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A Research Paper

Presented to:

The class of Mrs. Virginia F. Rimando Calasiao Comprehensive National High School

In Partial Fulfillment of the requirement for the subject English IV

By Marc Allen C. Garcia February 18, 2011

ii Acknowledgement

In this research paper, there are some people who help me make this wonderful research paper. And some people with a kind heart.

First of all I just want to give myself a big big hand because I make this wonderful research paper well. I would like to thank most to God for giving me strength and guiding ma in doing it. To my mother who didnt stop working to send us to school and to my cousin for supporting me in this project. To Raymart who teach me how to justify and the margin of the page. To Bejee in lending his computer in their house.

I would like to acknowledge our dear cute practice teacher that is so great. She teach how to make this research paper. To my lovable baby face adviser that assist us in this wonderful project.

II hope and pray that this project may content a great idea to the readers by the help of those people who help me. Thank you!!!!!

Chapter I

Introduction

Sparta was also called Lacedaemon, the capital of Laconia, was at time the most powerful city-state of ancient Greece. It was famous for its military power and loyal soldiers. The greatest honor of a Spartan was to die to defense his country. Endurance, scorn of luxuries and unyielding firmness was virtues of a Spartans.

The land was a lovely sheltered valley on the bank of Eurotas River.It was protected by three sides by mountains. The climate was mild and the soil was fertile and well watered. There were few mineral resources; they obtain marble and little iron from nearby Mountain Taygetus.

Importance of the Study

The importance of the study of my research paper is to give information about ancient Greeks: Spartans to my fellow students.

I want students to know more about the Spartans and their life. We must know about them so that we cant be criticize that we dont know about them. Because now a days many students always throw critisms. It is also important because it may be use by 3rd year high school students as a reference for study.

Statement of the Problem

1. What is Sparta? 2. Where did they live? 3. History of Spartans. 4. What are the classes of Sparta people? 5. Who are those king reign in Sparta and their contributions? 6. How did they spend their time in their whole life?

Definition of Terms

Laconia an ancient region of southern Greece in the southeastern Peloponnesus. Mountain Taygetus a mountain near the Sparta where they get mineral resources like marble and iron. Herodotus a great Greek that was called the Father of History. Xerxes king of Persia, son of king Darius. Asia Minor a peninsula in southwestern Asia part of Turkey. Delphic oracle (Greek mythology) the oracle at Delphi where a priestess supposedly delivered messages from Apollo to those sought advice. Hellenic league the Hellenic branch of the Indo-European family of language.

Chapter II

Presentation of Data

I. Way of life
A. Sparta citizen Spartan citizen could be engaged in agriculture. Few aristocrats own their own their land, but most of them live on state-owned plots. Citizen who can not pay taxes can lost their land to other. To them, rear large family is dangerous. Their unwanted children sometimes left in a deep cavern in the mountain to die.

B. The helots The helots farmed soil and give fixed amount to their master, the rest little amount will went to themselves. They do not revolt or resented their lot because once a year Spartans officially declared war on the helots, so some could be killed who seemed rebellious without breaking the law against murder.

C. Male Spartans Every Spartan males belonged to the state from the time of birth are left to the care of his mother. 1. Seven years old When he enrolled in a company of 15 members, all are under strict discipline. They take their males in public dinning halls. The bravest boy was made as captain, give commands and bore such as punishments as he decides. 2. Twelve years old There undergarments where taken away and one outer garment was allowed. Their beds consisted of the top of the reeds, which they made with their bare hands without knife. They did not study arts, reading and writing. They learn the Iliad and songs of wars and religion, leaping, running, wrestling and welding weapon with grace and accuracy. 3. between 20 and 30 years old Sparta males served as a cadet who policed the country, kept the helots in order and exact disciplined obedience from the enslaved people.

At 30, a Spartan male attained full maturity and enjoyed the rights and duties of citizenship. He might marry, attend meeting of assembly and hold public office. 4. Sixty years old At 60, military career ended and he work either in public affairs in training the young. In this system the male become though, discipline, brave and directness of speech. From childhood was one continuous trial of endurance and gentle felt suppressed.

D. Sparta women They live free like other women in Greece. They engaged in athletics as women, they ran their own household. They engaged business, and many wealthy and influential. Aristotle said that women owned two fifths of the land in Sparta.

II. Classes of Sparta people


A. The Spartiates or Homoioi

The males of Sparta is known to the Spartans as peers or men of equal status. For young age, male are trained in the battle and put through grueling challenges to make them fearless warrior. In the battle they had the reputation of being the best soldier in Greece during the Hellenic period. No other city-states attack Sparta even though they are just 8,000 Spartiates during the zenith of its dominance.

B. The Peroieci or Perioikoi

The members of an autonomous, group of free non-citizen habitants of Sparta. They lived in beach and high land of Laconia. The name came from peri around and oikos dwelling house. They were the only people who can travel to other cities while Spartans can not, unless given permission.

C. The Helots

Helots are unfree population of Laconia and whole Messenia (area of Sparta). According to Critias, they were especially slaves. Their major work are to support Spartan citizens. They were virtually mistreated, humiliated and slaughtered, every autumn, during Cryptiea, they could be killed by Spartan citizens without fear and repercussion.

D. The Neodamodies

Neo (new) damos (dwellers) composed of liberated helots, new class of Sparta people in late 4th century.

E. The Hypomeiones

They are (inferiors) men who were probably, although not certainly, Sprtiates who ad lost social ranks in late 4th century.

III. Some kings and their contributions


A.Demuratus (515-491 B.C.)

King of Sparta from 515 B.C. until 491 B.C. of Eurypontid line, successor of his father Aritson. As king he is known cheifly for his oppositon to his colleague two other Spartan king Kleomenes I. at 500 B.C. :obstructed his colleague Kleomenes the I on the invasion of Attica. At 491 B.C. prevented the arrest of the medizing party of Aegina.

He was dethroned by a false charge of illegitimacy by Kleomenes. He fled to king Darius. At 480 B.C. : occopanied Xerxes on his attack on Greece. He reapatedly warned Xerxes that Sparta would resist his attack. He was rewarded for his service with four cities of Asia Minor.

B.Pausaunias

Spartan general of 5th century B.C.. he was a nephew of Leonidas I, since leonidas I son was still underage, he was the responsible for Greek victory over

Madonius and Persians at the Battle of Plataeo in 479 B.C. and leader of Hellenic league to resist Persians aggression during Greco-Persians Wars.

In 478 B.C. he was susppected in joining the Persians. He left sparta and Released the prisoner of war who was friend s and relations of king of Persia, he made them ascape. He wish to king Xerxes (son of king Darius) a favour to marry the kings daugther and help bring Sparta in Persian control.

He was put in jail but he was latter release because of weak evidence. Then en the evidence became strong, when they arressting Pausaunias he escape by running yo the temple of the goddess of the Brazan House. The ephors walled up the doors, put sentries outside and procede to starve him out. When he was in brink of death he wsa carried out and die. After burrying ihm nearby , the god at Delphi Apollo told the spartans to move the thomb of Pausaunias to the where ge died.

C. Leonidas I

Leonidas was a 5th century B.C. Spartan military who bravely led a small force of Greeksmostly spartans (the famous 300), but also Thespians and Thebansagainst the much larger Persians army of Xerxes at past of Thermopylae in 480 B.C. during the Persian Wars.

According to Herodotus,Leonidas had been warned by Delphic oracle that either Sparta would destroy or he lose his life. Leonidas choose the second alternative.

All of his 300 including him die. Although Herodotus state that Thebans dont want to there and surrender when Leonidas die but all of them died.

Lenidas was half-brother of kleomenesI, after Kleomenes suicide, he was made to king because Kleomenes died without son or male relative. Leonidas was also married to the only daugther of Kleomenes, Gorgo.

Herodotus say that this was part of reason he became king since they were king of Agaid line, they both believe Hercules was thei ancestor.

D. Agis II

Was the 7th Europontid king of Sparta, the eldest son of Archidamus II by his first wife and half brother of Agisilans. He ruled with his Agaid co-monarch Pausaunias.

He reign for about 28 years. In summer of 426 B.C., he led an army of Pelopponesians to Attica, but when they already far an earthquake occur. In the following year, in spring he led an army to Attica but quit it in fifteen days after theentering it. In 419 B.C. the Argives by the lead of Epidaurus ;and Agis with the Sparta march at the same time at the frontier of Leuctra.