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Q.1. Define Ideology and describe the basic elements of the Ideology of Pakistan.

Definition of Ideology Science of ideas, visionary speculations, manner of thinking, and characteristic of a class or individual, ideas on the basis of some economic, social or political theory or system is called Ideology. It contains those ideals, which a nation strives to accomplish in order to bring stability to its nationhood. Defining ideology, George Lewis say Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy.

Ideology of Pakistan Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. Its basic principle being The only sovereign is Allah Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Quaid-e-Azam said Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam. From the above statement, it is clear that Ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic one.

Two Nation Concept: The fundamental concept of Ideology is that Muslims should get a separate identity. They should have a separate state where they could live according to Islamic rules and principles, profess their religion freely and safeguard Islamic tradition. On one occasion Quaid-e-Azam said The Muslims demand Pakistan where they can rule in accordance with their own system of life, their cultural development, their traditions and Islamic laws. Thus, this fundamental concept of Ideology led to the concept of two nations in the Sub Continent and resulted in the formation of Pakistan.

Elements of Ideology of Pakistan Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophers, social customs, and literatures. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Therefore, Muslim nation demanded a separate homeland where they could have the freedom to practice their religion and live their lives as free individuals of an independent country. There are five principles/elements of the ideological foundation of Pakistan. 1. Islam

2. Two Nation Theory 3. Territorial Land 4. Democratic System 5. Urdu Language 1. Islam, a Nation-Building Force Pakistan came into being on the basis of Islam. It was only Islam, which galvanized Muslims and lined them up behind Muslim League. Other factors, political and economic ones, also played some part in uniting Muslims to struggle for Pakistan but Islam was the preponderant factor as it serves as a cementing force for Muslim society and is the primary link between Muslims the world over. Everything else follows Islam. The entire struggle of the Muslims of the subcontinent was to have a state where they could freely maintain their Islamic entity. No other factor was so clear and intelligible for Muslim masses. Muslims gradually developed a national consciousness in the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent; they collectively struggled for the right of self-determination and the establishment of an independent homeland to be carved out from those territories where they constituted majorities where Islam could be accepted as the ideal pattern for the individuals life. They eventually secured what they wanted. Hence, the historical fact which could not be denied is that the formation of the Muslim nation preceded the demand for a homeland. Pakistan itself did not give birth to any nation; on the contrary, the Muslim nation struggled for and brought Pakistan into being. Quaid-e-Azam said We do not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we want a laboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.

Islamic ideology is not merely a matter of belief, dogma and ritual. It is a religion in the wider sense of the word. It is a way of life, a whole complex of social and moral norms entwined with theological metaphysics. The fundamental teachings of Islam are universally accepted. Belief in God, finality of prophet-hood, human rights and social justice, management of affairs through consensus, moral values of charitableness, tolerance and universal brotherhood; these are sonic of the cardinal principles enshrined by the Quran and Sunnah. The only force which keeps Muslim nation united is Islam which is the ideological foundation of Pakistan. 2. Two-Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory was the basis of struggle for creation of Pakistan. It implies that Muslims of Subcontinent were a nation quite distinct and separate from the Hindus. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first to give the wakeup call and decided to prepare Muslims to fight the advertisity with similar weapons - modern education and knowledge, employed for domination. With him, his Aligarh Movement, his books and magazine Tahzibul Akhlaq, he started an awareness movement. he prepared the ground for uniting and galvanizing Muslim community of the subcontinent. His colleagues including Nawab Mohsinul Mulk and others created conditions which led to the establishment of All-India Muslim League in Dhaka in 1906, a landmark in the history of Pakistan Movement. On March 22, 1940 in his presidential address to the All-India Muslim League Lahore session, the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah made it plain that

The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry, nor interline together, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. This was not a matter of mere hair-splitting but an everyday fact of life, which one cannot fail to feel in almost every sphere of human activity. This then is the crux and substance of the Two Nation Theory, which formed the basis of British India's partition in two independent Hindu and Muslim States. The Hindu majority areas of India formed India and the Muslims majority regions came together under the unique name of Pakistan. On the same premises Quaid-e-Azam dismissed the wishes of the Hindu and the British colonialists for a joint Hindu Muslim nationhood as a pipe dream. With single-minded devotion be fought against this menace and succeeded in getting the idea of a separate Muslim identity recognized. In the 28th Annual Session of the Muslim League in 1941 in Madras, Quaid-e-Azam formally declared this objective as the ideology of the Muslim League. It is this very ideology which is the second important ingredient of ideology of Pakistan.

3. Territorial Land Amongst the constitutes of ideology of Pakistan, land is the third important element. A piece of land was necessary for the existence, stabilization and promotion of Islamic ideology as soul requires body. Quaid-e-Azam said in his address to Punjab Muslim Students Federation in March 1941, Nothing would be achieved simply by raising slogans for nation. We are one nation and the nation cannot survive in the air, it requires an independent land to settle where it can rule and our demand is the same. However, All-India Muslim League demanded a separate homeland constituting the areas in which the Muslims are numerically in a majority such as in the North-Western and Eastern zones of India on March 23, 1940. With Jinnah's untiring efforts, indomitable will, and dauntless courage, he united the Indian Muslims under the banner of the Muslim League and carved out a homeland for them within 7 years, despite stiff opposition from the Hindu Congress and the British Government.

4. Democratic System In an Islamic state, all the affairs are decided on the basis of Shariat (Democracy). In other words, all the social, economic, political and the cultural affairs are operated on the basis of mutual consensus and Islamic democracy. The same system has also been referred in Surah Al-Imram, Muhammad (P.B.U.H) used to operate all the state affairs after discussing with his Sahabas (companions), When this questions rose that what would be the system of government in Pakistan, it should, no doubt, be Islamic. Islamic system of government is Islamic democracy or system of Shariat. Creation of Pakistan is the glorious example of ijma-e-ummat (national consensus). At the time of establishment of Pakistan, referendum was held in all the Muslim majority provinces to take their consent to the included in Pakistan. Sharai system of state, therefore, is the fifth ingredient of Pakistan. 5. Urdu Language Language is not a fundamental characteristic of a nation, but still remains one of the features by which a nation may be distinguished or one of the grounds on which nationalism may be founded. In the sub-continent, Urdu was considered to be the language of Muslims and Hindi to the Hindus. During the last days of the Muslim rule, Urdu emerged as the most common language of the northwestern

provinces of India. It was declared the official language, and all official records were written in this language. In 1867, some prominent Hindus started a movement in Banaras in which they demanded the replacement of Urdu with Hindi, and the Persian script with the Deva Nagri script, as the court language in the northwestern provinces. The reason for opposing Urdu was that the language was written in Persian script, which was similar to the Arabic Script and Arabic, was the language of the Quran, the Holy Book of the Muslims. The movement grew quickly and within a few months spread throughout the Hindu population of the northwestern provinces of India. This situation provoked the Muslims to come out in order to protect the importance of the Urdu language. The opposition by the Hindus towards the Urdu language made it clear to the Muslims that Hindus were not ready to tolerate the culture and traditions of the Muslims. So Muslims also began to think about establishing a political party of their own for their survival and centralizing their efforts to have their rights. Consequently, All India Muslim League was established in December 30, 1906. The Urdu-Hindi controversy completely altered Sir Syed's point of view. He had been a great advocate of HinduMuslim unity but after this event he put forward the Two-Nation Theory, predicting that the differences between the two groups would increase with the passage of time and the two communities would not join together in anything wholeheartedly. Maulvi Abdul Haque aptly said Urdu is the first brick in the foundation of Pakistan.

Importance of Ideology in National Life Ideology is a motivating force for a nation, which is striving hard to bring stability and homogeneity to its nation hood. It provides the binding force to the scattered groups in a society and brings them close to each other on a common platform. Ideologies impel their adherence to follow a joint linked action for the accomplishment of their goal. Ideologies give shape to the revolutions and create new cultures and civilizations. They stress on their adherents to insist on the realization of their ideal through total transformation of society.

Conclusion The fundamental concept of the ideology of Pakistan is that Muslims are separate nation having their own culture, literature, religion and way of life. They cannot be merged in any other nation. They should be able to develop their culture and religious traditions in an Islamic State and they should be able to create a true Islamic society for themselves. Thus the ideology of Pakistan which developed through the period of Mohammad Bin Qasim and others and followed by political leaders like Quaid-e-Azam was materialized in 1947 Q.2. Explain the Two Nation Theory. Meaning of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory is its simplest way means the cultural, political, religious, economic and social dissimilarities between the two major communities, Hindus and Muslims of the Sub Continent. These differences of out look, in fact, were greatly instrumental in giving rise to to two distinct political ideologies which were responsible for the partition of India into two independent states. The Basis of the Creation of Pakistan

The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. Al-Beruni recorded his ideas in 1001 A.D in his famous book "Kitab-ul-Hind" as The Hindu society maintained this peculiar character over the centuries. The two societies, Hindus and Muslims, like two streams have sometimes touched but never merged, each following its separate course. There are a few factors which split the inhabitants of the Sub Continent into two nations. Let us examine each of them separately.

1. Religious Difference The Hindus and Muslims belong to different religions. Islam preaches Tauheed (oneness of Allah) and believes in equality of man before law. Muslims are the believers of God, the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H), the Holy book Quran and hold a cohesive approach towards life. Hinduism, on the other hand is based on the concept of multiple Gods. Their society follows a caste system and is divided into four classes and has a very narrow approach towards life.

2. Hindu Nationalism A number of Hindu nationalist movement, which emerged from time to time in the Indian history, added fuel to the fire by playing up the tension and antagonism which already existed between the two communities. The Hindu nationalist leaders totally ignored the great contribution made by the Muslims in the Indian society by way of promoting education and other social activities. Their writings and ideas flared up the communal discord between Hindus and Muslims to further pollute condition.

3. Cultural Differences Muslim followed the Islamic culture while Hindus inherited a self build culture. The Hindus burnt their dead bodies while Muslims burried them. Hindus considered the "Mother Cow" as a sacred animal and worshipped it while Muslims slaughtered it. They performed "Sati" while Muslims abhorred this tradition. The Hindus and Muslims do not intermarry nor they inter-dine.

4. Social Differences The two communities of the Sub Continent differ in their social life as well. The clothes, the foods, the household utensils, the layout of homes, the words of salutation, the gestures and every thing about them was different and immediately pointed to their distinctive origin.

5. Economic Differences After 1857, the Muslim economic was crushed and all trade policies were framed in such a way so as to detriment the Muslim condition. They were thrown out of Government services and their estates and properties were confiscated while the Hindus were provided with the ample opportunities to progress economically.

6. Educational Differences The Hindus had advanced in the educational field because they quickly and readily took to the English education while Muslims did not receive modern education which heavily affected their economic conditions.

7. Political Differences The political differences between the Hindus and Muslims have played an important role in the development and evolution of Two Nation Theory.

(i). Hindi Urdu Controvery In 1867, Hindus demanded that Urdu should be written in Hindi Script instead of Persian Script. This created another gap between Hindus and Muslims.

(ii). Congress Attitude The Indian National Congress was founded in 1885. It claimed to represent all communities of India but oppressed all Muslim ideas and supported the Hindus.

(iii). Partition of Bengal In 1905, the partition of Bengal ensured a number of political benefits for the Muslims, but the Hindus launched an agitation against the partition and partition was annulled in 1911.

8. Language The Muslim and Hindus wrote and spoke two different languages. The language of the former was Urdu and it was written in Arabic Script. On the other hand, the Hindi language was spoken by Hindus and it was written in Sanskrit. Urdu and Hindi language had the difference in writing, thoughts of poetry, arts, painting and words of music. Even this small difference led to a stirring conflict between the two nations. Importance of Two Nation Theory The Two Nation Theory was the basis of the struggle for creation of Pakistan which held that Hindus and Muslims are two separate nations. They in spite of living together for centuries could not forget their individual cultures and civilization. The Muslims considered that western democracy was not suitable for India, where there were two communities, one was in majority and other was in minority. In the case of United India, Hindus will remain in power, which will harm the interests of Muslims. The Muslims also apprehended that they would lose their identity if they remained a part of Hindu society. On one occasion, Quaid-e-Azam

Hindus and Muslims though living in the same towns and villages had never been blended into one nation. They were always two separate entities.

The Muslims had learnt from the past experience of Congress's rule of 1937-39 in which they adopted Gandhian philosophy, Wardha Scheme and Vidya Mandir scheme of education, Bande Mataram as national anthem and promotion of Hindi language. Muslim mass contact compaign had convinced the Muslims that Congress was aiming at a death blow to Muslim political thought and was working for regneneration and revival of the old Hindu civilization and culture. They also realized the difference between them and the Hindus and hence demanded separate electorate on the ground that they were different nation from Hindus. Hence it is right to say that this theory i.e. two nation theory is the basis of the creation of Pakistan because without this concept, Pakistan would not come into being on 14th August, 1947, and we would not be breathing freely in this open air of Pakistan. ______________________________________________________________________________

Q.1. Describe the contribution of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan towards Muslim education. Sir Syed's (1817-98) Contribution towards Muslim Education Perhaps the Muslims of the Sub-Continent owe their greatest gratitude to Syed Ahmed Khan. He flourished in the second half of the 19th century. His talent, deep-insight, love for Islam and hard work played a major role in the revival of Muslims in India. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was born in 1817 to a Syed family in Delhi. He started his career as a humble judicial official in the English East India Company. Later on he served on important jobs. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan alone among his contemporiies realized that the plight of Muslims could not be improved without a revolution in their attitude towards education. The Muslims were inimical to western education for three reason. 1. They considered it inferior to traditional Islamic learning. 2. It was being forced upon them by a foreign people, and 3. They thought that an education saturated with Christianity might corrupt their beliefs. During the war of Independence he saved the lives of many Englishmen. The Government centered the title of Sir on him. Thus, he won the confidence of the British Government. After the war of Independence the Muslims were passing through a critical phase. By refusing to acquire western education they were not keeping pace with modern times. The Muslims hated English language and culture. They kept their children away from the schools and colleges. But in this manner they were unconsciously damaging the interests of the Muslim Community. Their ignorance of the English language and lack of modem education kept them away from respectable government posts. On the other hand the Hindus acquired modem knowledge and dominated the government jobs. Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader to realize the gravity of the situation. He was greatly pained to see the miserable condition of the Muslims everywhere. He decided to devote his full efforts for the welfare of the Muslims. The first need was the removal of mistrust about the Muslims from the minds of British rulers. For this purpose he wrote - Essay on the causes of Indian Revolt in which he proved that there were many factors which led to the uprising of 1857 and that only the Muslims were not to be held responsible for it. In addition he wrote "Loyal Muhammadans of India" in which too he defended the Muslims against the charges of disloyalty. These works restored confidence of the British in the Muslims to a large extent. The Sir Syed Ahmed Khan turned his attention towards the educational uplift of his co-religionists. He told the Muslims that without acquiring modern education they could not compete with the Hindus. He pleaded that there was no harm in adopting western sciences and in learning English language. He issued a magazine named "Tahzib-ul-Ikhlaq" which projected adoptable European manners. Salient features of the political, educational and religious contributions of Syed Ahmed Khan are as given below 1. In 1863 Sir Syed Ahmed Khan established a Scientific Society. The purpose of this society was translation of

English books into Urdu language. 2. During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called "Aligarh Institute Gazette". 3. In 1869 Syed Ahmed Khan visited England. There he studied the system of Education. Moreover he wrote Khutbat-e-Ahmedya in reply to Sir William Muir's book "Life of Muhammad". 4. In 1870 he issued his famous magazine named "Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq" in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. This magazine promoted Urdu language immensely. Shortly afterwards Syed Ahmed Khan wrote a commentary on the Holy Quran. In this work Syed Ahmed Khan interpreted Islam on logical and scientific basis. Syed Ahmed Khan was one of the pioneers of the Two Nation Theory. He openly declared that the Hindus and the Muslims were two different communities with different interests. He advised the Muslims to refrain from Joining Indian National Congress. In May 1875, Syed Ahmed Khan founded Muhammadan Anglo Oriental High School at Aligarh. Two years later in 1877 this school was elevated to the status of a college by Lord Lytton the British Viceroy himself. M.A.O College Aligarh was a residential institution. It rendered great services in imparting modern education to the Muslims. It boasted of the services of many renowned scholars of that period like professor T.W. Arnold in Philosophy, Sir Walter Raleigh in English, Maulana Shibli in Persian and Jadu Nath Chakarwati in Mathematics. In 1921 M.A.O College was raised to teh status of Aligarh University. This seat of teaming played a significant part in infusing spirit of Islamic nationalism among the Muslim students. These students later on became the torch bearers of the freedom movement in Indo-Pakistan. With the view of promoting the educational cause of 70 million Indian Muslims, Sir Syed founded, in 1886, the Muhammadan Educational Conference which held its meeting at various places to provide a forum for discussing problems that affected the Muslims at large. The principal aims of the Conference were 1. To make an effort to spread among the Muslims western education to the higher standard.' 2. To enquire into the state of religious education in English schools founded and endowed by the Muslims, and to find out means to conduct it in the best possible way. 3. To give some strengthened support to the instruction voluntarily imparted by Muslim divines in religious and other oriental learning's and adopt some measures to maintain it as a living concern. 4. To examine a state of education and instruction in the indigenous primary schools and take steps to remove their present state of decay in directing them onto the path of progress. Muhammadan Educational Conference used to hold its annual meetings in various cities where by the cooperation of local Muslims steps were taken for the progress of Education. Q.2. what do you mean by Aligarh Movement? Describe its educational role. Aligarh Movement The Aligarh Movement was founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, the greatest Muslim educationist of the 19th century. After the war of Independence of 1857 the British did not trust the Muslims. As a result they adopted a policy of oppression and repression towards the Muslims. They arrested and punished leading Muslims irrespective of the fact whether they were involved in the events of 1857 or not. As a result many innocent Muslims became victim of British highhandedness. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan has observed these atrocities in these words There was no calamity in these days which was not attributed to the Muslims and there is no doubt that any calamity which fell from the firmament might not have come straight to some Muhammadan houses bringing ruin and destruction. The sufferings of the Muslims multiplied when they refused to adopt the system of education introduced by the British. The Muslims refused to send their children to the European and Government schools because they hated English language. The result was that the Muslims could not acquire modern education and were kept away from reasonable government jobs. The British Government excluded the Muslims from the civil and military honors with the stigma of disdainful unfitness.

According to Dr. Hunter there was scarcely a Government office in Calcutta in which a Muhammadan could hope for any post above the rank of a porter, messenger, and filler of ink-pots and mender of posts. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Muslim leader who diagnosed the causes of gradual decline of the status of Muslim Community. He decided to take necessary steps to better the lot of Muslims in the educational, political and economic spheres. His works for the educational development for Muslims are as follows. 1. Farsi Maddarsa Muradabad He establised a Farsi Maddarsa at Muradabad in 1859. It was the starting point of Sir Syed's Educational struggle. In this Maddarsa, English is also taught besides English. 2. Victoria School Ghazipur Sir Syed establised first modern Victoria School at Ghazipur (1864). In this school, besides Modern Education five languages (English, Urdu, Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit) were also taught. 3. Establishment of Scientific Society A more ambitious undertaking was the foundation of the Scientific Society in 1863 at Ghazipur, which published translations of many educational texts and issued a bilingual journal - in Urdu and English. The basic purpose of this society was translation of English, Persian and Arabic writings into Urdu language. 4. Aligarh Institute Gazette During his stay at Aligarh he issued a weekly Gazette called Aligarh Institute Gazette. The imparted information on history; ancient and modern science of agriculture, natural and physical sciences and advanced mathematics. 5. Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq On 24th December 1876 he issued his famous magazine named Tehzib-ul-Ikhlaq from Benares in order to apprise the Muslims of their social evils and moral short comings. This journal contained articles from influential Muslims who agreed with Sir Syed that there was a need for a new approach to education. This magazine also promoted Urdu language immensely. Although some ulema attacked the journal, it played a major part in bringing about an intellectual revolution amongst Muslim thinkers. 6. Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College, Aligarh For the educational and social uplift of the Muslims Sir Syed Ahmed Khan decided to open Muslim educational institutions. Earlier after his return from England he had established a Madrassah in May 1875. In January 1877 M.A.O College was inaugrated at Aligarh by Lord Lytton the Viceroy of India. The college soon showed tremendous progress. It became the Centre of Muslim educational and intellectual activity in the Sub Continent. It was a residential institution. Many important Muslim figures like Maulana Shibli, Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar etc at one time or another remained associated with this college. 7. Aligarh Muslim University The M.A.O College Aligarh was rendering great service in imparting education to the Muslims of India. The Muslims now wanted to get it elevated to the status of a Muslim University. In 1911 on the eve of the visit of King George - V to India his Highness Sir Agha Khan made an appeal for funds needed to set up Aligarh University. The Muslims responded generously and as a result a large collection was made. A draft constitution was drawn up and a consultative committee was formed. Unfortunately the draft was not approved by the secretary of state. The Government was reluctant to grant the right of affiliating colleges outside Aligarh to the proposed Aligarh University. But the Muslims were not willing to accept a University with limited jurisdiction. However on 15th October 1915 Muslim University Association approved the Muslim University as contemplated by the Government akin to other Hindu Universities. Thus the bill for the Muslim University was introduced in the Indian Legislative Council and was passed in September 1920. Thus Aligarh University Act came into force

on 1st December 1920. In this way the Muslims of India came to have their own University after a long struggle. The Aligarh University inculcated a vigorous spirit of nationalism in the Muslim students. It produced thousands of graduates which carried the spirit of nationalism to every nook and comer of the Sub Continent. In 1925 sixty six percent of all the Muslim students admitted to the Indian University were given admission in Aligarh University only. The graduates of Aligarh University were respected in all quarters. All the Aligarh students later on became the standard bearers on Pakistan Movement. Some of them like Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali become dynamic leaders of the Muslims. Thus Pakistan, owes its establishment to the Aligarh Movement, to a great extent Khilafat movement: The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements. After World War I, the Ottoman Empire faced dismemberment. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers, Maulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali, the Muslims of South Asia launched the historic Khilafat Movement to try and save it. Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi linked the issue of Swaraj with the Khilafat issue to associate Hindus with the movement. The ensuing movement was the first countrywide popular movement. The Muslims of India had a strong feeling of identity with the world community of Islam. They had seen the decline in the political fortunes of Islam as the European powers conquered the Muslim lands one after the other. The Anglo-Russian convention of 1908 had reduced their next-door neighbor Iran to a mere dependency. Afghanistan also suffered as it was a bone of contention between Russia and Britain, and was now under the latters sphere of influence. The general impression among the Muslims of India was that the western powers were waging a war against Islam throughout the world in order to rob it of all its power and influence. The Ottoman Empire was the only Muslim power that had maintained a semblance of authority and the Muslims of India wanted to save the Islamic political power from extinction. As an institution, the Khilafat had a checkered past. It had originally migrated from Medina to Damascus and from Damascus to Baghdad. For sometime it was located in Egypt, then it fell to the lot of Turkey, very much as a prize. The Turkish Sultans had claimed to be the caliphs of the Muslim world. As long as the Mughal Empire had been in existence, the Muslims of India had not recognized their claim. At this critical juncture, when the Muslims of the Sub-continent had no sovereign ruler of their own, they began to see the necessity of recognizing the Sultan of Turkey as their caliph. Tipu Sultan was the first Indian Muslim who, having been frustrated in his attempts to gain recognition from the Mughals, had turned to the Sultan of Turkey to establish a legal right to his throne. The European powers had played a leading role in reducing the might of Turkey in Europe to Eastern Thrace, Constantinople and the straits in the Balkan Wars (1912-13). To seek revenge, the Turks decided to side with the Germans against the Allied Forces. The Indian Muslims supported this decision. Muhammad Ali argued that for Muslims to accept mandates over Iraq, Syria and Palestine would amount to a total disregard of the wishes of the Holy Prophet (S. A. W.). Thus the Muslims of India launched the Tehrik-i-Khilafat. The objectives were as follows: 1. To maintain the Turkish Caliphate.

2. To protect the holy places of the Muslims. 3. To maintain the unity of the Ottoman Empire. There was absolute unanimity among the Indian Muslims. Though separated from Turkey by thousands of miles, they were determined to fight Turkeys battle from India. Rioting started in Amritsar on April 10, 1919. On April 13, 1919, a crowd assembled at the Jalianwala Bagh. These protestors were unaware of a ban that had just been imposed by the martial law administrators on public meetings. Sir Michael ODuiyer opened fire on the crowd, resulting in 379 dead and 1,200 wounded. This incident is known as the Jalianwala Bagdh Tragey. When the terms of the Treaty of Serves were announced in 1920, it caused deep resentment among the Muslims. They felt betrayed. In June 1920, 90 influential Muslims wrote to Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, informing him of their intent to start a non-cooperation movement against the government from August, until the terms of the treaty with Turkey were revised. General Duiyer opened fire on the crowd assembled at Jalianwala Bagh But this was to no avail as the British Prime Minister Lloyd George was an implacable enemy of Turkey and by association, of the Indian Khilafat Movement. When the Indian Khilafat deputation visited England in 1920 to put their views before the British Government, he ignored them and the deputation met with failure. A tragic offshoot of the Khilafat Movement was the Hijrat Movement proposed by Jamiyat-al- Ulema-iHind. When a land is not safe for Islam, a Muslim has two options; Jihad or Hijrat. Around 925 eminent Muslims signed this fatwa. According to one version, the idea of Hijrat was originated from Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Another tragic event was the Moplah Uprising. In mid of August 1921, agrarian riots broke out in Nilambur. The Moplah peasants revolted against the Hindu landlords oppressive policies, which are in alliance with the British. The Hindu landlords redistributed their lands and the Moplahs, who had been suffering, rose in revolt. A pitched battle between the British regiment and the Moplahs killed several Europeans. Four thousand Moplahs were killed in action and tens of thousands were injured. Then there was the notorious Moplah Train Tragedy. Around a hundred prisoners, confined in a closed and almost airtight goods van, were transported by rail. When the door was opened, 66 Moplahs were found suffocated to death and the remaining 34 were on the verge of collapse. All this was followed by Hindu-Muslim communal clashes, particularly in Multan and Bengal in September 1922. The Sanghattan and Shuddi movements were offshoots of these communal rioting, which were anti-Muslim and aimed at Hindu revivalism. Besides other events, the arrest of the Ali brothers in September 1921 gave a severe blow to the Khilafat Movement. Gandhi, who was using this movement to accelerate Indias advance towards Swaraj, also withdrew his support for the Muslim cause in the aftermath of the Chauri Chaura incident in February 1922. Using the excuse that the national volunteers were responsible for the murder of 21 policemen, thus leading to violence, he called off the whole movement. In 1924, Turks under Mustafa Kamal were consolidating their position in Turkey. They announced an end to the Khilafat. It was a great blow to

Indian Khilafatists who had been campaigning on behalf of Turkey and Khilafat. Gradually the enthusiasm of the people died down and the Khilafat Conference and Committee developed new interests and in a short time nothing but their name remained. Although the Khilafat Movement failed to achieve its declared objectives, it carried political awakening to large masses of Muslims. It was during the Khilafat days that representatives of Indian Muslims came into contact with eminent personages from other Muslims countries to save the semblance of unity in the world of Islam. The Khilafat Movement was an asset for the struggle of Pakistan. It made clear to the Indian Muslims to trust neither the British nor the Hindus, but to look to their own strengths for self-preservation. Islamic Provisions of Constitution of 1973 INTRODUCTION On 7th April,1972 the national assembly of Pakistan appointed a committee to prepare a draft of the permanent constitution of Pakistan.A bill to provide a constitution was introduced by the committee in the Assembly on February 2,1973.The Assembly passed the bill on 19th April,1973 and at last the constitution came into force on 14th August 1973. The present constitution (1973) provides for the protection and preservation of Islamic Concept of life.It also attempts to propagate and implement the basic teachings of Islam. ISLAMIC PROVISIONS OF 1973 CONSTITUTION The following are the Islamic provisions of 1973 constitution based on the principles of Holy Quran and Sunnah. 1.Islamic Republic of Pakistan Pakistan shall be known as "Islamic Republic of Pakistan". 2.State Religion Islam shall be the state religion of Pakistan. 3.Sovereignty Belongs to Allah Sovereignty over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah and the authority bestowed by him on men is a sacred trust which the people of Pakistan will exercise with the limits prescribed by Quran and Sunnah. 4.Definition of a Muslim The constitution also gives the definition of a Muslim.A person who believes in Tauheed or Oneness of Allah,and in the prophet hood of Hazrat Mohammad (P.B.U.H) as the last prophet of Allah has described as aMuslim. 5.A Muslim to be a President and Prime Minister The constitution laid down that only Muslims shall be elected president and Prime Minister of Pakistan.Non non-Muslim could hold these offices. 6.Islamic way of life Steps shall be given to enable the Muslims of Pakistan to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam. 7.Promotion of Social Justice and Eradication of Social Evils The State shall take necessary steps for prosecution of social justice and eradication of social evils and

shall prevent prostitution,gambling and taking of injurious drugs,printing,publication,circulation and display of obscene literature and advertisements. 8.Teachings of Holy Quran The state shall try to make the teachings of Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language. 9.Strengthing Bond,with Muslim World The state shall endeavour to strengthen fraternal relations among Muslim countries in order to promote Islamic unity. 10.Council of Islamic Ideology There is a councel of Islamic Ideology which shall guide the government in respect of Islamic teachings,their implementation and propagation.Its chairman and members are appointed by President.Although its advice is not binding on the government yet it is not easy for any government to ignore or over rule its suggestion or opinion regarding any law. 11.Error Free Publication of Quran The government shall endeavour to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran. 12.Oath to Project and Promote Islamic Ideology The federal and Provincial Ministers,the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the National and Provincial Assemblies,the chairman of the Senate and the Governors and Chief Ministers of the Provinces also take oath to preserve and protect the Islamic Ideology. 13.Ahmadi's A Non Muslim Minority According to the second amendment of 1973 constitution,the Qadiani group or the Lahori group who call themselves "Ahmadi's " were declared as Non-Muslim minority. CONCLUTION The 1973 constitution enlisted the main principles of State Policy Maximum efforts were made to improve the character of this constitution.Like other constitutions,1973 constitution of Pakistan also provides for the protection,propagation and enforcement of Islamic Ideology. Q.1. Discuss the main characteristics of the Economy of Pakistan? Introduction Islamic Republic of Pakistan is an under developed country. The characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are almost the same of the economy of any under developed country. The main characteristics of the economy of Pakistan are as follows. 1. Burder of International Debt Most of the developing countries are depending on foreign economic assistance to meet the short fall in domestic savings and for quickening the pace of economic developement. As the year pass, the amount of foreign loans is increasing. The liability of debt servicing has increased manifold. In Pakistan, debt service payments amount to 2309 million dollars in 1996-97 which is a heavy burden.

2. Low per Capital Income Majority of the people living in developing countries are poverty ridden. Poverty is reflected in low per capital income. People live in unsanitary conditions. Service like health, education expand very slowly. In short, mostly the people in LDCs (less developed countries) are ill-fed, ill-clothed, ill-housed and illeducated. People here are involved in misery-go-round. In Pakistan the per capital income at current market prices is Rs. 18,320 in 1996-97 (470 dollars).

3. Agriculture, the Main Occupation In developing countries two third or even more of the people live in rural areas. Their main occupation is agriculture which is in a backward stage. The average land holding and the yield per acre is low. The peasants mostly live at a subsistence level. As far as Pakistan is concerned agriculture contributes 25% of GDP.

4. Dualistic Economy The economies of developing countries are characterized by dualism. Dualism refers to economic and social division in the economy. For instance, in the developing countries one is the market economy and the other is the subsistence economy. Both the economies exist side by side. In and around the city, there is a market economy which is well developed. Ultra modern facilities of life are available here. But in rural areas the economy is primitive, backward and agriculture, oriented. Similarly, industrial sector uses capital intensive techniques and produce variety of capital goods. The rural sector produces commodities mainly with traditional techniques. The standard of living of the people living in market economy is high but that of their brothers living in subsistence sector is low. The dualistic nature of the economy is not conductive to healthy economic progress.

5. Under-Utilization of Natural Resources An important characteristics of the developing countries is that their natural resources either remain unutilized or under-utilized or mis-utilized. Most of the countries are rich in resources but they remain unutilized or under-utilized due to lack of capital, primitive techniques of production, limited size of the market and sluggish nature of the people.

6. High Rates of Population Growth Almost all the developing countries are having a high population growth rate and a declining death rate. The development made with low per capital incomes and low rates of capital formation here is swallowed up by increased population. As a result there is no or very slow improvement in the living standards of the people. In Pakistan the rate of increase in population is estimated about 2.77% per annum. This high growth rate is offsetting all achievements of developments.

7. Unemployment Another notable feature of developing countries is vast unemployment and disguised unemployment both

in the rural and in the urban areas. It is estimated at 31% of the labour force in LDCs. The unemployment is increasing with the spread of education and urbanization.

8. Low Level of Productivity In developing countries people are economically backward. The main causes of backwardness are low labour efficiency, immobility of labour due to joint family system, cultural and pshychological factors leading to low level of productivity.

9. Deficiency of Capital Deficiency of capital is another common sign in all the developing countries of the word. The capital deficiency is mainly due to (1) low per capital income (2) low rate of saving (3) low rate of investment (4) Inequalities of wealth (5) adoption of consumption pattern of advanced countries (6) Higher level expenditure on consumption etc.

10. Backward State of Technology All the developing countries are in the backward state of technology. The technological backwardness is due to (1) higher cost of production despite low money wages (2) Deficiency of Capital (3) Predominance of unskilled and untrained workers (4) Dualism (5) Misallocation of resources etc These are the major hurdles in the spread of techniques in the LDCs.

11. Dependence on Export of Primary Products The LDCs are still relying on the 19th century pattern of external trade. They are mainly producing and

exporting primary commodities to the developed countries and importing finished goods and machinery from them.

12. Influence of Feudal Lords In Pakistan, like many other developing countries, the poor are under the hard grip of feudal lords and tribal heads. It is in the interest of the feudal lords that the poor should remain poor.

Q.1 Give a brief account on history of Economic Planning in Pakistan. History of Economic Planning in Pakistan National economic planning is a technical job and requires trained personnel to carry it out. The various types of decisions involved in planning are partly political but mainly they are technical. A plan when it is prepared requires a section or an authority to implement it as a legally enforceable document. On the other hand, it requires administrative machinery for implementation, supervision and evaluation of its results. The function of planning is usually entrusted to a specialized body like planning board or a planning committee or a planning commission. It is usually attached 10 one of the national ministry, or it may have a separate ministry of its own. After independence in 1947, the economy of Pakistan was very poor. The neighbour country India did not want Pakistan to be economically stable and strong. But the Government of Pakistan took up the job of establishing the institution of planning in the country. A development board was set up in 1948 to coordinate the growth and development among different run by the government. Meanwhile, a planning advisory board was established. The purpose of setting up this board was to advise and assist the development board in the process of planning. Pakistan's economic development planning began in 1948. The development board and planning advisory board jointly started the process of planning in Pakistan. A six year development plan (1951-57) was prepared on the recommendations of Colombo Consultation Committee. The plan envisaged a total expenditure of Rs. 2600 million. But the initial effort was unsystematic, partly because of inadequate staffing. In 1953, the government replaced the development board with a new autonomous body called the planning board. The first five year plan (1955-60) was prepared by this board and was released in 1957. It was the beginning of systematic planning in Pakistan. In practice, this plan was not implemented, however, mainly because political instability led to a neglect of economic policy, but in 1958 the government renewed its commitment to planning by establishing the Planning Commission. The Second Five Year Plan (1960-65) surpassed its major goals when all sectors showed substantial growth. The plan encouraged private entrepreneurs to participate in those activities in which a great deal of profit could be made, while the government acted in those sectors of the economy where private business was reluctant to operate. This mix of private enterprise and social responsibility was hailed as a model that other developing countries could follow. Pakistan's success, however, partially depended on generous infusions of foreign aid, particularly from the United States. After the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir, the level of foreign assistance declined. More resources than had been intended also were diverted to defense. As a result, the Third Five-Year Plan (1965-70), designed along the lines of its immediate predecessor, produced only modest growth. When the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto came to power in 1971, planning was virtually bypassed. The Fourth Five-Year Plan (1970-75) was abandoned as East Pakistan became independent Bangladesh. Under

Bhutto, only annual plans were prepared, and they were largely ignored. The Zia government accorded more importance to planning. The fifth Five-Year Plan (1978-83) was an attempt to stabilize the economy and improve the standard of living of the poorest segment of the population. Increased defence expenditures and a flood of refugees to Pakistan after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, as well as the sharp increase in International oil prices in 1979-80, drew resources away from planned investments. Never the less, some of the plan's goals were attained. Many of the controls on industry were liberalized or abolished, the balance of payments deficit was kept under control, and Pakistan became self-sufficient in all basic foodstuffs with the exception of edible oils. Yet the plan failed to stimulate substantial private industrial investment and to raise significantly the expenditure on rural infrastructure development. The Sixth Five-Year Plan (1983-88) represented a significant shift toward the private sector. It was designed to tackle some of the major problems of the economy; low investment and savings ratios; low agricultural productivity; heavy reliance on imported energy; and low spending on health and education. The economy grew at the targeted average of 6.5 percent during the plan period and would have exceeded the target if it had not been for severe droughts in 1986 and 1987. The Seventh Five-Year Plan (1988-93) provided for total public-sector spending of Rs. 350 billion. Of this total, 38 percent was designated for energy, 18 percent for transportation and communications, 9 percent for water, 8 percent for physical infrastructure and housing, 7 percent for education, 5 percent industry and minerals, 4 percent for health, and 11 percent for other sectors. The plan gave much greater emphasis than before to private investment in all sector of the economy. Total planned private investment was Rs. 292 billion, and the private to public ratio of investment was expected to rise from 42:58 in fiscal year 1988 to 48:52 in fiscal year 1993. It was also intended that public-sector corporations finance most of their own investment programs through profits and borrowing. In August 1991, the government established a working group on private investment for the Eight FiveYear Plan (1993-98). This group, which included leading industrialists, Presidents of chambers of commerce and senior civil servants, submitted its report in late 1992. However, in early 1994, the eighth plan had not yet been announced, mainly because the successive changes of government in 1993 forced ministers to focus on short terms issues. Instead, economic policy for fiscal year 1994 was being guided by an annual plan.

Q.2. Discuss the importance of Economic Planning in Pakistan. Introduction There is no precise definition of economic planning which is acceptable to all economists and political thinkers. The idea under-lying planning is a conscious and deliberate use of resources of a community with a view to achieve certain targets of production for the overall development of the economy. As the targets of production and development are different in different economies, so the definition of economic planning is different for all economists. Prof. H.D. Dickinson defines economic planning as The making of major economic decisions, what and how mush is to be produced and to whom it is to be allocated by the conscious decision of a determinate authority, on the basis of a comprehensive survey of the economic system as a whole. In developing countries, planning is considered an essential mean of guiding and accelerating their development. The need for planning arises because the market mechanism does not function well and efficiently in underdeveloped nations. The problems of what to produce, how to produce, for whom to produce and how to produce are not properly solved by price mechanism. There is generally inefficient allocation of resources among its many alternative uses. In addition to this, the spill over benefits and costs (benefits obtained or cost imposed without compensation by third parties from the production of other parties) are not taken into consideration. There is also lack of information and rapid changes in the economy. This leads to excessive uncertainties about the economic events in the future. Considering all these conditions, it is increasingly felt that price mechanism cannot be fully relied upon to maximize growth in the economy. The developing nations must adopt development planning to overcome poverty. In developing countries of the world like Pakistan, there is a strong and powerful swing towards planning. The importance of economic planning can be looked from these perspective. 1. Decisions of the Planning Authority are Superior The planning authority has a better insight into the economic problems of the country. It can mobilize and utilize the available resources in the best interest of its citizens. 2. Coordinated Programme In a country there are millions of persons who are engaged in economic activities for earning profit. The decisions taken by some of most of them may be short sighted, irrational, self frustrating and socially disastrous. If machinery is created to coordinate the working of the businessmen, the economy can be set on the right lines and the country can progress at the maximum possible rate of growth. 3. Eliminating Business Fluctuations All the market economies of the world have faced and are passing through various phases of trade cycle. The period of prosperity is followed by a period of low activity. Planning has proved to be a powerful instrument in eliminating business fluctuations. 4. Reducing Economic Inequalities In the capitalist countries, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. This has created social bitterness and heart burning among the have not. Planning has proved to be an effective weapon in reducing the shocking inequalities in income. 5. Provision of Job Opportunities With the aid of planning, the resources of country are utilized to the maximum. All the able bodied persons are gainfully employed. There is also security of income, tenure and employment.

6. Elimination of Wasteful Competition Planning is also advocated on the ground that it eliminates wasteful competition among the produces on advertisment, salesmanship etc. There is also no duplication of staff and machinery as it is the market economy. 7. Proper Distribution of Resources In the market economy, the resources of the country are utilized for the production of only those commodities which yield more profits. The items may be cream, powder, lipstick, fridge, car, cloth etc. In a planned economy, however, will be proper distribution of resources, between the production of essential and non-essential goods. 8. Prevents Artificial Shortages In an unplanned economy, the industrialists and businessmen withhold the supply of goods and create artificial scarcity with a view to making profits. Planning discourages such malpractices and through planned production and proper supply of goods, the prices of the commodities are not allowed to fluctuate. The formation of trusts, cartels, patents, price agreement, market sharing etc is completely banned. 9. Keeping down the Social Costs In a market economy, the social costs which normally take the form of industrial diseases, industrial accidents, smoke atmosphere, overcrowding, cyclical unemployment etc. are passed on to the society as a whole by the capitalists. By planning, it is possible to eliminate or keep down these social costs by taking over the industries and extending the range of public ownership into various sectors of economy. 10. Creating Favourable Terms of Trade If the terms of trade are persistently unfavourable, it adversely affects the rate of economic growth of the country. The state, through planning can control the volume and direction of foreign trade, so that the terms of trade remain favourable and the country moves rapidly on the path of economic development. 11. Making Major Economic Changes In a free enterprise economy the market mechanism fails to create major economic changes such as industrial revolution, rationalization movement in the country. The government measures facilitate, stimulate, guide and control the means of production through planning. 12. High Rate of Capital Accumulation As planning makes optimum allocation of a country's resources, it can, therefore, secure for greater rate of capital accumulation than is possible in a market economy. However, Pakistan is an under developed country and economic planning is necessary to boosts its resources. This economic planning should be long-term because annual economic development plans cannot offer satisfactory results. That's the period of development plans is usually kept five years. All developments plans of Pakistan are of five years. Except that twenty and fifteen years perspective plans were also made Q.3. discuss the factors hindering Effective Planning in Pakistan Introduction Pakistan, like other less developed countries, is caught up in the vicious circle of poverty. Since Partition, the Government of Pakistan is anxious to raise the standard of living of the people hut it has not yet been able to come out of the boggy of poverty. On the other side, the developed countries are growing at a fast

speed as they have a set of favourable conditions for growth. The gap between the developed and the developing countries is widening instead of narrowing. In order to overcome the shortcomings of market mechanism and to push up the tempo of development, the Government of Pakistan has drawn up eight five years plans. Some of the plans did succeed in raising industrial and agriculture production but the overall performance of the plans is discouraging. The main factors which have inhibited partially or wholly effective planning in Pakistan are as follows: 1. Lack of Basic Data In order to draw a comprehensive and realistic plan, the accurate statistical information about the existing conditions of the economy should be available to the planners. In Pakistan, the date on natural, human and financial resources provided to the planning machinery are mostly inaccurate and unreliable. If the date are obsolete or continue wide margins or error, the objectives of the plans would not be achieved and the plan ends in failure. 2. Appointment of Non-Technical Persons Another important factor standing in the way of effective planning in Pakistan is the appointment of nontechnical persons in drawing up and execution of the plans. In the entire history of the Planning Commission, (except for ten years) of Pakistan, the Planning Commission has been headed by a senior member of the civil service, rather than by a professional economist. 3. Lack of Public Co-operation Lack of co-operation and mistrust of the Government has remained an important hurdle to effective planning in Pakistan. The Planning Machinery has not been able to enlist the co-operation, support and enthusiasm of the people for the implementation of the plans. 4. Political Instability Another major bottleneck to effective planning is the political instability in Pakistan. The rapid change over of the government set up, has led to unplanned, haphazard economic growth. The uncertainties of the election results have hindered, and slowed down the rate of economic development in the country and have made the plans mostly ineffective. 5. Role of Foreign Assistance Pakistan has been relying on foreign aid for quickening the tempo of economic development since the first day of economic planning in Pakistan. The loan giving countries do not finance the project of the developing countries for philantrophic motive. They have their political and economic interests. So long the interest between the aid giving countries and the aid receiving countries do not conflict, the aid is given. As and when the interests of the two clashes, the aid is immediately stopped or reduced Pakistan aid has been curtailed many a times in the past and the achievement of the plans fell short of expectations. 6. Natural Calamities Agriculture is the backbone of our country. It now contributes 25% of GDP accounts for 45% of foreign exchange earning and engages 50% of the labour force. If in any year or years, the rain is untimely, weather unfavourable or locust storm attacks the standing crop, the agricultural productions falls short of the target. Export of raw material and manufactured goods decline. Expenditure on the import of foodgrain increases. The sectorial allocations in the plan then have to be revised which upsets the whole programme of planning. 7. Dualism Dualism is another important constraint on the effective planning in Pakistan. The difference in social customs, difference of technology and a gap in the level of per capital income between the four provinces

of the country, have stood in the way of effective planning in Pakistan. 8. Ambitious Plan If we look at the objectives of all the Eight Five Year Plans, we will find them too ambitious but they are not properly fetched in time. When the objectives of plans are partially achieved, it create discontentment among the people and reduce the usefulness of the development plans. _________________________________________________________________________ ___ * 1 Introduction * 2 First Constituent Assembly * 3 Objective Resolution * 4 Salient Features of Objective Resolution * 5 Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan * 6 Importance of Objective Resolution * 7 Conclusion Introduction Pakistan is the first nation in the world, whose creation was based on the religious motives. It was because of this reason that the popular and famous slogan of Pakistan ka Matlab Kiya? La Illaha Illallah was the main basis of the demand of Pakistan. But at the very outset of its establishment, it had no Islamic constitution of its own, so according to the independence act of 1947, the government of India Act 1935, with certain amendments was adopted by Pakistan. However, a new constitution was to be framed for the country since the old act of 1935 did not contain everything required for an independent Islamic State.

First Constituent Assembly In order to establish a society based on Islamic principles, a constituent assembly was formed in 1947 with Quaid-e-Azam as its leader. The responsibility of making a constitution of Pakistan rested on Constituent Assembly. However, with the death of Quaid-e-Azam on 11th September 1948, the responsibility of framing the constitution fell onto the shoulders of the first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan.

Objective Resolution This resolution was passed by the First Constituent Assembly in March 1949 under the leadership of Liaquat Ali Khan. It contained those objectives on which the future constitution was to be based as stated by the founder of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam in February 1948, said: The constitution of Pakistan will be democratic and based on the fundamental laws of Islam.... Islam and

its ideology have taught us the lesson of democracy.

Salient Features of Objective Resolution The salient features of the Objective Resolution are as follows: 1. Sovereignity Belongs to Allah The resolution clearly laid down that sovereignity over the entire Universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone and the authorities to be exercised by the people of Pakistan are a sacred trust. 2. Federal System Federal System of Government will be introduced in Pakistan.

3. Golden Principles of Islam Principles of democracy, equality, freedom and social justice as laid down by Islam shall be fully observed. 4. Supreme Authority of the People The sovereignity of the state will be established through the elected representative of the people. 5. Life According to the Teachings of Islam The Muslims shall be provided with opportunity to order their in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam.

6. Protection of the Rights of Minorities The rights and interests of the minorities to freely profess and practice their religion will be protected.

7. Equal Rights to Citizens All citizens will enjoy their rights on the principles of equality.

8. Development of Under Developed Areas

All efforts will be made for the development and progress of the under developed areas.

9. Independence Judiciary Judiciary will be independent.

Objective Resolution and Liaquat Ali Khan While introducing the resolution in the constituent Assembly, Liaquat Ali Khan said: The ideals that promised the demand for Pakistan should form the corner stone of the state. When we use the word "Democracy" in the Islamic sense it pervades all aspects of life. It relates to the system of government and to our society with equal validity because one of the greatest contributions of Islam has been the equality of all men.

Importance of Objective Resolution This resolution is of fundamental importance in the history of constitutions making in Pakistan because from the first constitution of 1956 till the constitution of 1973 (present constitution) whatever constitution was framed it was based on this objective resolution. At the time it was passed, Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan called it The most important occasion in the life of this country, next in importance only to be achievement of independence. It contains those steps and principles which were to be taken for the fulfillment of the basic aim of the freedom struggle that is the establishment of an Islamic Society in Pakistan. Hence, it is a significant document in the constitutional history of Pakistan. When Liaquat Ali Khan visited America in the course of his speech at New Orleans, he said We believe in God and his Supreme Sovereignity because we believe that civic life must have an ethical content and a higher purpose. But democracy, social justice, equality of opportunity and equality before the law of all citizens inrespective of their race and creed are also aspects of faith with us.

Conclusion All the above mentioned principles were presented in the Objective Resolution that is why this resolution is considered an important event in the constitutional history of the country. It was accepted by all classes of people. It provided a guide line of the future constitutions of Pakistan which were passed in 1956, 1962 and 1973. It consisted of such principles which revealed that character of constitution shall be Islamic

Q.2. Discuss the salient feature and drawbacks of the Constitution of 1956 The Constitution of 1956 was a lengthy document. It consisted of 234 articles divided into thirteen parts and six schedules. Some salient features of the constitution are as under:

1. Islamic Republic of Pakistan The name of the country was adopted as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The Objectives Resolution was included as Preamble in the constitution.

2. Federal System The constitution provide for a federal system in the country. The powers were divided among the centre and the provinces. The subjects were divided into three lists; the Federal List, the Provincial list, and the concurrent list.

3. Unicameral Legislature The Legislature was to consist of only one house. Both the wings of the country were given representation in the National Assembly. The National Assembly consisted of 300 members. 150 members were drawn from each wing. Thus the principle of parity was adopted.

4. Parliamentary System Parliamentary system was adopted. According to it President was the Head of the State and the Prime MInister headed the government.

5. Independent Judiciary The constitution provided for an independent judiciary in the country. A Supreme Court was constituted. It was headed by a Chief Justice. The Supreme Court, interpreted the constitution, advised the state whenever required and decided the issues arising among the governments.

6. The President According to the 1956 Constitution the President was the head of the state. He was to be a Muslim of at least forty years ago. The tenure of his office was five years. In case of internal or external danger he could

declare state of emergency in the country. He was authorized to appoint the Governors, the Judges of the Supreme Court, Auditor General and the Advocate General.

7. The Prime Minister The Prime Minister was the head of the government. He was the leader of the Parliamentary group and was thus indirectly elected by the people. He was authorized to nominate his cabinet among the members of the National Assembly. The Cabinet was answerable to the Assembly.

8. Fundamental Rights The Constitution of 1956 provided for the fundamental rights for the citizens of Pakistan.

9. Islamic Law No law would be passed against the teachings of Quran and Sunnah and the existing laws would be made Islamic in character.

10. Language Urdu and Bengali were made national languages.

Drawbacks of the Constition of 1956 1. A far-reaching devolution of power already a political reality, was not given a constitutional recognition and accepted as the basis, of the stale,

2. The federal list was substantially reduced and the provincial list greatly enlarged, transferring to the provinces among other subjects, control over mineral resources, recruitment of services, industries, internal communications and the tribal areas in the North-West Frontier. This was contrary to the practice of advanced countries where the federal principle has been used in building up a common nationhood through a strong Centre. The constitution in Pakistan instead of being an instrument for unity a country already divided by geography, sought to create two distinct political entities with maximum autonomy in the management of their affairs.

3. Regional loyalties were further consolidated by the introduction of parity of representation in the National Assembly. The Constitution was conceived in the belief that the political life of the country

would always be tied to provincial moorings and will never rise to a higher plane of nationalism in which party affiliations would cut across the physical barriers. Parity was certain to foster parochial feeling equally in the region in whose favor it was to operate and in the region whose interests were adversely affected by it.

Q.3. Discuss the salient features of the Constitution of 1973 The Constitution of 1973 After taking control of the government in 1971. Z.A. Bhutto started work on a democratic constitution for the country. On 17th April 1972 the National Assembly constituted a committee to prepare a draft constitution. The Committee worked hard and prepared the draft of the constitution which was presented to the leaders of all parliamentary leaders on 20th October 1972. All the leaders signed the draft. After that it was discussed and debated n the National Assembly which gave its approval on 10th April 1973. The President gave his assent on 12th April 1973. Finally the Senate approved the constitution in August 1973. Consequently the constitution was enforced in the country on 14th August 1973. According to the Constitution of 1973 Mr. Z.A. Bhutto look over as the tenth Prime Minister and Mr. Fazl-e-Elahi was sworn in as the President of Pakistan. Salient Features of 1973 Constitution The Constitution of 1973 is strikingly different from the earlier Constitution of 1956 and 1962. It has the following salient features.

1. Written Constitution Like the previous constitutions of 1956 and 1962 the Constitution of 1973 is a written document. It is very comprehensive and consists of twelve parts consisting of 280 articles.

2. Introductory and the Objectives Resolution It commences with an introductory which slates the Islam shall be state religion. The principles and provisions set out in the Objectives Resolution have been made substantive part of the constitution.

3. Islamic System The inclusion of Islamic Provisions has given the 1973 Constitution an unprecedented Islamic character. It ensures an Islamic system in the country.

4. Rigid Constitution It is a rigid constitution. No Government can change it at will. It is not easy to make amendments in it. Two-third majority of both the Houses is required for this purpose.

5. Federal System The Constitution of 1973 has introduced a Federal system in the country. The federation of Pakistan consists of a Central Government and four Provincial Governments. The Federal Government is headed by a President elected by members of Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)

6. Parliamentary form of Government The 1973 Constitution proposes a Parliamentary form of Government in the country. Prime minister is the head of the Parliamentary system. He is leader of the Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliamentary). He is elected on direct adult franchise basis. The Prime Minister selects a cabinet of central ministers from the members of Parliament which conducts the affairs of the country. According to 1973 Constitution the Prime Minister enjoys wide powers.

7. Bicameral Legislature The Constitution provides for the establishment of a bicameral legislature in Pakistan. The Majlis-eShoora (Parliament) consists of two Houses named Senate and National Assembly. The Senate or the Upper House consists of 63 members (the 8th Amendment has raised this number to 87). The National Assembly consists of 200 members (Now this number has been raised to 207). The Majlis-e-Shoora enjoys wide powers of legislature. 8. Direct Method of Election The Constitution of 1973 gives a direct method of election. The members of the National Assembly, the Provincial Assemblies are directly elected by the people.

9. Fundamental Rights The 1973 Constitution ensures the following fundamental rights to the citizens of Pakistan. * Security of person * Safeguard against unlawful arrest and detention * Prohibition of slavery and forced labor * Freedom of movement * Freedom of assembly * Freedom of association * Freedom of business * Freedom of speech

* Freedom of profess religion * Right to hold property * Equality before law * Right to preserve language, script and culture * Safeguard against discrimination in services.

10. Principles of Policy The Constitution of 1973 has set the following principles of policy: * Local electoral bodies will be set up for solving local problems. * The parochial and other prejudices shall be discouraged. * The women shall be given full representation in all spheres of national life. * Social justice shall be promoted. * Bonds with Muslim world shall be strenghened.

11. Independence of Judiciary The Constitution of 1973 stresses upon the establishment of an independent judiciary. Full job security has been provided. The judges are appointed by the President. They cannot be removed from service before the end of their term except on the recommendation of the Supreme Judicial Council. In addition the Judges are paid respectable salaries.

12. National Language The 1973 Constitution has declared Urdu as the national language of Pakistan. However English has been retained as the official language for 15 years. Similarly regional languages have been provided full protection.

13. Single Citizenship The Constitution of 1973 has established the principles of single citizenship. According to this principle the rights and duties of the citizens are determined by the Federal Constitution only. Thus the people throughout Pakistan are citizens of Pakistan.

14. Rule of Law

The 1973 Constitution establishes rule of law in Pakistan. According to rule of law no person can be deprived of his fundamental rights. All the citizens of Pakistan are equal before law.

15. High Treason According to the Constitution of 1973 the act of unconstitutional abrogation of the Constitution has been declared as an act of High Treason.

16. Referendum The Constitution of 1973 has authorized the President to hold Referendum on any national issue. Similarly the Prime Minister can ask the President to hold referendum on any important national issue.

Q.4. What are the steps towards Islamization in Pakistan taken by the Government? Introduction Pakistan is an ideological state which was founded so that the Muslims would lead their lives according to the principles of Islam. All the laws made and implemented in this country have been designed keeping in view the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah. Quaid said It is my belief that our saluation lies in following the golden rules of conduct set for us by our great law given by the Prophet of Islam. Let us lay the foundation of our democracy on the basis of truly Islamic ideals and principles. Our Almighty Allah taught us that the decisions in the affairs shall be guided by discussing and consultation. All the constitutions that have been implemented in our country (1956, 1965 and 1973) have all contained Islamic Provisions. To accomplish these provisions, the Government of Pakistan has taken the following steps to introduce Islamic Laws in the Country. 1. Hadood Ordinance It was promulgated in the country in 1977. In the light of Hadood Ordinance different punishments were prescribed for various crimes. The word Hadood means the punishment which has been prescribed in the light of Holy Quran. According to the Hadood Ordinance, manufacture, export, import and use of alcohols was considered as a crime. Any person found guilty will be liable of the punishment of 30 lashes and 5 years imprisonment. The second Hadood Law is concerned with the crime of theft. The third Hadood law is meant for adultery and rape (Zina-bil-Jabr) whose punishment is stoning the adulter to death. 2. Zakat and Ushr Ordinance Zakat and Ushr Ordinance was promulgated in the country of June 20, 1980. According to this ordinance, a Zakat Fund will be established to collect all sorts of gifts and it will be compulsory for every Sahib-eNisab Muslim to pay Zakat by deducting it from his/her account in the bank. Ushr is the tax levied on yield of agriculture land in cash or kind. According to this ordinance, every owner who ploughs and cultivates land is bound to deposit 10% of his earning in cash or kind as Ushr. 3. Establishment of Federal Shariat Courts It is a highly important step undertaken by the Government. This courts decides various issues brought

before it in the light of Holy Quran and Sunnah. Any citizen can challenge any law of the country in the Shariat Court where he has to prove that a certaining law is against the injunction of Islam and therefore be declared as unliable. 4. Interest-Free Banking On January 1981, the interest-free banking system was introduced in Pakistan. According to this system, the account holder becomes the partner with the bank in its profit or loss and shares it according to his investment in the bank. 5. Teaching of Islamiat and Pakistan Studies In the light of University Grants Commission all Universities of Pakistan and boards of Education have been given instructions to introduce Islamiat and Pakistan Studies as a compulsory subject in intermediate, degree and post graduate classes so that the system of Education should become compatible to the Ideology of Pakistan. 6. Establishment of Islamic University Shariat faculties have been established in various universities for the promotion of Islamic teachings. The function of Jamia Islamia Bahawalpur has been streamlined and an Islamic University has been established in Islamabad. 7. New Education Policy In April 1979, a new education policy was made on the basis of Islamic concepts and the Ideology of Pakistan. In the light of the new policy, women universities will be set up in Lahore and Karachi. 8. Unislamic Literature A ban has been put on the printing, distribution and sale of all kinds of literature which is likely to propagate against the ideology of Pakistan or to give rise to provincial, lingual or sectorial prejudice. 9. Nizam-e-Salat and Arrangement of Azan Nizam-e-Salat was promulgated by which it was intended to persuate the general people and the employee's of the Government offices to pray five times a day. Also, arrangements for Azan on radio and Television were made.

Conclusion The above steps taken by the Government towards Islamization in the country will vertainly lead the nation to progress and prosperity within the limits prescribed by the Holy Quran and Sunnah. Q.3. Examine the relations of Pakistan with India Pakistan's Relation with India Since partition of the sub-continent in 1947, relations between Pakistan and India have been characterized by rivalry and suspicion. The animosity has its roots in religion and history, and is epitomized by the longrunning conflict over the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Historical Background The Indian Sub Continent was partitioned into Hindu-dominated India and the newly created Muslim state of Pakistan after India's independence from Great Britain in 1947. Severe rioting and population

movement ensued and an estimated half a million people were killed in communal violence. About a million people were left homeless. Since partition, the territory of Jammu and Kashmir has remained in dispute with Pakistan and India both holding sectors. First Indo-Pakistan War 1947-49 At the time of partition, the princely state of Kashmir, though ruled by a Hindu Maharaja, had an overwhelmingly Muslim population. When the Maharaja hesitated in acceding to either Pakistan or India in 1947, some of his Muslim subjects, aided by tribesmen from Pakistan, revolted in favor of joining Pakistan. The first Indo-Pakistan war started after armed tribesmen from Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province invaded Kashmir in October 1947. Besieged both by a revolt n his state and by the invasion, the Maharaja requested armed assistance from the Government of India. In return he acceded to India, handling over powers of defense, communication and foreign affairs. Both India and Pakistan agreed that the accession would be confirmed by a referendum once hostilities had ceased. In May 1948, the regular Pakistani army was called upon to protect Pakistan's borders. Fighting continued throughout the year between Pakistani irregular troops and the Indian army. The war ended on 1st January 1949 when a ceasefire was arranged by the United Nations which recommended that both India and Pakistan should adhere to their commitment to hold a referendum in the state. A ceasefire line was established where the two sides stopped fighting and a UN peacekeeping force established. The referendum, however has never been held. The 1965 War In April 1965, a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western Indo-Pakistan border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weaks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984 India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime

Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Kashmir Insurgency 1990 Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Diplomatic Push 1996-97 In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css"; Nuclear Rivalry 1998 The arms race between the rivals escalated dramatically in the 1990s. In May 1998, India conducted underground nuclear tests in the western desert state of Rajasthan near the border with Pakistan. In response, Pakistan conducted six tests in Balochistan. In the same year, Pakistan test its longest range missile, the 1,500 km (932 mile) Ghauri missile, named after the 12th Century Muslim warrior who conquered part of India. Both sides were heavily criticized by the international community for the tests as fears of a nuclear confrontation grew. The United States ordered sanctions against both countries, freezing more than $20bn of aid, loans and trade. Japan ordered a block on about $1bn of aid loans. Several European countries followed suit, and the G-8 governments imposed a ban on non-humanitarian loans to India and Pakistan. The UN Security Council condemned India and Pakistan for carrying out nuclear tests and urged the two nations to stop all nuclear weapons programmes. Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee Visit to Pakistan 1999 The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999. There was considerable hope that the meeting could lead to a breakthrough. They signed the Lahore accord pledging again to "intensify their efforts to resolve all issues, including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir." Kargil Conflict 1999 Unfortunately, in May 1999 India launched air strikes against Pakistani backed forces that had infiltrated into the mountains in Indian-administrated Kashmir, north of Kargil. Pakistan responded by occupying positions on the Indian side of the Line of Control in the remote, mountainous area of Kashmir near Kargil threatening the ability of India to supply its forces on Siachen Glacier. By early summer, serious fighting

flared in the Kargil sector. The infiltrators withdrew following a meeting between Prime Minister Sharif and President Bill Clinton in July. Relations between India nad Pakistan have since been particularly strained, especially since the October 12, 1999 coup in Islamabad. The Brink of War 2001 Tension along the ceasefire lined continued. The worst fighting for more than a year broke out in October as India, which continued to condemn Pakistan for cross-border terrorism, started shelling Pakistani military positions. October saw a devastating attack on the Kashmiri assembly in Srinagar in which 38 people were killed. After the attack, the Chief Minister of Indian-administrated Kashmir, Farooque Abdullah called on Indian Government to launch a war against militant training camps across the border in Pakistan. On 13th December, an armed attack on the Indian Parliament in Delhi left 14 people dead. India again blamed Pakistani-backed Kashmiri militants. The attack led to a dramatic build-up of troops along the Indo-Pakistan border, military exchanges and raised fears of a wider conflict. Rail and bus services between the two countries were also blocked. Relaxation of Tension 2003 A relaxation of tension began in 2003, when then Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee called for a dialogue. Rail and bus services between the two countries resumed, and the two countries agreed to a ceasefire in Kashmir. Summit Talks 2004 Twelfth SAARC Summit was held in Islamabad in January 2004. On this occasion President Parvez Musharraf met Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee on 5th January 2004. In this summit talk India and Pakistan resumed comprehensive discussions with an agenda the included the Kashmir problem, confidence-building measures, and ways to provide security against terrorism. No War Pact 2004 These comprehensive consultations have steadily built up trust, resulting in agreements to continue the suspension of nuclear tests, to give prior notification of missile tests, and to seek a peaceful resolution of the Kashmir problem. On June 20, 2004, both countries signed "No War Pact" and agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war. Musharraf's Unofficial Visit to India 2005 In April 2005 President Parvez Musharraf and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh agreed on various new confidence-building measures between the two nations. Their talks, held during Mr. Musharraf's unofficial visit to India on April 17, produced agreement, for example, on the passage of trucks for commercial purposes over Kashmir's Line of Control, or ceasefire line. This is expected to greatly help ease tensions between the countries. The improvement of relations between India and Pakistan still involves uncertain factors such as the activities of Islamic extremists, but efforts should be stepped up so that the latest summit can serve as a favorable tail wind for accelerating the thaw between the two nations.

Q.4. Write a detailed note on Pakistan and Kashmir Issue Introduction Kashmir, the last of the defiant states, was the reverse of Hyderabad. It had a Hindu Ruler, Maharaja Hari Singh, but his subjects were mostly Muslims, accounting to 77 percent of the total population. The Maharaja was reluctant to join either India or Pakistan. But Lord Mountbatten urged him to take a decision to join either of the states before August 15, 1947. The Maharaja asked for more time to consider his decision. In the meantime he asked the Indian and the Pakistani government to sign a "standstill agreement" with him. Pakistan consented but India refused. War of Kashmir 1947 The local population of Poonch began to press the Maharaja to accede to Pakistan. In August 1947, they held a massive demonstration to protest against the Maharaja's indecisiveness. The Maharaja panicked. He asked his Hindu paratroopers to open fire and within a matter of seconds, several hundred Muslims were killed. Rising up against this brutal action, a local barrister called Sardar Mohammad Ibrahim immediately set up the Azad Kashmir government and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Maharaja. By October 1947, the war of Kashmir had begun in earnest. The Pathan tribesmen from the Noth West Frontier Province, wanting to avenge the deaths of their brothers, invaded the valley. On reaching the valley of Kashmir, they defeated the Maharaja's troops and reached the gates of Srinagar, the capital. Maharaja's Coalition with India The Maharaja sensing his defeat took refuge in Jammu whence he appealed to India to send troops to halt the onslaught of the tribesmen. India agreed on the condition that Kashmir would accede to India. On October 26, 1947, the Maharaja acceded to India. Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession on behalf of India. On October 26, 1947, India began to airlift her troops to Srinagar and launched a full-scale attack on the tribesmen. Pakistan was stunned. Despite her scant military resources, Pakistan was prepared to send in her troops but the British General Gracey, Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army, was against it. Jinnah proposed an immediate ceasefire and later on a fair and free plebiscite in Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmir Dispute and United Nations In January 1948, India took the dispute to the Security Council. There it accused Pakistan of aggression and demanded that Pakistan withdraw her tribesmen. But Pakistan held that the accession of Kashmir had been brought about by force. The government requested the Security Council to arrange a cease-fire and asked both the tribesmen and the Indian troops to withdraw so that a free impartial plebiscite could be held to ascertain the wishes of the people of Kashmir. Indo-Pakistan War 1948 and United Nation's Involvement While the Kashmir issue was still on the table, the Indian troops launched a full-scale attack and drove the tribesmen right back to the Pakistani border. Pakistan rushed her regular troops into Kashmir and a fullscale war with India ensued. She took control of the Azad Kashmir Army. But the Security Council on August 13, 1948 called for an immediate ceasefire the withdrawal of all Pakistani and Indian troops and holding of plebiscite under United Nation's supervision. Both the Indian and Paksitani government

accepted the resolution. In January 1949, the resolution began to be implemented. In July 1949, the ceasefire line was demarcated. Pakistan's side of Kashmir consisted of some parts of Jammu, Poonch, some areas of Western Kashmir, Gilgit and a great chunk of Ladakh territory near the Chinese border in the North. India kept the valley of Kashmir, Jammu and the remainder of Ladakh territory near the Tiber border. The cease-fire has remained in existence since 1949. No plebiscite has been held and thus the Kashmir issue still remains disputed and unresolved. @import "/extensions/GoogleAdSense/GoogleAdSense.css"; The 1965 War In April 1965, a clash between border patrols erupted into fighting in the Rann of Kutch, a sparsely inhabited region along the south-western Indo-Pakistan border. When the Indians withdrew, Pakistan claimed victory. Later full-scale hostilites erupted in September 1965, when India alleged that insurgents trained and supplied by Pakistan were operating in India-controlled Kashmir. Hostilities ceased three weaks later, following mediation efforts by the UN and interested countries. In January 1966, Indian and Pakistani representatives met in Tashkent, U.S.S.R., and agreed to attempt a peaceful settlement of Kashmir and their other differences. The 1971 War Indo-Pakistani relations deteriorated again when civil war erupted in Pakistan, pitting the West Pakistan army against East Pakistanis demanding autonomy and independence. In December India invaded East Pakistan in support of the East Pakistani people. The Pakistani army surrendered at Dhaka and its army of more than 90,000 became India prisoners of war. East Pakistan became the independent country of Bangladesh on 6th December 1971. Following the 1971 Indo-Pakistan conflict, President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi met in the mountain town of Shimla, India in July 1972. They agreed to a line of control in Kashmir resulting from the December 17, 1971 cease-fire, and endorsed the principle of settlement of bilateral disputes through peaceful means. Indian Troops and Siachen Glacier 1984 India's nuclear test in 1974 generated great uncertainty in Pakistan and is generally acknowledged to have been the impetus for Pakistan's nuclear weapons development program. In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India's Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan's Sindh province. In April 1984, tensions erupted after troops were deployed to the Siachen Glacier, a high-altitude desolate area close to the China border left undemarcated by the cease-fire agreement (Karachi Agreement) signed by Pakistan and India in 1949. Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers was brought to trial by Pakistan in March 1985. In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Gandhi pledged not to attack each other's nuclear facilities. In early 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade. Kashmir Insurgency 1990 Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri militants began a compaign of violence against Indian Government authority in Jammu and Kashmir. Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved

the tensions between India and Pakistan, but relations worsened again after the destruction of the Ayodhya Masjid by Hindu extremists in December 1992 and terrorists bombings in Bombay in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock. Diplomatic Push 1996-97 In the last several years, the Indo-Pakistani relationship has veered sharply between rapprochement and conflict. After taking office in February 1997, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. In a speech at the UN, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif offered to open talks on a non-aggression pact with India, proposing that both nations strike a deal to restrain their nuclear and missile capabilities. Effects of 9/11 on Kashmir If the world and the United States changed after September 11, the center of that change is the region where Pakistan is located. When it came to begin the war against terrorism Pakistan did not hesitate to do whatever it takes to fight against terrorism. United States of America appreciated the efforts of Pakistan which did not please India. So, India blamed Pakistan-based groups for the December 13, 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament. In reply, General Parvez Musharraf's speech of January 12, 2002 which even India's hawkish Home Minister Lal Krishna Advani termed four days later as "path-breaking", India was caught on the back foot. National Kashmir Committee It is in this context that Pakistan launched a new political initiative on Kashmir to reaffirm its long standing policy of supporting the right of self-determination for the people of kashmir that is enshrined in United Nations resolutions, initially accepted even by India. Musharraf announced the formation of a National Kashmir Committee headed by a veteran Kashmiri politician, and its charter made clear the purposes behind the initiative. The challenge before the government is to promote confidence among the people in Pakistan and Kashmir regarding Pakistan's efforts to project the Kashmir cause as a popular and indigenous struggle internationally. Having addressed international concerns regarding terrorism and extremism in Musharraf's January 12 speech, the United States is now more receptive to Pakistan's plea and is anxious to see a dialogue on all the issues of Kashmir. Peace in South Asia and the Kashmir Dispute Pakistan believes that the establishment of durable peace in South Asia hinges on the resolution of the Kashmir Dispute in light of the security Council resolutions and the wishes of the Kashmiri people. On March 17, 2004 Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said the Kashmir dispute remains the core issue between India and Pakistan. The two South Asian nations have fought three wars, two of which were over the disputed kashmir region. In January this year, the two leaderships made a decision to open the dialogue process in a bid to resolve all disputes between the two sides. The Dialogue Process Pakistan always showed seriousness and sincerity towards resolution of the core issue of Kashmir by

adopting several Confidence Building Measures (CBMs). World community. time and again has advised India to decrease the number of its force in Occupied Kashmir and release illegally detained Kashmiri Leadership. India never hesitated from leveling baseless allegations against Pakistan of infiltration and also did not stop massive human rights violations in Kashmir. The need is to initiate vigorous efforts from both sides in resolving the Kashmir issue. The basic important dispute between the two countries is Kashmir issue and with its resolution all the other outstanding issues would be settled very easity. Prime Minister Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali said that Kashmir dispute should be resolved according to the United Nations resolution and with active participation of the Kashmiris. Year 2005 - Road to Peace The Prime Minister said that there wre many difficulties on road to peace but emphasized the need to take measures to promote mutual trust and find new avenues for a peaceful resolution of the lingering Kashmir dispute. The first formal visit of a faction of the separatist All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) and the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) to Pakistan occupied Kashmir (PoK) and subsequently, though unsanctioned by Indian authorities to Pakistan between June 2-16, 2005 was thus projected as a major event and development in the process of solving the "Kashmir Issue". Indeed the visit strongly reiterated the fact that the APHC continues to be a faithful Pakistani proxy. After his meeting with the President Musharraf, Mirwaiz Umer Farooq declared that We want Kashmir to be divided on geographical grounds. We don't wand Kashmir to lose its identity.... we support his [President Musharraf] approach. During their meeting with President Musharraf, the APHC leaders once again were assured full political, diplomatic and moral support. This tour has been helpful in understanding the viewpoint of the Kashmiri leaders. Their quest for a free hand to decide their future is valid. They have been living under brutal Indian occupation since 1948. Despite promised justice by the UN 57 years ago, they have been denied their right of self-determination. It was in fact the denial of justice and unabated Indian State-terrorism perpetrated against Kashmir. The recent visit of the APHC leaders was a significant development, which can be termed as a milestone in the process of resolving the core dispute of Kashmir between Pakistan and India peacefully. We wish both the governments to show courage, boldness and flexibility in settling the issue.

The Problems of t he New State The attainment of independence brought an end to one phase of the struggle and marked the beginning of a new one for setting up and running a viable, stable and prosperous state. Pakistan began its independent life under very difficult and unfavorable circumstances. Pakistan faced serious problems in the initial stages. 1. New Administration 2. Division of Assets 3. Integration of Princely States 4. Communal Riots andArrival of Refugees 5. Canal water andtradeissues 1: New Administration

The shortage of trained human power especially senior officers was a serious problem in the setting up of federal government in Karachi. Most of them had migrated to India. There was a shortage of office space, equipment and furniture. This disturbed the direct connections between the federal government and provincial governments. On the other hand, the provincial governments were overburdened that needed very accurate connection between the centre and the provinces to solve the problems of the Muslim refugees who had nothing to eat, drink, wear, rest, etc. To counter the critical situation, the official system should have been efficient but due to the lack of all these facilities the administrative authorities were painfully facing difficulties. 2: Division of Assets The Indiangovernment was not cooperative for transfer of record and equipment to Pakistan. The civil administration was not handing over the promised financial, military, and other shares that created mountainous hurdles to eradicate the pains and miseries of the refugees. Financial Assets The full financial share of Pakistan was not transferred. Initially rupees 200 million were transferred that were not sufficient to meet the expenditures of the newly born state. The Indian government was so reactionary that it tried its level best to block these funds to suffocate the newly born Muslim state as they expected foolishly that Pakistan would collapse and rejoin India soon after its existence. They did not release the remaining funds until Gandhis threat of marn bert (fast until death). Under this pressure, more funds were sent in early 1948 but no installment was later paid. Militarys Division As far as the problem in dividing man power there was no serious setback because the division was not in the hand of third person and Muslims were free to come to their dreamland, Pakistan. Anyhow, their shifting was slow and insecure. There were obstacles in the Pakistans share of weapons, equipment, and stores. The broken and damaged stuff was sent by India. Pakistan did not get any ordinance factory. Reorganization of the Armed Forces was another tough job and the there was no army officer up to the rank of colonel. The shortage of experienced officers convinced British officers to continue their services. This also accelerated undue promotion in the military services to fill the gap. 3: Integration of Princely States There were over 560 princely states in India on the verge of the partition of India. About 500 states had joined India before August 15 because of the motivation by V. P. Menon and Mountbatten. The princes were inclined to honour every gesture of the British representative so they conceded what the member of the Royal family (Mountbatten) wished. The HinduBritish conspiracy blocked states to join Pakistan. Junagadh

It was a small state with access to sea having about 7 lakh population and 3377 mile area. The ruler was Muslim while the majority of its population was Hindu. The ruler decided to accede to Pakistan and Pakistan also accepted the accession. In November 1947, the Indian troops entered the state and took its control. The referendum favoured India. Hyderabad It was geographically big and financially a rich state. Its ruler was Muslim and majority population was Hindu. It was surrounded by India from all sides. The Nizam wanted to stay independent. Mountbatten discouraged him and signed StandstillAgreement. But India built pressure on the Nizam by sending its troops in September 1948 claiming that serious law and order situation had developed. The state was integrated in India. Kashmir The most important state was Kashmir naturally connected with Pakistan. Its ruler was Hindu while population was Muslim. The population inclined towards Pakistan but the Hindu ruler declared to join India. The Kashmiri people revolt against the ruler in Poonch area and soon it became widespread. The ruler sought Indian support. India demanded accession. On October 27, 1947 Indian troops landed in Srinagar. The people continued their struggle for independence and India promised to finally settle the matter with reference to the people under the UN Resolutions. 4: Communal Riots and Refugees The Communal riots occurred earlier in August 1946. The killing of Muslims in Indian areas forced them to leave India. The Sikhs and Hindus attacked the refugee caravans and trains. There were organized gangs to kill the Muslims. The refugee problem created critical condition in the border areas. The massive migration proved serious economic and humanitarian problems for the new state. The military was asked to help cope with the refugee problem. 5: Canal Water Problem The major rivers flow from Kashmir and some canal heads located in India. In 1948, India cut off water to some canal that was a serious threat to agriculture in West Pakistan. The Indian plans to build water storage on the rivers that are vital for Pakistans economy worsened the situation. It also showed the traditional anti-Muslim attitude. The World Bank settled the problem in September 1960 (Indus Water Treaty). 6: Trade Problem andthe Economy India devalued its currency in 1949 but Pakistan refused to do so. It stopped trade that adversely affected Pakistans economy as it depended on trade from India. Pakistan had inherited a weak economy and poor industrial base. The beginning years of Pakistan were troubled and difficult due to the Indias non-helpful policy and the war in Kashmir. It had profound impact on Pakistans worldview and its relations with India. Pakistan strived for its survival and security. Many Indians and the British predicted the collapse of Pakistan. They were of the opinion that very soon the Muslims would realize their blunder. They would be

forced by the circumstances to go back to join India. But PAKISTAN, by the grace of Almighty Allah, was able to meet the challenge even with its problems.

Communal violence that had already started reached to its height after the announcement of Radcliff Award on 16tn August 1947. Hindus were angry over the division of the Subcontinent whereas Sikhs were unhappy over the loss of their religious places. Sikhs and Hindu armed with deadly weapons slaughter the man woman and even the small children. Condition in East Punjab was worse than anywhere else where rulers of the states of Alwar, Kapurthala, Patiala and Bharatpure played the most inhuman role in that human tragedy. Due to the communal violence millions of Indian Muslims leaving there property started migrating towards Pakistan. Apart from communal violence another reason for the migration of Muslims was their desire to live in a newly established Islamic state. When the news of the brutal massacre of Indian Muslims reached in Pakistan atrocities were committed with Hindus in the same way; that resulted the migration of Hindus and Sikhs in Pakistan's area as well. At the time of partition largest migration of the modern world history took place between India and Pakistan. The arrival of refugees created problem for both the countries but the issue was more serious in the nascent state of Pakistan that was already facing no of problems. It was estimated that only West Pakistani received 5.5 million refugees and one sixth of the entire population of West Pakistan consisted of refugees. It caused economic and administrative problems, as Pakistan did not have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter and medical aid to the growing no of refugees. Even more serious fact was that offices and factories could not work properly because nearly all the Hindu and Sikh staff left Pakistan and majority of the refugees that arrived in Pakistan were peasant and unskilled and they were inexperience for the jobs that were waiting for them. It resulted serious dislocation for Pakistan in its economic life. However the government of India and Pakistan ably dealt this problem of refugees with the help of social organizations. Quaid-e-Azam moved his headquarter to Lahore to give special attention to this problem. Quaid-e-Azam relief fund was also created in which rich people were asked to donate. Temporary relief camps were also established. The government of India and Pakistan jointly started the efforts to restore law and order in their respective countries. The government of both the Punjab was given responsibility for the accommodation of refugees and further evacuation of population was carried under the protection of two armies. Custodians of the private property were appointed and evacuees were allowed to take personal goods and possessions. 4. CANAL WATER DISPUTE: It had its origin in Radcliff Award which drew the boundary India and Pakistan in way that it cut across the rivers and canal making India the upper beneficiary and Pakistan the lower beneficiary, It also handed over the control over two important head works over river Ravi (Madhupure Head works) and Sutlej (Ferozpure Head works) to India. There was no reason of assigning these head works to India, as these two Head works used to control the flow and distribution of water in the area that were included in

Paki tan, except t put t e economic li e of Paki tan in danger. It was not onl a t eoretic possi ilit . India proved it by stopping t e flow of water in March 1948. As being an agricultural county where rainfall is scanty and agriculture is greatly depending on irrigation by canaland rivers. Stopping the flow of water by India caused heavy economic los for Pakistan. Some s time even Pakistan forced to purchase water from India. Dispute was finally settled when an agreement called Indus Basin treaty. The treaty was signed between Ayub Khan the president of Pakistan and Nehru the Indian Prime Minister onSeptember 19, 1962. According to that agreement India was allocated the use of two Eastern Rivers namely Ravi and Sutlej whereas three western Rivers Indus, Jehlum and Canab were given to Pakistan. To over come the shortage of water World Bank, India and other friendly countries provided Pakistan financial assistance to construct two dams, five barrages and seven link canals. 5. DIVISION OF ASSETS: Military Assets: It was announced on July I, 1947 that Indian army would also be divided in ratio 65 to 35in India's favour it was with reference of the communal balance present in the British Indian Army. Field Martial Auchinleck was appointed as incharge of the distribution of military assets. Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scrap and out of order machines, broken weapons, unserviceable artillery and aircraft. There were 16 ordnance factories and all were located in India. Pakistan was given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordnance factories. Later an ordnance factory was established inWah. Pakistan received six Armour divisions to India's fourteen, eight artillery divisions to India's forty and eight infantry divisions to India's twenty one. Pakistan also received Staff College in Quetta and Service Corps College at Kakul, which latter became the Pakistan military Academy. Division of financial assets: At the time of division there was cash balance of 4 billion rupees in the reserve Bank of India which was to be divided between India and Pakistan in the ratio of 17 to India and 5 to Pakistan. Pakistan was to receive 750 million rupees, which was in initially delayed by the Indian Government. After the protest of Pakistan, India agreed to pay 200 million rupees. As the war between India and Pakistan had started on the issue of Kashmir India again stopped the rest of the amount by saying that Pakistan coulduse it to buy arms. After the protest from Pakistan and the threat of hunger strike by Gandhi, Nehru was forced to pay another 500 million rupees. However the remaining 50 million rupees are still not paid. The money was Pakistan's rightful share. India deliberately withholds it because they hoped that Pakistan would become bankrupt. 6. ISSUE OF NATIONAL LANGUAGE:

Immediately after the establishment of Pakistan language controversy was started between East and West Pakistan when the members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to East Pakistan demanded that instead

of Urdu, Bengali should be made national language of Pakistan. Liaqat Ali Khan then the Prime Minister of Pakistan refused to accept the demand, which created resentment among East Pakistan. Refusal of the demand ultimately transformed into a political movement. In March 1948 while addressing at Dhaka, Quaid-e-Azam declared, Urdu and Urdu alone would be the national language of Pakistan". Advice of Quaid-e-Azam temporarily took the heart out of language movement but the issue was not settled. It exploded latter after the death of Quaid-e-Azam. 7. ISSUE OF PAKHTOONISTAN: At the time of partition N.W.F.P was controlled by the "red shirts" the ally of Congress. The Khan Brothers, Dr Khan Sahib and Abdul Ghaffar Khan, were their leaders. Despite the 1947 referendum in which the people of the region voted to join Pakistan, the leaders of the" red shirts" demanded union with Afghanistan or complete regional autonomy. The Afghan Government also supported the issue by saying that the "Pakhtoons" or pathans living in both Afghanistan and Pakistan belong to the same race and the "Pakhtoons" of Pakistan wanted to be the part of the union with Afghanistan called "Pakhtoonistan". 8. DEATH OF QUAID-E-AZAM: Despite of all the problems, Pakistan continued to march under the dynamic leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. Nobody can deny that in the early year predominant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was a source of strength for Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam died on 11th September 1948. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam though there were great leaders too, but unfortunately none of them was of the caliber of Quaid-e-Azam. While taking charge as Prime Minister, Muhammad Ali Bogra declared that formulation of the Constitution was his primary target. He worked hard on this project and within six months of assuming power, came out with a constitutional formula. His constitutional proposal, known as the Bogra Formula, was presented before the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan on October 7, 1953. The plan proposed for a Bicameral Legislature with equal representation for all the five provinces of the country in the Upper House. A total of 50 seats were reserved for the Upper House. The 300 seats for the Lower House were to be allocated to the provinces on the basis of proportionate representation. One hundred and sixty five seats were reserved for East Pakistan, 75 for Punjab, 19 for Sindh and Khairpur, 24 for N. W. F. P., tribal areas and the states located in N. W. F. P., and 17 for Baluchistan, Baluchistan States Union, Bhawalpur and Karachi. In this way East Pakistan was given more seats in the Lower House than the combined number of seats reserved for the federal capital, the four provinces and the princely states of the Western Wing. So in all, both the wings were to have 175 seats each in the two houses of the Legislative Assembly. Both the houses were given equal power, and in case of a conflict between the two houses, the issue was to be presented before a joint session. In order to prevent permanent domination by any wing, a provision was made that if the head of the state was from West Pakistan, the Prime Minister was to be from East Pakistan, and vice versa. The two houses of the Legislative Assembly formed the Electoral College for the presidential elections and the President was to be elected for a term of 5 years. In place of the Board of Ulema, the Supreme Court was given the power to decide if a law was in accordance with the basic teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah or not.

Unlike the two reports of the Basic Principles Committee, the Bogra Formula was appreciated by different sections of the society. There was great enthusiasm amongst the masses as they considered it as a plan that could bridge the gulf between the two wings of Pakistan and would act as a source of unity for the country. The proposal was discussed in the Constituent Assembly for 13 days, and a committee was set to draft the constitution on November 14, 1953. However, before the constitution could be finalized, the Assembly was dissolved by Ghulam Muhammad, the then Governor General of Pakistan. When the Basic Principles Committee gave its first report in 1950 suggesting a bicameral legislature with the upper house giving equal representation to all five units, equal powers for both houses of the parliament, Urdu as the national language and a strong president in the centre, it was totally out of touch with the sentiments in East Pakistan. That such recommendations were even laid on the table and thought to have a realistic chance of being accepted in East Pakistan only shows the dominance of the Mohajirs and certain segments belonging to the indigenous elites of West Pakistan. As the second report of the Basic Principles Committee, which suggested equal representation for the two wings in both houses, was rejected in West Pakistan on the erroneous grounds that it would establish Bengali domination, the process of constitution making came to a deadlock. The Bogra formula offered a creative solution by suggesting that the lower house should have 300 seats divided on the basis of population and the upper house should have 50 seats divided equally between the five units. The two houses would thus have a total of 350 seats divided equally between the two wings. This gained widespread acceptance in both wings and the country was close to having a constitution on the basis of this formula in 1954 when governor general Ghulam Muhammad, with the full support of Ayub Khan and Iskandar Mirza, dissolved the constituent assembly to block a bill that prevented him from acting except on the advice of his ministers. Based on the centralization oriented outlook of the establishment, the Bogra formula was soon shelved and all the units of West Pakistan were combined into a single unit in 1955 so that both wings of the country could have the status of single provinces. One unit was not very popular in the small provinces of West Pakistan due to the ethnic differences between the four units. However, it found plenty of support in the political elites of Punjab and East Pakistan. The principle of parity denied the small numerical majority of East Pakistan and was therefore favoured by those who were reluctant to let Bengalis get a larger share in seats in accordance with their population. For East Pakistanis however, the merger of the West Pakistani provinces into one meant a substantial dilution of the overwhelming majority that West Pakistan would have otherwise enjoyed in the upper house. For this reason, it was not a lose-lose situation for East Pakistan either. It was clear that any elected government needed to have considerable support in both wings in order to survive due to their nearly equal size. The aspirations of Bengalis could simply not be ignored in any democratic set up. It was due to this reason that constitutional proposals very unpopular in East Pakistan could not easily be bulldozed through. However, within West Pakistan, since Punjab was much larger, the smaller provinces could easily be ignored by forging alliances between Punjabis and East Pakistanis. This is exactly what happened in case of One Unit. To take care of the procedural niceties, the opposition in Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan, was temporarily neutralized by co-opting leaders from these parts of the country through various carrots such as promises of important positions in the government in return for their endorsement of One Unit. The first constitution was thus based on One Unit and a unicameral legislature with equal seats for both wings. However, the promulgation of the constitution did not end the political fragmentation that had

allowed Ghulam Muhammad, Iskandar Mirza and Ayub Khan to dominate the system in collusion with the bureaucracy. Soon, there was a growing movement in West Pakistan against One Unit and in September 1957, the provincial assembly of this wing passed a resolution demanding its dissolution. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, an East Pakistani who had replaced Chaudhri Muhammad Ali as PM, was supporting One Unit and also trying to address the economic disparity between the two wings. In October 1957, he was forced to resign by Iskandar Mirza. Some say this was done under the influence of the business interests in Karachi which were not pleased by his moves to divert more funds towards East Pakistan. His successor, I. I. Chundrigar also lasted only for about two months before being forced to quit. The next PM, Malik Feroz Khan Noon, belonged to a feudal family from Sargodha district, and his rise to power thus represented the ascendancy of the indigenous elites in Punjab. He was able to provide a relatively stable government by forging an alliance with Suhrawardys Awami League which was rapidly gaining strength in East Pakistan. However, it turned out that this came too late. As demands for elections grew louder, it was becoming increasingly difficult to keep on delaying them under one pretext or another. Iskandar Mirza, who wanted to avoid elections and remain in power, felt alarmed by the situation, and finally imposed martial law through Ayub Khan in October 1958. Three weeks later, Ayub forced Iskandar Mirza out and took over as Pakistans first military dictator. From the above analysis of the developments in the 1950s, it is clear that there were sharp divergences of interests between the various groups that joined Pakistan. Reconciling these interests to develop a widely acceptable constitution was demanding in itself, but the absence of strong leadership and well established political parties made it even more difficult. The serious differences between politicians, the initial challenge of making Pakistan viable by establishing its basic administrative and financial infrastructure in the presence of major constraints, and the hostility of India towards Pakistan made the civil-military bureaucracy overly powerful. It took about seven years after independence before the politicians finally managed to resolve the serious differences between the two wings in a way that could also satisfy the smaller provinces of West Pakistan under the Bogra formula. But by that time, Ghulam Muhammad, Iskandar Mirza and Ayub Khan were well entrenched and unwilling to let the political system function smoothly.