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MUMBAI: SHIFT

Strategies for Dynamic Urban Development


Nidhi Bhatnagar, Travis Bunt, Gabriel Fuentes, Manas Vanwari Mumbai: SHIFT is framed by three concerns: 1) a current lack of East-West transit connections triggered by inequalities in urban development that favor north-south expansion, 2) a lack of public open space and, 3) the effect of projected population growth on Mumbais already saturated urban/social fabric. These concerns intertwine at multiple scales to provide opportunities for new models of dynamic urban development that leverage existing policies (Transfer of Development Rights) toward both social and market inclusion. The eastern waterfront becomes the site for a paradigmatic shift of current development practices in Mumbai. The process would be set in motion by the strategic implementation of bus rapid transit systems that draw east-west connections between major transportation nodesweaving the island city laterally and raising property values along both the new transit spines and the currently underused eastern waterfront. This creates the opportunity to open land for rezoning (with higher FSI) and subsequent urban development. Any new development would be contingent upon a linkage policy that ties new developable eastern waterfront properties (new TDR receiver sites) to specific inner city parcels of land containing dilapidated buildings (new TDR sending sites). Thus, concurrent with new development is both the opportunity and incentive to reprogram dilapidated sites for public uses. Using policy as an urban design tool, the new eastern waterfront development blocks (TDR receiver sites) are zoned to maximize open space through a flexible spatial and programmatic framework while providing enough density to accommodate rehabilitative housing, market housing, production spaces (work), and consumption spaces (commercial). The result would be a new urban fabric designed to accommodate programmatic shifts at multiple scales. P Dmello Road runs the length of the island city along the eastern edge of the Mumbai Port Trust . (MbPT) land, also known as the eastern waterfront. Used mostly as the main service arterial road, the surrounding land is used mainly by industrial warehouses; the activities are mostly extensions of the MbPT programs. In addition, the eastern waterfront contains navy yards, docks, shipbreaking yards, formal and informal industries, and several economic activities related to the port. The MbPT owns approximately 17% of the land in the island city and with port activities declining, is beginning to lease warehouse propertiesseveral of them underutilizedto private companies. Additionally, several informal settlements have established themselves on MbPT property and depend on port activities for their livelihood. Some of these settlements have existed for over two generations. In contrast to the western waterfront, the majority of the eastern waterfront is restricted from public access. In the dense and growing urban/social fabric of Mumbai, the eastern waterfront provides exciting opportunities to plan for and design the future of an emerging world city. This project proposes a flexible framework for addressing the following triggers:

Rapid population growth:According to the 2004 VISION MUMBAI report, Mumbais population is expected to reach 28,000,000 by 2020. In a city as dense as Mumbai (19,000,000), innovative design strategies are necessary in order to transform this intensification of density into opportunities for sustainable urban development. Lack of East-West transit connections: Mumbais transportation infrastructure (rail and bus) prioritizes North-South connections. As a result, two of its three rail lines are running at double capacity in order to accommodate both North-South and East-West movement in the city. A supporting east-west transit system would relieve pressure from existing rail infrastructure. Large number of dilapidated buildings: Studies conducted by the Urban Design Research Institute (UDRI) in Mumbai have reported more than 16,000 dilapidated buildings in the Island citya total area of approximately 10,000,000sqm of urban space. Despite their unsafe conditions, the majority of these buildings are inhabited by people with no means or incentive Lack of open space within the island city:Currently, the average open space per person in Mumbai is 2.17sqmbelow the 3.0sqm standard set by the Indian National Building Code. This gap will widen as the city reaches the peak densities associated with rapid growth and urbanization.

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MAJOR ISSUES CONSIDERED (1) Rapid population growth (2) Lack of East-West connections (3) Dilapidated buildings (4) Lack of public open space

EXISTING TDR POLICY (ABOVE, INSET): In attempting to decongest the Island City, current Mumbai development policy encourages increasing sprawl northward. Through the Transfer of Development Rights (TDR), northern development is incentivized. Accordingly, the NorthSouth transit lines have become overloaded as population increases in the suburbs. PROPOSED TDR POLICY (ABOVE, PRIMARY): In response, this project seeks to shift these transfer and transit connections laterally, utilizing open and underused lands on the eastern waterfront to decongest the Island City without additional sprawl.

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TDR sending sites (dilapidated buildings)

TDR receiving sites (new development lots) 50% Rehabiltation Component 50%

Revenue Component

Open Space

Commercial Integrated Open Space Housing Neighborhood Park Hawking Zones outside Markets Work Space

Flexible Open Space Market/Shops

A NEW TRANSFER STRATEGY: With the advent of the Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT) port activities in Navi Mumbai, the Mumbai Port Trust (MbPT) on the eastern waterfront of the island city has seen a decline. Port areas as well as the port back up areas like the warehouses which are now in disuse are identified as potential sites for new development. Dilapidated buildings in the inner city are rehabilitated, using the new TDR policy, through a linkage strategy. Additional commercial and retail programs are incorporated that help finance the rehabilatition process, BRT infrastructure, incentives to MbPT - the land owners.

PROGRAMMATIC RECOMBINATION: Urban Design Guidelines set for the TDR receiving sites create a new block typology for the waterfront. Half the plot area must be used for rehabilitation of dilapidated buildings. Half remains for revenue generating programs. Each plot must have a minimum open space proportionate to the FAR (between 6 and 10).

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EXISTING BUS ROUTES (THIS PAGE) There exists no comprehensive bus map for Mumbai. The three drawings above were created by mapping each individual bus route, according to corridor (West, Central, East). Because bus routes are individually determined, point to point, they tend to overload the two primary north-south routes, resulting in overall inefficiency and an unconnected East. 38

EXISTING RAIL NETWORK (FACING PAGE, RIGHT INSET) Currently, trains on Mumbais Western and Central Rail Lines run at more than double capacity. However, there is opportunity to spread ridership into the eastern corridor, and relieve pressure on the primary corridors. The Eastern (Harbor) Line is severely underutilized, with spare capacity available in its current cars and two tracks completely unused.

PROPOSED BRT COMPLEMENT (FACING PAGE) Seven East-West Bus Rapid Transit Routes are proposed, laterally connecting each Rail station across the Island City. Passengers would be able to transfer across the three rail lines at any station, streamlining commutes and connecting the Eastern corridor-thereby decongesting the other lines and opening up avenues of new development.

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MASJID CORRIDOR PLAN (ABOVE) MASJID CORRIDOR CONCEPT SKETCHES BLOCK STRUCTURE DETAIL BYCULLA MARKET HUB AND RAIL CONNECTION DETAIL (UPPER LEFT & RIGHT), BRT TERMINUS & FERRY TRANSFER (LOWER INSET) Due to the location of this southern route, (TOP LEFT) (TOP RIGHT) through one of nulput densest and nos eraesed et iliquate velit la autpat. Ibh lands irit adip eu faccum dolorem velis adigna amconsequis the ero euismodit most On the available Port Trust ea at along Integrated public open space is added to Ut nullamet nons historical parts loborperosto do eugiam nim iriureDmello Road, ad tet veliqui proposes a dolormulti-program structure luptatio et am, . dolore doluptat of the city, a surgical P exercidunt utat the project smodit nostie the sismolore vullutet, quat to create a approach aute ea cons nulput nullandreBRT framework for housing multiple ver se tat. Ut wis ametblock. tat. was required to lay in the consequipis ad duissit ad el dionumsan programs. unique la faci The individual combined suscidunt route and associated stops. Opening up The structures would combine rehabilitated block becomes part of the overall framework green space within the corridor area BRT STOP BYCULLA CORRIDOR: INTERMEDIATE and housing, market housing, production for development. shifting development eastward was the spaces (work), and consumption spaces tem velese min volum volor sed eui bla faccum in ex exer sequi blan ullan ut lum acilla core mod modions equipis modigna alisit num priority of this approach. (commercial). ilissequis alis do commodiatue modip essequatum dolor il ute velenim ercipisi.Ud essim iniam quat auguerat. 40

DEVELOPMENT PLAN RESERVATIONS Municipal/Private Market Open Space/Recreational Public Housing Institutional

EXISTING BLOCK CONDITIONS

PROPOSED BLOCK CONDITIONS

The insertion of bus stops and passing lanes on the southern BRT line open the opportunity to develop strategic mixed-use transportation nodes. Sites for intervention are identified and work in conjunction with the citys existing development plan to widen roads, provide public housing, parks and recreation grounds. Opportunities to reconfigure the fabric are used to increase density on development nodes while also providing new public open space outside markets and temples present along this transit corridor.

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BYCULLA CORRIDOR PLAN (ABOVE) In contrast to the complex route through the highly congested Masjid Corridor, the Byculla Corridor Plan is focused on transit efficiency, reconfiguring blocks as necessary to create proper transit lanes and transfer stations. New market and commercial nodes would be developed at these points, as part of the overall TDR strategy. 42

INTERMEDIATE BRT STOP CONCEPT SKETCH (TOP LEFT) Key to the implementation plan of the BRT is integration with all layers of existing transit. Here an intermediate BRT stop adjoins a taxi stand, allowing quick transfer to traditional transit options. This rendering also explores the concept of creating exploitable space at station intervals, encouraging market activities that support the needs of the ridership.

BYCULLA TRANSFER CONCEPT SKETCHES (TOP RIGHT) This Transfer Station is uniquely situated between Byculla Rail Station and Byculla Market, making it an extremely important hub in the system. Special consideration was given to commuter transition between rail platform and BRT platform, and in creating exploitable ground level market space at that junction, supportive to the formal market.

BYCULLA CORRIDOR CONCEPT SKETCH At the terminus of the Byculla Corridor, a ferry port allows continued transit across Thane Creek to Navi Mumbai. As at other major nodes, a commercial/market center is planned at this transition. Just beyond, on the newly connected waterfront, a shaded boardwalk and large maidan provide much needed open space for the public.

MASTER STRATEGY The overall scheme projects a comprehensive proposal for the development of the eastern waterfront. Strategic East-West corridors with a rapid bus transport system are integrated with the existing railway infrastructure, which runs north-south primarily, creating points of transit and transfer. These east-west corridors, upon intersecting with the eastern waterfront create high density nodes, programmed for residential, commercial and developable areas. The lateral movement along these corridors is enhanced with a ferry terminal acting as portals connecting to the mainland, while at the same time activating points along the eastern waterfront for public access. 43

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REFERENCES

Avault, John and Geoff Lewis. (2000, May). Survey of Linkage Programs in Other U.S. Cities with Comparisons to Boston. Boston Redevelopment Authority. (2009, June). Bus Rapid Transit Planning Guide. Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. India Metropolitan Population Calculations. Retrieved from http://www.worldgazetteer.com (2008). MegaCities: Mumbai [Television series episode]. MegaCities. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. Mumbai Property Exchange. http://www.mumbaipropertyexchange.com Nair, Shalini. (2009, December 04). 16,000 old buildings on digitized map. The Indian Express. Retrieved from http://www. indianexpress.com Salgado, Sebastio. Churchgate Station in Mumbai, Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://fansinaflashbulb.wordpress. com/2009/02/ (2003, September). Vision Mumbai. Bombay First and McKinsey & Co, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.visionmumbai.org

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