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Welcome all to this presentation on the subject of thermal hazards. This program is intended

Welcome all to this presentation on the subject of thermal hazards. This program is intended as an overview of the subject of thermal hazards to include the elements of heat stress, thermal burns and also, flash burns from exposure to ultraviolet light from welding operations.

This session should last approximately 20 minutes. Tell the group that a short true and false test will follow the presentation to test their understanding of thermal hazards.

Thermal hazards that we will discuss in this session present significant hazards to employees working in the Plant. It is important that everyone understand these hazards, how to prevent injury and to be aware of the potential injury that can result.

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The following are the specific objectives of this session: (Read Bullet 1) Point out that

The following are the specific objectives of this session:

(Read Bullet 1) Point out that heat stress related factors are important to understand in order to prevent the potentially serious effects. This is especially significant in the summer months.

(Read Bullet 2) Heat stress being a serious issue, requires that you understand the symptoms of its effect on your body and how to respond to prevent injury.

(Read Bullet 3) The effects of heat stress can be prevented through your awareness of methods to control its on-set and especially how to take care of yourself. These methods will be covered in detail.

Lastly we will discuss (Read Bullet 4) Explain that Ultraviolet Radiation hazards in the Plant pertain to exposure to welding flash.

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Heat stress is caused by a combination of factors such as environmental temperature, humidity and

Heat stress is caused by a combination of factors such as environmental temperature, humidity and work activity.

Explain that the human body constantly defends its core body temperature of 98.6 degrees F. When the body temperature rises, blood vessels near the skin dilate to bring excess heat to the surface of the skin to radiate away from the body. The sweat glands of the skin secrete moisture to allow for evaporation which cools the skin and the blood.

Your body is affected by heat stain on the job more than you may think. A hot and humid environment may overload your body with heat. When it is overloaded, heat stress can result ranging from a minor heat rash to the serious disorder of heat stroke.

The body’s “METABOLISM” produces internal heat at all times during digestion, while performing physical work with muscles and even while breathing. In fact, the muscles of your body release about 70 % of their energy as heat.

The process of regulating the body temperature at 98.6 degrees F is called thermoregulation.

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Thermoregulation occurs in both hot and cold situations, but this training session deals only with

Thermoregulation occurs in both hot and cold situations, but this training session deals only with the effects of heat on the body. The amount of heat strain on the body depends on the following factors:

Ambient Temperature – The temperature of the environment is a primary factor in heat stress. This is especially true if the air temperature is higher than the skin temperature.

Temperature of Surrounding Objects – Hot objects such as paper machine dryers, boilers and even steam lines emit tremendous amounts of radiant heat to further add to the heat load of the body in addition to the ambient temperature.

Humidity – This is also a significant heat stress factor. Humidity limits the human body’s ability to cool itself by limiting perspiration evaporation. In fact evaporation of perspiration to cool the body completely stops when the humidity reaches 75%.

Level of Physical Activity – The harder you work your muscles, the greater the amount of heat that the body generates. This heat must be removed from the body to regulate the body internal temperature. When this regulation system begins to fail, a heat disorder is the result.

Length of Heat Exposure – The longer you are exposed to heat stress conditions with out recovery, the greater the potential for a heat stress disorder.

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Now we will take a quick look at how the body responds to elevated heat

Now we will take a quick look at how the body responds to elevated heat stress levels. The body thermoregulatory system works by removing excess heat. This occurs when the blood vessels dilate or expand, to carry heat to the skin surface to release heat to the air. The heart will beat at a higher rate to bring more blood to the skin. Also, the brain signals the sweat glands of the skin to shed large quantities of moisture, where considerable heat is loss through the process of evaporation.

A heat stress disorder occurs when these body heat control mechanisms are hampered. This especially significant when the air temperature is greater than the skin temperature and in conditions of high humidity. In addition, if the body is performing physical work in these conditions, a heat stress disorder can result.

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Heat stress disorders can vary from minor to major potential health problems. Minor heat stress

Heat stress disorders can vary from minor to major potential health problems. Minor heat stress disorders include heat rash, water and mineral loss.

Heat Rash – is caused by persistent sweating on the skin, such as while wearing impervious clothing where the sweat can not evaporate. Heat rash is prevented by keeping the skin as dry as possible and clean. Also wearing lighter and looser fitting clothing can help prevent the trapping of sweat on the skin.

Water Loss – When the body perspires, the sweat glands secrete large quantities of water to the surface of the skin for evaporative cooling. Excessive water loss from the body without replenishing it, can cause dehydration. Dehydration stops the body from perspiring which leads to the retention of internal body heat. It is vitally important

that under heat stress conditions that body water is replaced by frequently drinking water.

Mineral Loss – As the body secretes water to the skin, it also results in the loss of mineral salts. If this is allowed to continue for lengths of time, an imbalance of mineral content in the body can occur. This actually can result in losing more body water. Lowered mineral salt levels in the body causes a significant increase in the release of water to the kidneys.

NOTE: Excess salt through the use of salt tablets is NOT recommended. Excess salt can suppress the sweat glands from releasing water to the skin. To prevent mineral loss, the addition of a little salt to your meal is all that is needed, or even eating salted chips of pretzels.

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If your body warns you to cool down and you ignore it, you could risk

If your body warns you to cool down and you ignore it, you could risk suffering from a major heat stress disorder such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion or even the immediately dangerous heat stroke.

Heat Cramps – This is when the body reacts to a heat strain condition with severe muscle cramps due to the loss of body fluids from sweating for long periods of time without replenishing it. Heat cramps cause your arms, legs or abdominal muscles to cramp. If this condition happens to you or a co-worker, move to a cooler location and drink water slowly until the cramps subside. Be sure to report this condition to your supervisor and to Medical or Plant Protection.

Heat Exhaustion – This occurs when the body thermoregulatory system is overwhelmed by heat stress conditions. Due to excessive body fluid loss, your blood volume can also drop. This results first in heat cramps and a headache, followed by nausea. Without medical attention this disorder can further develop into the dangerous condition of heat stroke.

Heat Stroke – This is a dangerous life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Heat stroke is when the body thermoregulatory system shuts down completely. The result is that the body core temperature exceeds 105 degrees F. Depending of the extent of this serious heat stress disorder, mental confusion, convulsions or even unconsciousness can result. Rapid medical response is necessary. The immediate life supporting response is to cool the individual down as fast as possible.

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This overhead shows the difference in the symptoms of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. (Read

This overhead shows the difference in the symptoms of heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

(Read the Symptoms of Heat Exhaustion/Heat Stroke)

As mentioned earlier, heat stroke is when the body temperature regulation system has stopped working. As you can see from the symptoms, the skin is dry, meaning the sweat glands are no longer secreting water. The core body temperature rises uncontrolled, the heart pumps at a rapid rate and the person can collapse at any time.

Always remember, if your recognize any of these condition, either heat exhaustion or heat stroke, call 66 for immediate medical attention.

As a reminder, NEVER try to give water or other fluids to an unconscious person.

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•Help workers adjust to the heat by assigning a lighter workload and longer rest periods

•Help workers adjust to the heat by assigning a lighter workload and longer rest periods for the first 5 to 7 days of intense heat. This process needs to start all over again when a worker returns from vacation or absence from the job.

•Encourage workers to wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing. Workers should change their clothes if they get completely saturated.

•Use general ventilation and spot cooling at points of high heat production. Good airflow increases evaporation and cooling of the skin.

•Consider a worker's physical condition when determining fitness to work in hot environments. Obesity, lack of conditioning, pregnancy and inadequate rest can increase susceptibility to heat stress.

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Now that you understand the signs and symptoms of heat stress conditions, we will discuss

Now that you understand the signs and symptoms of heat stress conditions, we will discuss ways to prevent heat stress disorders while at work in the Mill.

Acclimatization - A significant factor in the prevention of heat stress disorders is accomplished through a process called acclimatization. Simply, this is the process of getting your body used to working in a hot environment. The body develops a resistance to the effects of heat stress gradually over time while working in a hot environment. This gradual adjustment period is usually from 5 to 7 days and is necessary for the body to properly acclimate. Physical work in heat is necessary for full acclimatization.

Work/Rest Cycles – This is when work in hot/humid environments is scheduled to allow periods of rest in between work periods to allow the body to cool down properly and avoid excess heat stress. Work/Rest Cycle procedures are very effective in reducing the potential effects of heat stress. Rest means performing minimal physical activities, not necessarily stopping work completely.

Food and Water Intake – Fluid replacement is the MOST important way to protect your body thermoregulatory system and to prevent a heat stress disorder. You must take in as much fluid as you lose during work and replace the mineral salts your body uses up during sweating. Ideally, you should drink five to seven ounces of cool water every 15 minutes (even if you are not thirsty) when working in heat stress conditions. Hot meals add to body heat. Heavy meals can reduce your ability to release heat due to blood flow being directed to the digestive system. The best way lunch is fairly light, cool and with a little extra salt. (if you do not have a medical reason to avoid salt)

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Thermal burns can be very serious and complex injuries. A number of body functions may

Thermal burns can be very serious and complex injuries. A number of body functions may be affected. Burns impair the body’s normal fluid and electrolyte balance, thermal regulation, joint function and of course physical appearance.

Open Flames - One potential source of thermal burns in the Plantis exposure to open flames such as from infrared dryers on the Paper Machines, pilot lights, welding/cutting operations, boiler flames and others.

Hot Liquids/Solids – These can include hot water systems, hot oils, molten smelt,

molten Babbitt, and Pulp Plantcooking liquors (black/green/white).

many sources of hot solids to be aware of such as dryer drums, calendar stack

heating units, hot water/steam lines, hot slag and others.

Superheated Steam – Steam is used in most areas of the Plantto heat dryer drums, heat process materials, for space heaters and as the source of power to the turbine generators. Steam can reach extremely high temperatures and can cause a serious disabling burn upon contact in seconds. Always use caution while working around steam lines and be aware of the potential for steam leaks.

Electrical Energy – This is a common source of serious burns in industry. An electrical energy can discharge an arc of energy under certain conditions which can be very hot. A serious burn is the result if a person is in close proximity to an electrical arc of energy. Remember to stand to the unhinged side of an electrical disconnect while energizing an electrical system.

There are

(Have the group point out other sources of thermal burns) Page 12

The seriousness of a burn is determined by the degree of the burn as well

The seriousness of a burn is determined by the degree of the burn as well as the percentage of the body effected, its location and the age of the person.

Burns are classified by degree of damage to the skin and underlying tissue.

First Degree – These burns are the most common and minor of all burns. The skin surface is dry, reddened with no blistering or swelling. A first degree burn can be very painful, but only the outer layers of skin is affected. These burns heal in 2 to 5 days with no scarring.

Second Degree – In a second degree burn, the skin appears moist, mottled and it ranges in color from white to cherry red. The burn area is blistered and extremely painful. In this degree of burn, the outer and underlying dermal layers of the skin are affected. This burn can take up to 21 days to heal completely.

Third Degree – A third degree burn is very serious and can be life threatening depending on the amount of the body affected. The skin becomes dry, leathery and is often charred. This degree of burn damages all the outer and dermal layers of the skin and often affects blood vessels, muscle tissue, organs and even the bone. The area of a third segree burn is extremely susceptible to infection. Frequently a third degree burn can take months or even years to heal and usually results in permanent scarring.

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The prevention of thermal burns is vitally important to your safety. The best practice is

The prevention of thermal burns is vitally important to your safety. The best practice is to be aware of the potential sources of hot materials/flames in your work area and involved in the duties of your work. In addition, proper guarding and insulating of heat sources is an important part of preventing burn injuries. Be sure to report exposures to burn injury in your work area.

Wearing the proper personal protective equipment, such as using insulated gloves, rubber electrical gloves, wearing clothing over exposed arms and legs and using a face shield especially where splashes of hot liquids are present.

Protect yourself from the dangers of being burned.

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For any first degree burn experienced at work, it is important to report it as

For any first degree burn experienced at work, it is important to report it as soon as possible and seek medical attention.

For a second or third degree burn, call 66 to have medical responders report to the scene. Care of a serious burn must start immediately, preferably even at the moment of the burn. For all thermal burns, the first step is to remove the person from the area and then for emergency care, irrigate the affected area with cool water as soon as possible. Do not remove clothing that is embedded in the burn. If the skin is not broken, the burned area can be covered with a a cool wet towels. Never use grease or fat on a burn and also never use ice or an ice pack.

The best practice is to use cool water on a serious burn and make sure the Medical Responders are on the way to take over treatment.

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A welding flash is caused by electrical energy arcing from the welding unit to a

A welding flash is caused by electrical energy arcing from the welding unit to a grounded metal object being welded. Not only is this arc of energy very hot, it emits ultraviolet radiation that has the potential to cause intense irritation to the outer surface of the eyes if exposed. This condition is sometimes called arc eye and the symptoms generally develop an hour or more after exposure. The eyes become very painful, often with a gritty feeling. Other effects are they become red, watery and very sensitive to light.

If you feel that you are experiencing arc eye, be sure to report it to your supervisor and seek medical attention from Medical or Plant Protection. If your eye sight is affected, call 66 for medical responders to respond to the area.

For protection from this hazard, a welder uses a special shaded face shield to protect the eyes. For the protection of employees in the area of welding, a welding shield screen should barricade the welding area from adjacent work areas and aisles.

Never look directly at a welding arc and shield your eyes with your hands where potential exposure occurs. If you must work with a welder in the immediate area, properly shaded goggles are required.

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A welding flash is caused by electrical energy arcing from the welding unit to a

A welding flash is caused by electrical energy arcing from the welding unit to a grounded metal object being welded. Not only is this arc of energy very hot, it emits ultraviolet radiation that has the potential to cause intense irritation to the outer surface of the eyes if exposed. This condition is sometimes called arc eye and the symptoms generally develop an hour or more after exposure. The eyes become very painful, often with a gritty feeling. Other effects are they become red, watery and very sensitive to light.

If you feel that you are experiencing arc eye, be sure to report it to your supervisor and seek medical attention from Medical or Plant Protection. If your eye sight is affected, call 66 for medical responders to respond to the area.

For protection from this hazard, a welder uses a special shaded face shield to protect the eyes. For the protection of employees in the area of welding, a welding shield screen should barricade the welding area from adjacent work areas and aisles.

Never look directly at a welding arc and shield your eyes with your hands where potential exposure occurs. If you must work with a welder in the immediate area, properly shaded goggles are required.

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The thermal hazards that we covered in this presentation represent the potential for serious injury.

The thermal hazards that we covered in this presentation represent the potential for serious injury.

Heat Stress Disorders can start out as minor problems and become more serious if the symptoms of stress are not recognized and properly responded to with control actions. When working in a potential heat stress environment in the Mill, be sure to watch for signs and symptoms of heat stress. This is especially true in the early months of summer and you are not properly acclimated to the heat. Remember, fluid replacement is the most important factor to the prevention of a heat stress injury.

Thermal burns can be caused by a number of potential sources in the Mill. Be sure you are fully aware of these potentials and take action to protect yourself. Thermal burns can vary from minor to very serious injuries.

Welding flash emits ultraviolet radiation that can cause considerable irritation to the eye and potentially serious injury. Be sure to protect yourself from areas where welding flash is present.

Thank everyone for their attendance and pass out the test.

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