EFFECTIVENESS Line Cost per Unit Power Flow Approx. Rs. 50005500 per km per MVA Approx. Rs. 7500 per km per MVA Approx. 70 %

GROWTH OF POWERGRID
60,000

Circuit Kms & Transformation Capacity


44836 40289 46245 49459 50745 46461 47757

55100 54400

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 983 634 236 1992-93 275 1995-96 444 643 1770

50,000

Turnover & Profit


Rs. in Crore

Turnover Net Profit

3554 2831

2805

40,000

2533

MVA

CKMs
27244 28820

35119

34288

30,000
22228 22748

20,000
12,201

748

786

1009

10,000

0
1992-93 1995-96 1998-99 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

1998-99 2002-03

2003-04

2004-05

2005-06

Growth achieved through Internal resources & Borrowings

Growth in last 13 years Transformation Capacity Circuit Kilometer Asset Growth POWERGRID Turnover Profit Manpower
30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1992- 1995- 1998- 2001- 2002- 2004- 200593 96 99 02 03 05 06 3521 8851 5492 13877
7200

345 % 148 % 606 % 460 % 328 % 15 % Manpower


6811 6624 7103 6828 6881

Asset Base

19876

21930

No. of Employees ----->

Rs. in Crore

24888

7000 6800 6600 6400 6200 6000 5800 5600

6923

6167

Transferred Manpower

1995-96 1998-99 2001-02 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06


Year ---->