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Rayner: Intermediate GCSE Mathematics Revision and Practice

Circle theorems

Circle theorems
There are four theorems on angles in circles that you should know. First you need to learn some words.
l l l l l

A D

The straight line AB is a chord. The curved line AB (in bold) is an arc. The chord AB divides the circle into two segments the major segment (shaded) and the minor segment (unshaded). b ACB is the angle subtended by AB at C. ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.

Theorem 1 The angle subtended at the centre of a circle is twice the angle subtended at the circumference.
C x

Theorem 2 Angles subtended by an arc in the same segment of a circle are equal.
Y Z X

O 2x A B

b b AOB 2 ACB

A B

b b b AXB AYB AZB

The proof of this theorem is given in the section on proof. b b (a) Given ABO 508, nd BCA: b b b (b) Given BDC 628 and DCA 448 nd BAC b and ABD:
D B 62 50 O C A A 44 C

Triangle OBA is isosceles (OA OB: b ; OAB 50 b ; BOA 80 (angle sum of a triangle) b ; BCA 40 (angle at the centre)

b b BDC BAC (both subtended by arc BC) b 62 ; BAC b b DCA ABD (both subtended by arc DA) b ; ABD 44

Exercise 1
Find the angles marked with letters. A line passes through the centre only when point O is shown.

1.
27 a

2.
20 d 45 b 30 c

3.
58 41 c 30 d

4.
f 85 g

40

Rayner: Intermediate GCSE Mathematics Revision and Practice

Circle theorems

5.
32 25 c a 80 b

6.
c 96 c

7.
t

8.

B 46 O

50

40 y

94 A

a C

9.
A

10.
A c 88 B

11.
B e

12.

C 38 A O h g

84

B C

O 98 f A C

13.
B 42 O

14.
D y

C 58

15.

C x

16.
a

O O A A B x 22 B

108

O x

x A C

Theorem 3 The opposite angles in a cyclic quadrilateral add up to 1808 (the angles are supplementary).
D

Find a and x. a 180 81 (opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) ; a 99




C 2x D a B 81

C A

x 2x 180 (opposite angles of a cyclic quadrilateral) b b A C 1808 b D 1808 B b 3x 180 ; x 60

x A

Theorem 4 The angle in a semicircle is a right angle.


A

Find b given that AOB is a diameter.


A 37

b C B C

In the diagram, AB is a diameter. b ACB 908.

b ACB 90 (angle in a semicircle) ; b 180 90 37 53


2

Rayner: Intermediate GCSE Mathematics Revision and Practice

Circle theorems

Exercise 2
Find the angles marked with a letter.

1.
b 86

2.
101 96

3.
x 116

4.
d 2c 3d c

105

d 92 E

5.
C B 106 E

6.
D

7.

B e O A

8.
140 B f 4e C y D E D A x O 3x B C

m 31 A h D C A B A

9.
A x O 72 B

10.

11.

C 2a a O

12.
B

33 O m B C A

13.
A 32 w O t C D n A B

14. D
50 b 18 O a c B C

15.
c

C B a

16.
x

C A 35 O

4a

17.
g

18.
A 82 C z O f B D 32 C B 40

19.

20.
C

e A O

95

y 120 x A z

O x 50 B

Rayner: Intermediate GCSE Mathematics Revision and Practice

Moving averages

Moving averages
Here is a list of the number of children absent from a school over a 15-day period. Day Number absent 1 10 2 7 3 4 4 12 5 6 6 3 7 5 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 12 8 13 10 14 7 15 5

At the end of each day the mean number absent over the last ve days is calculated. So at the end of day 5, the mean over the last ve days is At the end of day 6, the mean over the last ve days is At the end of day 7, the mean over the last ve days is This is an example of a moving average. 10 7 4 12 6 78 5

7 4 12 6 3 64 5 4 12 6 3 5 6 5

Exercise 3
1. Traders on the stock market use moving averages as a guide to the performance of a company's share price. Here are the share prices, in pence, of a company over 30 days. 21 28 22 24 27 21 27 28 19 22 26 19 25 25 20 26 23 19 27 25 21 23 26 23 24 23 24 24 25 23

(a) What was the mean price over the rst 10 days? (b) What was the mean price over the 10 day period from day 2 to day 11? (c) What was the mean price over the 10-day period from day 11 to day 20? 2. Here are the prices, in pence, of shares in `Tiger Telecom' over a period of 20 days. 8 15 7 14 11 16 10 15 9 13 7 16 9 14 11 10 14 12 15 13
9 8 7 Moving average price (p)

At the end of each day the mean price over the last 5 days is calculated. 8 7 11 10 9 So the mean price at the end of day 5 is 9p 5 The mean price on day 6 7 11 10 9 7 88p 5

Work out the moving average price of the shares in this way up to day 20 and plot the results on a graph.

Day

Rayner: Intermediate GCSE Mathematics Revision and Practice

Answers

Answers
Exercise 1
1. 4. 7. 10. 13. 16. a 278, b 308 f 408, g 558, h 558 438 c 468, d 448 488 a 368, x 368 2. 5. 8. 11. 14. c 208, d 458 a 328, b 808, c 438 928 e 498, f 418 328 3. 6. 9. 12. 15. c 588, d 418, e 308 c 348, y 348 428 g 768, h 528 228

Exercise 2
1. 4. 7. 10. 13. 16. 19. a 948, b 758 c 608, d 458 e 368, f 728 908 n 588, t 648, w 458 558 x 308, y 1158 2. 5. 8. 11. 14. 17. 20. c 1018, d 848 378 358 308 a 328, b 408, c 408 e 418, f 418, g 418 x 808, z 108 3. 6. 9. 12. 15. 18. x 928, y 1168 1188 188 22 1 8 2 a 188, c 728 88

Exercise 3
1. (a) 243p (b) 25p (c) 256p 2. averages: 9, 88, 92, 92, 10, 112, 128, 138, 148, 15, 146, 148, 148, 136, 13, 13