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# 1. LIMIT STATE METHOD 1.

## 5 Analysis Singly Reinforce Rectangular Beams

Figure 1.6 shows the singly reinforced rectangular beam in flexure. The following notations are used (Figs. 1.7 and 1.8): L = centre to centre distance between supports A = area of tension steel b = width of the beam C = total compressive force of concrete d = effective depth of the beam
st

T = total tensile force of steel x = depth of neutral axis from the top compression fibre P = two constant loads acting at a distance of L/3 from the two supports of the beam
u

## Fig. 1.6 Rectangular beam under flexure

SectionAA OfFig.1.6

## 1.6 Equations of Equilibrium

The cross-sections of the beam under the applied loads as shown in Fig. 1.6 has three types of combinations of shear forces and bending moments: (i) Only shear force is there at the support and bending moment is zero, (ii) Both bending moment (increasing gradually) and shear force (constant = P) are there between the support and the loading point and (iii) A constant moment (= PL/3) is there in the middle third zone i.e. between the two loads where the shear force is zero (Fig. 1.1.1 of Lesson 1). Since the beam is in static equilibrium, any cross-section of the beam is also in static equilibrium. Considering the cross-section in the middle zone (Fig. 1.6) the three equations of equilibrium are the following (Figs. 1.7 and 1.8): (i) Equilibrium of horizontal forces: H = 0 gives T = C
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(ii) (iii)

Equilibrium of vertical shear forces: V = 0 (This equation gives an identity 0 = 0 as there is no shear in the middle third zone of the beam. ) Equilibrium of moments: M = 0, (This equation shows that the applied moment at the section is fully resisted by moment of the resisting couple T a = C a , where a is the operating lever arm between T and C )

## 1.7 Computations of C and T

Fig. 1.12 Stress and Strain diagrams above neutral axis Figures 1.12a and b present the enlarged view of the compressive part of the strain and stress diagrams. The convex parabolic part of the stress block of Fig. 1.12b is made rectangular by dotted lines to facilitate the calculations adding another concave parabolic stress zone which is really non-existent as marked by hatch in Fig. 1.12b The different compressive forces C, C , C and C and distances x to x and x as marked in Fig. 3.4.21b are explained in the following: C = Total compressive force of concrete = C + C
1 1 1 2 3 1 5 u

C = Compressive force of concrete due to the constant stress of 0.446 f and up to a depth of x from the top fibre C = Compressive force of concrete due to the convex parabolic stress block of values ranging from zero
2 ck 3

## at the neutral axis to 0.446 f at a distance of x from the top fibre

ck 3

C = Compressive force of concrete due to the concave parabolic stress block (actually non-existent) of
3

values ranging from 0.446 f at the neutral axis to zero at a distance of x from the top fibre
ck 3 1

## x = Distance of the line of action of C from the top compressive fibre

1 2 3 4 5 u 1 2

x = Distance of the line of action of C (= C + C ) from the top compressive fibre x = Distance of the fibre from the top compressive fibre, where the strain = 0.002 and stress = 0.446 f x = Distance of the line of action of C from the top compressive fibre x = Distance of the line of action of C from the top compressive fibre x = Distance of the neutral axis from the top compressive fibre. From the strain triangle of Fig. 1.12a, we have xu x3 0.002 4 = = = 0.57 xu 0.0035 7
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3 2 ck

giving x = 0.43 x
3 u 3 1

Since C is due to the constant stress acting from the top to a distance of x , the distance x of the line of action of C is:
1 1

x = 0.5 x = 0.215 x
1 3

5 3

5 u

## The compressive force C due to the rectangular stress block is:

1

C = b x (0.446 f ) = 0.191 b x f
1 3 ck

u ck

## The compressive force C due to parabolic stress block is:

2

C = b (x - x )
2 u 3

2 (0.446 f ) = 0.17 b x f ck u ck 3

## Adding C and C , we have

1 2

C = C + C = 0.361 b x f =
1 2 u ck

0.36 b x f (say)
u ck

The non-existent compressive force C due to parabolic (concave) stress block is:
3

1 C = b (x - x ) (0.446 f ) = 0.085 b x f 3 u 3 3 ck u ck Now, we can get x by taking moment of C and C about the top fibre as follows:
4 2 3

## x x3 C (x ) + C (x ) = (C + C ) (x + u ) 2 4 3 5 2 3 3 2 which gives x = 0.64 x

4 u

Similarly, x is obtained by taking moment of C and C about the top fibre as follows:
2 1 2

## C (x ) + C (x ) = C(x ) which gives x = 0.4153 x

2 1 1 2 4 2 u

or x = 0.42 x (say).
2 u

Thus, the required parameters of the stress block (Fig. 1.7) are C = 0.36 b x f x = 0.42 x
2 2 u ck u

## and lever arm = (d - x ) = (d - 0.42 x )

u

The tensile force T is obtained by multiplying the design stress of steel with the area of steel. Thus,

## fy T = 1.15 Ast = 0.87 f y Ast

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