Whites
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To contact the instructor, please use email rather than the telephone. All email will be answered. The instructor will be available for assistance during the hours listed above, as well as other times when the office door is open. Catalog Description: (31) 4 credits. Prerequisite: 382 completed or concurrent. Presentation of basic principles, characteristics, and applications of microwave devices and systems. Development of techniques for analysis and design of microwave circuits. Time and Location: The lectures for this course will meet Monday, Wednesday, and Friday from 10:0010:50 AM in room 251B EEP. Laboratory work will be performed in 230 EEP. There is no common laboratory time for this course. Course Reference Materials: The required materials for this course are D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, New York: John Wiley & Sons, third ed., 2004, which is available at the SDSMT Bookstore. Additionally, the lecture notes K. W. Whites, EE 481 Microwave Engineering Lecture Notes, 2008, are available from the course web page. Grading: 30 % 30 % 20 % 20 % Two exams Laboratory Homework Final exam
Homework Policy: One homework set will generally be assigned each week. These homework assignments are to be turned in at the beginning of the class period on the due date. Late homework will be assessed a 10% per calendar day reduction in points. Labwork Policy: Near the middle of the semester, we will begin the first of approximately four to five labs for the course. These will involve the design, construction, and measurement of passive and active microwave circuits. The labs will also require the simulation of your circuits using Advanced Design System (ADS) from Agilent Technologies. Measurements will be performed in the Laboratory for Applied Electromagnetics and Communications (LAEC) located in room 230 EEP using Agilent 8753ES vector network analyzers. Laboratory work will be performed in pairs of students and open lab hours will be posted. Late lab reports will be assessed a 10% per calendar day reduction in points. Exam Policy: The exams will be closed book and closed notes with no formula sheets. Using or referring to equations stored in a calculator is not allowed, even if these equations come preprogrammed into the calculator. If you feel an exam problem was graded incorrectly, it must be
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Revised 9/2/08
Lecture Notes
Keith W. Whites
Fall 2008
Laboratory for Applied Electromagnetics and Communications Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 1
Page 1 of 5
Frequency 3 MHz30 MHz 30 MHz300 MHz 300 MHz1 GHz 12 GHz 24 GHz 48 GHz 812 GHz 1218 GHz 1827 GHz 2740 GHz 4075 GHz 75110 GHz 110300 GHz
HF VHF UHF L S C X Ku K Ka V W mm
RF, microwave and millimeter wave circuit design and construction is far more complicated than low frequency work. So why do it?
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 1
Page 2 of 5
Advantages of microwave circuits: 1. The gain of certain antennas increases (with reference to an isotropic radiator) with its electrical size. Therefore, one can construct high gain antennas at microwave frequencies that are physically small. (DBS, for example.) 2. More bandwidth. A 1% bandwidth, for example, provides more frequency range at microwave frequencies that at HF. 3. Microwave signals travel predominately by line of sight. Plus, they dont reflect off the ionosphere like HF signals do. Consequently, communication links between (and among) satellites and terrestrial stations are possible. 4. At microwave frequencies, the electromagnetic properties of many materials are changing with frequency. This is due to molecular, atomic and nuclear resonances. This behavior is useful for remote sensing and other applications. 5. There is much less background noise at microwave frequencies than at RF. Examples of commercial products involving microwave circuits include wireless data networks [Bluetooth, WiFi (IEEE Standard 802.11), WiMax (IEEE Standard 802.16), ZigBee], GPS, cellular telephones, etc. Can you think of some others?
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Lecture 2
Page 1 of 12
Microstrip is an example of a transmission line, though technically it is only an approximate model for microstrip, as we will see later in this course. Why TLs? Imagine two ICs are connected together as shown:
A B
When the voltage at A changes state, does that new voltage appear at B instantaneously? No, of course not. If these two points are separated by a large electrical distance, there will be a propagation delay as the change in state (electrical signal) travels to B. Not an instantaneous effect.
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 2
Page 2 of 12
In microwave circuits, even distances as small as a few inches may be far and the propagation delay for a voltage signal to appear at another IC may be significant. This propagation of voltage signals is modeled as a transmission line (TL). We will see that voltage and current can propagate along a TL as waves! Fantastic. The transmission line model can be used to solve many, many types of high frequency problems, either exactly or approximately: Coaxial cable. Twowire. Microstrip, stripline, coplanar waveguide, etc. All true TLs share one common characteristic: the E and H fields are all perpendicular to the direction of propagation, which is the long axis of the geometry. These are called TEM fields for transverse electric and magnetic fields. An excellent example of a TL is a coaxial cable. On a TL, the voltage and current vary along the structure in time t and spatially in the z direction, as indicated in the figure below. There are no instantaneous effects.
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 2
Page 3 of 12
E H E
z
Fig. 1
A common circuit symbol for a TL is the twowire (parallel) symbol to indicate any transmission line. For example, the equivalent circuit for the coaxial structure shown above is:
i ( z, t )
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 2
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How do we solve for v(z,t) and i(z,t)? We first need to develop the governing equations for the voltage and current, and then solve these equations. Notice in Fig. 1 above that there is conduction current in the center conductor and outer shield of the coaxial cable, and a displacement current between these two conductors where the electric field E is varying with time. Each of these currents has an associated impedance: Conduction current impedance effects: o Resistance, R, due to losses in the conductors, o Inductance, L, due to the current in the conductors and the magnetic flux linking the current path. Displacement current impedance effects: o Conductance, G, due to losses in the dielectric between the conductors, o Capacitance, C, due to the time varying electric field between the two conductors. To develop the governing equations for V ( z , t ) and I ( z , t ) , we will consider only a small section z of the TL. This z is so small that the electrical effects are occurring instantaneously and we can simply use circuit theory to draw the relationships between the conduction and displacement currents. This equivalent circuit is shown below:
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 2
Page 5 of 12
i ( z , t ) R z v ( z, t )
+
Lz
i ( z + z , t )
C z
z
Gz v ( z + z , t )

Fig. 2
The variables R, L, C, and G are distributed (or perunit length, PUL) parameters with units of /m, H/m, F/m, and S/m, respectively. We will generally ignore losses in this course. In the case of a lossless TL where R = G = 0, a finite length of TL can be constructed by cascading many, many of these subsections along the total length of the TL:
Rs + vs(t) 
L z
C z
L z
C z
Lz
C z
L z
C z
RL
This is a general model: it applies to any TL regardless of its cross sectional shape provided the actual electromagnetic field is TEM. However, the PULparameter values change depending on the specific geometry (whether it is a microstrip, stripline, twowire, coax, or other geometry) and the construction materials.
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Lecture 2
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= C (5) z t Again, in the limit as z 0 the term on the LHS is the forward difference definition of derivative. Hence,
v ( z + z 0 , t )
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Lecture 3
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We previously derived the wave equations for the voltage and current as 2v ( z , t ) 1 2v ( z , t ) = 2 (1) 2 2 z v p t and 2i ( z , t ) 1 2i ( z , t ) = 2 2 z v p t 2 (2)
For sinusoidal steady state, we will employ the phasor representation of the voltage and current as (3) v ( z , t ) = e V ( z ) e jt
i ( z , t ) = e I ( z ) e jt
(4)
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Lecture 3
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(5)
[rad/m] (2.12a),(6) as the phase constant for reasons that will be apparent shortly. (L and C are the usual TL perunitlength parameters.) From (6)
= LC
= LC =
2 2
2
v2 p
Substituting this into (5) gives d 2V ( z ) + 2V ( z ) = 0 (7) 2 dz Similarly, from (4) and (2) we can derive d 2I ( z ) + 2I ( z ) = 0 (8) 2 dz Equations (7) and (8) are the wave equations for V and I in the frequency domain (i.e., the phasor domain). The solutions to these two secondorder ordinary differential equations are (2.14a),(9) V ( z ) = Vo+ e j z + Vo e + j z and
I ( z ) = I o+ e j z + I o e + j z
(10)
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Lecture 3
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We can confirm the correctness of these two solutions by direct substitution into (7) and (8). For example, substituting Vo+ e j z from (9) into (7) gives 2 ? Vo+ ( j ) e j z + 2V ( z ) = 0 ? or 2V + e j z + 2V + e j z = 0
o
o + j z o
The constants I o+ and I o in (10) can be expressed in terms of Vo+ and Vo . In particular, it can be shown that Vo+ + (11) Io = Z0 Vo and (12) Io = Z0 If we substitute (11) and (12) into (10) we find that Vo+ j z Vo + j z I (z) = e e (2.14b),(13) Z0 Z0 and
V ( z ) = Vo+ e j z + Vo e + j z
(2.14a),(14)
Both of these equations should be committed to memory. They are the general form of phasor voltages and currents on transmission lines.
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Lecture 3
Page 4 of 9
The first terms in (13) and (14) are the phasor representation of waves propagating in the +z direction along the TL. The second terms in both equations represent waves propagating in the z direction.
Discussion
As stated above, the first terms in (13) and (14) are the phasor representation of waves traveling in the +z direction. To see this, convert the first term in (14) to the time domain: + j t z ) v ( z , t ) = e Vo+ e j z e jt = e Vo+ e j e ( = Vo+ cos (t z + + ) = Vo+ cos t z + + z + + = Vo cos t + vp We can clearly see in this last result that we have a function of time with argument t z / v p . From our previous discussions with TLs we recognize that this is a wave that is propagating in the +z direction with speed vp.
Similarly, we can show that Vo e + j z (and I o e + j z ) are waves propagating in the z direction.
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 4
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Lecture 4: TL Input Impedance, Time Average Power, Return and Insertion Losses. VSWR.
Example N4.1: Determine an expression for the voltage at the input to the TL assuming Rs = Z0:
Rs + Vs + Vg Zin l
Z0 , z z=0
To calculate the input voltage Vg , well first determine the effective impedance seen at the TL input terminals seen looking towards the load at z = 0. This is called the input impedance Z in . Forming the ratio of (19) and (20) from the previous lecture gives V ( l ) 2Vo+ cos ( l ) = = jZ 0 cot ( l ) [] Z in = + j 2Vo I ( l ) sin ( l ) Z0 In other words, the input impedance is purely reactive (2.46c) Z in = jX in where X in = Z 0 cot ( l )
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Lecture 4
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An equivalent circuit can now be constructed at the input to the TL by using Rs and Z in as
This circuit voltage Vg is also the voltage on the TL at z = l . That is, from (19) in the previous lecture V ( z = l ) = 2Vo+ cos ( l )
Since Vg = V ( z = l ) , we can equate these two voltages giving jZ 0 cot ( l ) 2Vo+ cos ( l ) = Vs jZ 0 cot ( l ) + Z 0
More often than not, expressions of this type are used to determine Vo+ in terms of Vs and Rs . Well see more on this topic in Lecture 5.
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 4
Page 3 of 12
As we saw in the last lecture, the voltage and current everywhere on a homogeneous TL are V ( z ) = Vo+ e j z + Vo e + j z (2.34a),(1) Vo+ j z Vo + j z and I ( z) = e e (2.34b),(2) Z0 Z0 We can readily construct an input impedance expression for a TL of length l by dividing (1) and (2) for some arbitrary load reflection coefficient L at z = 0: Vo j l + + j l + + e = Vo+ ( e + j l + L e j l ) V ( l ) = Vo e (3) Vo
Vo+ + j l Vo j l Vo+ + j l + e = I ( l ) = ( e Le j l ) e Z0 Vo Z0
(4)
+ + j l + Le j l ) V ( l ) Vo ( e 1 + Le j 2 l (2.43) Z in = = Z0 1 Le j 2 l I ( l ) Vo+ + j l ( e Le j l ) Z0 Substituting for L and simplifying gives Z + jZ 0 tan ( l ) Z in = Z 0 L [] (2.44),(5) Z 0 + jZ L tan ( l )
such that
This is the input impedance for a lossless TL of length l and characteristic impedance Z0 with an arbitrary load ZL. Three special cases are: 1. With an open circuit load ( Z L = ), (5) yields
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 4
Page 4 of 12
Z in = jZ 0 cot ( l ) []
(2.46c),(6)
as we derived in the last lecture. 2. With a short circuit load ( Z L = 0 ), (5) yields Z in = jZ 0 tan ( l ) [] A plot of this input reactance is shown in Fig. 2.6c. 3. With the resistive load Z L = Z 0 , (5) yields Z in = Z 0 [] The input impedance is Z0 regardless of the length of the TL. All of these last three expressions should be committed to memory. You will use them often in microwave circuits. Note that both input impedances (6) and (7) are purely reactive, which is expected since neither type can dissipate energy, assuming lossless TLs.
(2.45c),(7)
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Lecture 4
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Often, the power we are ultimately concerned with is the time average power Pav, expressed as 1 Pav ( z ) = e V ( z ) I ( z ) (8) 2 This expression is similar to that used in circuit analysis. Substituting V(z) and I(z) from (1) and (2) into (8) gives 1V 2 (9) Pav ( z ) = e 1 * e j 2 l + L e + j 2 l L L 2 Z0 Notice that the second and third terms are conjugates so that
( Le
+ j 2l
+ 2 o
+ L e + j 2 l = j 2m L e + j 2 l
+ 2 o
The real part of this sum is zero. Consequently, (9) simplifies to 1V 2 1 L [W] (2.37),(10) 2 Z0 Since this power is not a function of z (true for a lossless and homogeneous TL), a zdependence is no longer indicated for Pav.
Pav =
It is important to reiterate that were assuming a lossless TL throughout this analysis. These results are not valid for lossy TLs. Equation (10) is very illuminating. It shows that the total time average power delivered to a load is equal to the incident time
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 4
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average power Vo+ ( 2 Z 0 ) minus the reflected time average 2 2 power Vo+ ( 2 Z 0 ) .
2
The relative reflected time average power from an arbitrary load 2 on a lossless TL is the ratio of the two terms in (10) = L . From (10) we see that if the load is entirely reactive so that L = 1, then Pav = 0 and no time average power is delivered to the load, as expected. For all other passive loads, Pav > 0 . The time average power that is not delivered to the load can be considered a loss since the signal from the generator was intended to be completely transported not returned to the generator. This return loss (RL) is defined as
RL = 10log10 L
) = 20log
10
( )
L
dB
(2.38),(11)
The two extremes for return loss with a passive load are: 1. A matched load where L = 0 and RL = (no reflected power), and 2. A reactive load where L = 1 and RL = 0 (all power reflected).
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 5
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This TL model is very useful and applicable to a wide range of practical engineering situations. Quantities of interest in such problems include the input impedance (for matching purposes) and signal power delivered to the load. We will first consider the computation of the latter quantity assuming the TL is lossless. Proceeding, the voltage on the TL is expressed by
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 5
Page 2 of 9
or where
V ( z ) = Vo+ ( e j z + L e j z )
L = Z L Z0 Z L + Z0
V ( z ) = Vo+ e j z + Vo e j z
(2.69),(1) (2.68),(2)
Well assume that the physical properties of the TL, the source and the load are known. This leaves the complex constant Vo+ as the only unknown quantity in (1). Generally speaking, we compute Vo+ by applying the boundary condition at the TL input. (Recall that we have already applied boundary conditions at the load.) This is accomplished by applying voltage division at the input: Z in Vin = Vg (3) Z in + Z g Observe that Vin is an electrical circuit quantity. However, at the input to the TL, voltage must be continuous from the generator to the TL. This implies that Vin must also equal V ( z = l ) on the TL. Proceeding, then from (1) at the input V ( z = l ) = Vo+ ( e + j l + L e j l )
(4)
Equating (3) and (4) to enforce the boundary condition at the TL input we find
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 5
Page 3 of 9
Vo+ ( e + j l + L e j l ) =
or
Z in Vg Z in + Z g
(2.70),(5)
Vo+ = Vg
1 Z in e j l + L e j l ) [V] ( Z in + Z g
Maximum Power
Because the TL is lossless, the time average power Pav delivered to the input of the TL must equal the time average power delivered to the load. Therefore, * Vin 1 1 * Pav = e[Vin I in ] = e Vin * 2 2 Z in
or
V 1 Pav = in e * [W] 2 Z in
(2.74),(6)
Now, substituting (3) into (6) gives 1 Z in (2.74),(7) e * 2 Z in + Z g Z in If we define Z in = Rin + jX in and Z g = Rg + jX g , (7) becomes Pav = Vg
Pav = Vg 2
2
2 2
(R
in
+ Rg ) + ( X in + X g )
2
Rin
(2.75),(8)
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Lecture 5
Page 4 of 9
Employing this last result, well consider three special cases for Pav in an effort to maximize this quantity. We will assume that Z g is both nonzero and fixed: (1.) Load is matched to the TL: Z L = Z 0 . From (2), L = 0 in this situation, which also implies that Z in = Z 0 . [This should be intuitive. If not, see (2.43).] Consequently, from (8) with Rin = Z 0 and X in = 0 :
Pav,1 = Vg
2
(Z
+ Rg ) + ( X g )
2
Z0
(2.76),(9)
(2.) Generator is matched to an arbitrarily loaded TL: Z in = Z g and L 0 . Specific values for l , Z 0 , and Z L would need to be chosen so that Z in = Z g . Then from (8) and with Rin = Rg and X in = X g :
Pav,2 = Vg 2
2
(R
+ Rg ) + ( X g + X g )
2
Rg
or
Pav,2 =
Vg
Rg
2 2 8 Rg + X g
(2.78),(10)
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 6
Page 1 of 14
(2)
is the generalized reflection coefficient at z. The real and imaginary parts of the generalized reflection coefficient ( z ) will be defined as ( z ) r ( z ) + j i ( z ) . Substituting this definition into (1) gives 1 + ( r + j i ) z ( z) = (3) 1 ( r + j i ) Now, we will define z ( z ) r + jx and separate (3) into its real and imaginary parts
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 6
Page 2 of 14
1 + ( r + j i ) 1 ( r + j i ) z ( z ) r + jx = 1 ( r + ji ) 1 ( r + j i )*
*
1 + j 2i ( 2 + i2 ) r
2 1 2 r + r + i2
Equating the real and imaginary parts of this last equation gives 1 ( 2 + i2 ) 2 i r r= and x = (2.55) 2 2 2 2 ( r 1) + i ( r 1) + i
Rearranging both of these leads us to the final two equations 2 2 r 1 2 (2.56a),(4) r + i = 1+ r 1+ r 2 2 1 1 2 (2.56b),(5) and ( r 1) + i = x x We will use (4) and (5) to construct the Smith chart.
Definition: The Smith chart is a plot of normalized TL resistance and reactance functions drawn in the complex, generalized reflection coefficient [ ( z ) ] plane.
To understand this, first notice that in the ri plane: 1. Equation (4) has only r as a parameter and (5) has only x as a parameter. 2. Both (4) and (5) are families of circles. Consequently, we can plot (4) and (5) in the ri plane while keeping either r or x constant, as appropriate.
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Lecture 6
Page 3 of 14
1
1/2
r = Re ( z )
r=1/2
1
r=1
For x = 1: ( r 1) + ( i + 1) = ( 1)
2 2 2 2
2 2
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 6
Page 4 of 14
r=0 1
Combining both of these curves (or mappings), as shown on the next page, gives what is called the Smith chart. As quoted from the text (p. 65):
The real utility of the Smith chart, however, lies in the fact that it can be used to convert from reflection coefficients to normalized impedances (or admittances), and vice versa, using the impedance (or admittance) circles printed on the chart.
Additionally, it is very easy to compute the generalized reflection coefficient and normalized impedance anywhere on a homogeneous section of TL.
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Lecture 6
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Notice that the r and i axes are missing from the combined plot. This is also the case for the Smith chart.
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Lecture 6
Page 6 of 14
From this result, we can show that if r 0 then ( z ) 1. This condition is met for passive networks (i.e., no amplifiers) and lossless TLs (real Z 0 ). Consequently, the standard Smith chart only shows the inside of the unit circle in the ri plane. That is, ( z ) 1 which is bounded by the r = 0 circle described by 2 + i2 = 1. r 2. If z ( z ) is purely real (i.e., x = 0 ), then since 2 i x= 2 ( r 1) + i2 we deduce that i = 0 (except possibly at r = 1 ). Consequently, purely real z ( z ) values are mapped to ( z ) values on the r = e ( z ) axis. 3. If z ( z ) is purely imaginary (i.e., r = 0 ) then from (4) 2 + i2 = 12 r which is the unit circle in the ri plane.
2 r + jx 1 r jx + 1 ( r 1) + x ( z) = = r + jx + 1 r jx + 1 ( r + 1)2 + x 2
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Lecture 6
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Consequently, purely imaginary z ( z ) values are mapped to ( z ) values on the unit circle in the ri plane.
Example N6.1: Using the Smith chart, determine the voltage reflection coefficient at the load and the TL input impedance.
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 7
Page 1 of 10
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Lecture 7
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3. Even though the load may change, the matching network may need to perform satisfactorily in spite of this, or be adjustable. We will discuss three methods for impedance matching in this course: 1. L networks, 2. Single stub tuners (using shunt stubs), 3. Quarter wave transformers. Youve most likely seen all three of these before in other courses, or in engineering practice.
To match the load to the TL, we require L = 0 . However, if Z L Z 0 additional circuitry must be placed between ZL and Z0 to bring the VSWR = 1, or least approximately so:
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 7
Page 3 of 10
For L = 0 , this implies Z in = Z 0 . In other words, Rin = e[ Z 0 ] and X in = 0 , if the TL is lossless. Note that we need at least two degrees of freedom in the matching network in order to transform Z L at the load to Z 0 seen at the input to the matching network. This describes impedance matching in general. For an L network specifically, the matching network is either (Fig. 5.2):
RL > Z 0 :
Z0,
RL < Z 0 :
jX (jB)1 ZL
Zin
where Z L = RL + jX L . This network topology gets its name from the fact that the series and shunt elements of the matching network form an L shape. There are eight possible combinations of inductors and capacitors in the L network:
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 7
Page 4 of 10
RL > Z 0 :
ZL ZL
RL < Z 0 :
ZL ZL
ZL
ZL
ZL
ZL
Notice that this type of matching network is lossless; or at least the loss can potentially be made extremely small with proper component choices. As in the text, well solve this problem two ways: first analytically, then using the Smith chart.
1 Z in = jX + jB + (5.1),(1) RL + jX L Through the proper choice of X and B we wish to force Z in = Z 0 . Solving (1) for the B and X that produce this outcome (by equating real and imaginary parts, as shown in the text) we find that
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 7
Page 5 of 10
B=
2 X L RL Z 0 RL ( RL Z 0 ) + X L 2 2 RL + X L
(5.3a),(2)
X=
1 X L Z0 Z + 0 B RL BRL
(5.3b),(3)
Comments: 1. Since RL > Z 0 , the argument is positive in the second square root of (2). (B must be a real number.) 2. Note that there are two possible solutions for B in (2). 3. X in (3) also has two possible solutions, depending on which B from (2) is used. Assume RL < Z 0 . Using Fig. 5.2(b) with Z in = Z 0 , we obtain 1 Z in = Z 0 = jB + (5.4),(4) Z L + jX Solving this equation by equating real and imaginary parts as shown in the text gives
X = RL ( Z 0 RL ) X L
1
(5.6a),(5)
(5.6b),(6)
B=
1 Z0
Z 0 RL RL
Comments: 1. Since RL < Z 0 , the argument is positive for the square root in (5). 2. There are two solutions for both X and B. Use the top signs in both (5) and (6) for one solution and the bottom signs for the other.
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Lecture 7
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Example N7.1 Design an L network to match the load 25 + j 30 to a TL with Z 0 = 50 at the frequency f = 1 GHz.
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Lecture 7
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Well solve this problem two ways: first with the Smith chart and then analytically.
Steps for a Smith chart solution: Z 1 3 1. z L = L = + j p.u.. Mark this point on the chart. Z0 2 5
2. The overall concept behind this type of Lnetwork matching is to add a reactance x to z L such that the sum of 1 admittances b and ( z L + jx ) yield yin = 1 + j 0 = zin (the center of the Smith chart). In such a case, the TL sees a matched load. So, in this case we need to add a normalized impedance jx = j 0.1 p.u. in order to move to 1 + jx on an admittance chart. 3. Convert this impedance to an admittance value by reflecting through the origin to the diametrically opposed point on the constant VSWR circle. 4. Add the normalized susceptance b = 1.0 p.u.S to reach the center of the Smith chart. Here = 0 and yin = 1 + j 0 , which means the TL now sees a matched load.
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Lecture 7
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40
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50
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K. W. Whites
0 12
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Lecture 7
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What are the L and C values of these elements? We can identify the type of element by the sign of the reactance or susceptance:
Inductor Impedance Admittance
Z L = j L
Capacitor 1 j ZC = = j C C
YC = j C
YL =
1 j L
j L
Since X < 0 , we identify this as a capacitor. Therefore, j jX = = j 5.0 C2 For operation at 1 GHz, we need 1 C2 = = 31.8 pF 5 2 f Since B > 0 , we also identify this as a capacitor. Therefore, jB = j C1 = j 0.02 S For operation at 1 GHz, we need 0.02 C1 = = 3.18 pF 2 f The final circuit is:
C2=31.8 pF 50 f = 1 GHz Zin C1=3.18 pF ZL =25+j30
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Lecture 8
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This is an example of a parallel SST, which is the only type well study. (A series SST is shown in Fig. 5.4b of the text.) The shuntconnected section is called the stub. Although not necessary, all sections of TL will be assumed to have the same Z 0 and . Why an open or shorted section? Because these are easy to fabricate, the length can easily be made adjustable and little to no power is dissipated in the stub. (An open stub is sometimes easier to fabricate than a short.)
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Lecture 8
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We will study the SST from two perspectives. First, we will develop an analytical solution, followed by a Smith chart graphical solution. Referring to the figure above, the transformed load impedance at the stub position z = d is Z + jZ 0 tan ( d ) Z + jZ 0t = Z0 L (5.7),(1) Z ( z = d ) = Z 0 L Z 0 + jZ L tan ( d ) Z 0 + jZ Lt
where t tan ( d ) . With a shunt connection, it is much simpler to work with admittances than impedances. So, well define the transformed load admittance as Y = 1/ Z = G + jB . The distance d is chosen so that G = Y0 ( = 1/ Z 0 ) . As shown in the text, this condition leads to the solutions 1 tan 1 t , t0 d 2 = (5.10),(2) 1 ( + tan 1 t ) , t < 0 2 where 2 2 X L ( RL Z 0 ) ( Z 0 RL ) + X L , RL Z 0 RL Z 0 t= (5.9),(3) XL , RL = Z 0 2Z 0 and Z L = RL + jX L .
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Lecture 8
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With this location of the stub, the transformed load admittance has a real part = Y0, which is almost a matched state. In general, however, this transformed YL will also have an imaginary part B. The length of the stub, ls, is chosen so that its input susceptance Bs = B . Consequently, the parallel combination of the stub input susceptance and the transformed load admittance yield an input admittance Yin = Y0 , as seen from the source end of the TL. As shown in the text, this second condition provides the solutions ls 1 Y = (5.11b),(4) tan 1 0 shortcircuit stub 2 B or B lo 1 = tan 1 opencircuit stub (5.11a),(5) 2 Y0
where B is the transformed load susceptance at z = d. Lengths of TL that are integer multiples of /2 can be added or subtracted from (2), (4), and (5) without altering the tuning.
Example N8.1: Match the load Z L = 35 j 47.5 to a TL with Z 0 = 50 using a shunt, shortcircuited singlestub tuner.
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Lecture 9
Page 1 of 5
the input impedance of the righthand TL is given as R + jZ1 tan 1l Z in = Z1 L (2.61),(1) Z1 + jRL tan 1l Now imagine that we have a special length l = 1 / 4 of TL, as indicated in the figure above. At this frequency and physical length, the electrical length of the TL is 2 1 = 1l = rad (2) 1 4 2 Consequently, for a / 4 length TL, tan 1l . Using this
This result is an interesting characteristic of TLs that are exactly /4 long. We can harness this characteristic to design a matching network using a /4length section of TL.
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 9
Page 2 of 5
Note that we can adjust Z1 in (3) so that Z in = Z 0 . In particular, from (3) with Z in = Z 0 we find Z1 = Z 0 RL (2.63),(4) In other words, a /4 section of TL with this particular characteristic impedance will present a perfect match ( = 0 ) to the feedline (the lefthand TL) in the figure above. This type of matching network is called a quarterwave transformer (QWT). Through the impedance transforming properties of TLs, the QWT presents a matched impedance at its input by appropriately transforming the load impedance. This is accomplished only because we have used a very special characteristic impedance Z1 , as specified in (4). Three disadvantages of QWTs are that: 1. A TL must be placed between the load and the feedline. 2. A special characteristic impedance for the QWT is required, which depends both on the load resistance and the characteristic impedance of the feedline. 3. QWTs work perfectly only for one load at one frequency. (Actually, it produces some bandwidth of acceptable VSWR on the TL, as do all reallife matching networks.)
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as a function of W/d is
Z0 @D 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 2 4 6 8 10 Wd
To construct this curve, it was assumed that r = 3.38 , which is the quoted specification for Rogers Corporation RO4003C laminate that well be using in the lab.
Example N9.1: Design a microstrip QWT to match a load of 100 to a 50 line on Rogers RO4003C laminate. Estimate the fractional bandwidth under the constraint that no more than 1% of the incident power is reflected.
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Lecture 9
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MATCHING NETWORKS
From April 2006 High Frequency Electronics Copyright 2006 Summit Technical Media
The conclusion of this article covers transmission line matching networks, plus a discussion of how characteristics of the load affects matching bandwidth and the choice of network topologies
wellknown distributed matching network is the quarterwavelength long transmission line transformer. I will refer to this network as a type 11. The characteristic impedance of this line is given by Z0 = RS RL (41)
max =
(Im [ ])
Re [load ]
load
+ Re [load ]
(44)
12 = tan 1
(45)
For example, a 100 ohm load is matched to a 50 ohm source using a 90 line with characteristic impedance 70.71 ohms. The matchable space of the quarterwavelength transformer is small, essentially only the real axis on the Smith chart. Nevertheless, it enjoys widespread use. A quarterwavelength line is also used in filter design as an impedance inverter to convert series resonant circuits to parallel resonance, and vice versa [4].
Z12 = Z0
(42)
28
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Lecture 10
Page 1 of 10
Lecture 10: TEM, TE, and TM Modes for Waveguides. Rectangular Waveguide.
We will now generalize our discussion of transmission lines by considering EM waveguides. These are pipes that guide EM waves. Coaxial cables, hollow metal pipes, and fiber optical cables are all examples of waveguides. We will assume that the waveguide is invariant in the zdirection:
y Metal walls b
,
x z a
and that the wave is propagating in z as e j z . (We could also have assumed propagation in z.)
Types of EM Waves
We will first develop an extremely interesting property of EM waves that propagate in homogeneous waveguides. This will lead to the concept of modes and their classification as Transverse Electric and Magnetic (TEM),
2008 Keith W. Whites
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 10
Page 2 of 10
or
Ez E y = j H x y z E E y : z x = j H y z x E y Ex = j H z z: x y
x:
However, the spatial variation in z is known so that ( e j z ) = j ( e j z ) z Consequently, these curl equations simplify to Ez + j E y = j H x y E z j Ex = j H y x E y Ex = j H z x y
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We can perform a similar expansion of Ampres equation H = j E to obtain H z + j H y = j Ex (3.4a),(4) y H z j H x = j E y (3.4b),(5) x H y H x = j Ez (3.5c),(6) x y Now, (1)(6) can be manipulated to produce simple algebraic equations for the transverse (x and y) components of E and H . For example, from (1): j Ez + j Ey Hx = y Substituting for Ey from (5) we find j Ez 1 H z Hx = + j j H x j y x
j Ez j H z 2 = + 2 Hx 2 y x
or,
Hx =
H z j Ez y x kc2
(3.5a),(7) (3.6)
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Hy = Ex = Ey =
H z j Ez + x y kc2
j Ez H z + y kc2 x E H z j z + y x kc2
Most important point: From (7)(10), we can see that all transverse components of E and H can be determined from only the axial components Ez and H z . It is this fact that allows the mode designations TEM, TE, and TM. Furthermore, we can use superposition to reduce the complexity of the solution by considering each of these mode types separately, then adding the fields together at the end.
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Lecture 10
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For a rectangular waveguide, the solutions for Ex , E y , H x , H y , and H z are obtained in Section 3.3 of the text. The solution and the solution process are interesting, but not needed in this course. What is found in that section is that
kc ,mn Therefore,
m n = + a b
2
m, n = 0,1, ( m = n 0)
(11) (12)
= mn = k 2 kc2,mn
These m and n indices indicate that only discrete solutions for the transverse wavenumber (kc) are allowed. Physically, this occurs because weve bounded the system in the x and y directions. (A vaguely similar situation occurs in atoms, leading to shell orbitals.) Notice something important. From (11), we find that m = n = 0 means that kc ,00 = 0 . In (7)(10), this implies infinite field amplitudes, which is not a physical result. Consequently, the m = n = 0 TE or TM modes are not allowed. One exception might occur if Ez = H z = 0 since this leads to indeterminate forms in (7)(10). However, it can be shown that inside hollow metallic waveguides when both m = n = 0 and
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Lecture 11
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2 kc2,mn
which is clearly a function of frequency. Consequently, we have confirmed that TE and TM modes in a rectangular waveguide are dispersive. One special case is m = n = 0 . Since kc ,00 = 0 , then v p g ( f ) which means this is not a dispersive mode. However, the m = n = 0 mode is the TEM mode, which cannot exist in a hollow conductor waveguide.
The problem with (temporally) dispersive modes is that they can severely distort signals that have been modulated onto them as the carrier. As the signal propagates down the waveguide:
In communications, such distortion is often unacceptable. Therefore, the TEM mode is the one commonly used in microwave engineering. (For high power applications, hollow waveguides made be required; hence, one would need to somehow work around the distortion.)
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Lecture 11
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Since we prefer to work with the TEM mode of wave propagation, it is important that we use waveguides in our microwave circuits that will support TEM or quasiTEM modes. Examples of such structures are: Microstrip and covered microstrip, Stripline, Slotline, Coplanar waveguide. In this course, we will work primarily with microstrip. Actually, in the lab we will exclusively use microstrip. Before delving into microstrip, however, lets quickly overview some of these other TEM waveguides, beginning with stripline.
Stripline
Stripline is a popular, planar geometry for microwave circuits. As shown in Fig. 3.22:
Metal planes
r
W
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Lecture 12
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We will often assume the land has zero thickness, t. In practical circuits there will be metallic walls and cover to protect the circuit. We will ignore these effects, as does the text. Unlike the stripline, there is more than one dielectric in which the EM fields are located (Fig 3.25b):
E
This presents a difficulty. Notice that if the field propagates as a TEM wave, then c vp = 0
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Lecture 12
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But which r do we use? The answer is neither because there is actually no purely TEM wave on the microstrip, but something that closely approximates it called a quasiTEM mode. At low frequency, this mode is almost exactly TEM. Conversely, when the frequency becomes too high, there are appreciable axial components of E and/or H making the mode no longer quasiTEM. This property leads to dispersive behavior. Numerical and other analysis have been performed on microstrip since approximately 1965. Some techniques, such as the method of moments, produce very accurate numerical solutions to equations derived directly from Maxwells equations and incorporate the exact crosssectional geometry and materials of the microstrip. From these solutions, simple and quite accurate analytical expressions for Z 0 , v p , etc. have been developed primarily by curve fitting. The result is that at relatively low frequency, the wave propagates as a quasiTEM mode with an effective relative permittivity, r ,e :
r ,e =
r +1 r 1
2 + 2
1 1 + 12 d W
(3.195),(1)
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Lecture 12
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r ,e
= k0 r ,e
as for a typical TEM mode. In general,
(3.194),(3)
1 r ,e r
(4)
The upper bound occurs if the entire space above the microstrip has the same permittivity as the substrate, while the lower bound occurs if in this situation the material is chosen to be free space. The characteristic impedance of the quasiTEM mode on the microstrip can be approximated as 60 8d W + ln r ,e W 4d Z0 = 120 r ,e W + 1.393 + 0.667 ln W + 1.444 d d
W 1 d W >1 d
(3.196),(5) Alternatively, given a desired Z 0 and r , the necessary W d can be computed from (3.197).
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Lecture 12
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Again, (1) and (5) were obtained by curve fitting to numerically rigorous solutions. Equation (5) can be accurate to better than 1%.
Example N12.1. Design a 50 microstrip on Rogers RO4003C laminate with 1/2oz copper and a standard thickness slightly less than 1 mm. Referring to the attached RO4003C data sheet from Rogers Corporation, we find that r = 3.38 0.05 and d = 0.032". We will ignore all losses (dielectric and metallic). What does 1/2oz copper mean? Referring to the attached technical bulletin from the Rogers Corporation, copper foil thickness is more accurately measured through an areal mass. The term 1/2oz copper actually means 1/2 oz of copper distributed over a 1ft2 area. For 1oz copper, t = 34 m. For 2oz copper, double this number and for oz copper divide by 2. We will use (3.197) to compute the required W d to achieve a 50 characteristic impedance:
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Lecture 12
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8e A W e2 A 2 d 2 W = d 2 r 1 0.61 W B 1 ln ( 2 B 1) + ln ( B 1) + 0.39 >2 r d 2 r (3.197),(6) To apply this equation, we first need to compute the constants A and B: Z r +1 r 1 0.11 + A= 0 0.23 + (7) = 1.376 60 2 r +1 r
B=
377 = 6.442 2Z 0 r
(8)
Next, we will arbitrarily assume that W d < 2 and use the simpler equation in (6). We find that W 8e1.376 = 21.376 = 2.317 . d e 2 Is this result less than 2? The answer is no. So, we need to recompute W d using the bottom equation in (6). We find here that W d = 2.316 , which is greater than 2 as assumed. So, with this result and d = 0.032", then W = 2.316 0.032" = 0.0741".
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A more common unit for width and thickness dimensions in microwave circuits is mil where 1 1 mil = " = 25.4 m 1000 Therefore, 74.1 W = 0.0741" = " = 74.1 mils ( = 1.88 mm). 1000 This completes the design of the 50 microstrip.
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Lecture 13
Page 1 of 14
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Lecture 13
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Integral Equation
Well imagine that a time harmonic voltage source has been applied across the two conductors:
y Line charge density [C/m]
+ V 
+ + +++ + ++ +
            
This causes a charge accumulation as shown. Next, the image method will be employed to create an equivalent problem for the fields in the upper half space ( y 0 ):
O.b. point y r
+ + +++ + ++ +
r
   
+ V 
V
In a previous EM course, youve likely learned that the electric potential e at a point r in a homogeneous space produced by a line charge density l ( r ) is given by
Whites, EE 481
Lecture 13
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1 e ( r ) = l ( r) ln r r dl 2 C 1 2 2 l ( r ) ln ( x x ) + ( y y ) dx = 2 C 1
(1)
(For example, see J. Van Bladel, Electromagnetic Fields. New York: Hemisphere Publishing, 1985.) It is very important to realize that this contour C must include all charge densities in the space, which means we must include both conductors in this integral. To develop an equation from which we can solve for the charge density, well apply the boundary condition e ( r ) = V r {upper strip} (2) Now, using (2) in (1) and accounting for both the +l and l strips yields 0 1 2 2 V = l ( r ) ln ( x x ) + ( d d ) dx 2 top
2 2 x x ) + ( d + d ) dx ( bottom w 1 2 l ( r ) ln ( x x ) ln ( x x ) + 4d 2 dx (3) or V = 2 0
l ( r ) ln
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Lecture 13
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Recall that the unknown in (3) is the line charge density l. But how do we solve for this function? It varies along the strip so we cant simply pull it out of the integral. Actually, (3) is called an integral equation because the unknown function is located in an integrand. You most likely havent encountered such equations before. Integral equations are very difficult to solve analytically. Well use a numerical solution method instead.
x1
2
xN 1
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Lecture 13
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where
l ( r ) n Pn ( x; xn 1 , xn )
n =1
(4)
What is not known in (4) are the amplitudes n of the line charge density expansion. These are just numbers. So, instead of directly solving for the spatial variation of l in (3), now well just be computing these N numbers, n. Much simpler! However, we need to allow enough degrees of freedom in this basis function expansion (4) so that an accurate solution can be found. This is accomplished by choosing the proper type of expansion functions, a large enough N, etc. The next step in the MM solution is to substitute (4) into (3) w 1 N (5) V = n Pn ( x; xn 1 , xn ) G ( x x ) dx 2 0 n =1 where
G ( x x ) = ln ( x x ) ln
( x x )
+ 4d 2
(6)
and is called the Greens function. We can interchange the order of integration and summation in (5) since these are linear operators, except perhaps when x = x . In this case, the integrand becomes singular. Well consider this situation later in this lecture. Then, (5) becomes
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Lecture 13
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V =
P ( x; x 2
n =1 n n
0
n 1
, xn ) G ( x x ) dx
or
V =
G ( x x ) dx 2
1
n =1 n xn 1
xn
(7)
Matrix Equation
It is helpful to cast (8) into the form of a matrix equation [V ] = [ Z ] [ ] where
Vm = V n = n
N 1 NN N 1
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Lecture 13
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Z mn =
1 2
xn
xn 1
G ( x x ) dx
(10c)
The numerical solution to (9) is accomplished by filling or populating [V] and [Z], then solving a system of linear, constant coefficient equations. In particular, for [V] choose V = 1 V in (10a), for example. [Z] compute (10c) analytically, if possible, or by numerical integration. The filling of [V] is very simple, while filling [Z] is a bit more difficult. In this quasistatic microstrip example, though, it is possible to evaluate all of the terms analytically since a simple antiderivative is available. In particular, with the center of the strip located at the origin as shown:
y (x,y) O.b. point r x /2 /2
then the electrostatic potential at point r produced by a strip of width supporting a constant line charge density l is given by
e ( r ) = l ln 2 2
( x x )
+ y 2 dx
(11)
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Lecture 14
Page 1 of 8
Z Matrices
As an example of Z matrices, consider this twoport network:
I1 + V1 I2
[Z ]
+ V2 
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Lecture 14
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V1 Z11 V = Z 2 21 Vi Ij
Z12 I1 I Z 22 2
(1)
[ Z ]
where
Z ij =
(4.28)
I k = 0, k j
As an example, lets determine the Z matrix for this Tnetwork (Fig. 4.6):
I1 + V1 ZC ZA ZB I2 + V2 
Applying (1) repeatedly to all four Z parameters, we find: V Z11 = 1 = Z A + ZC ( Z in at port 1 w/ port 2 o.c.) I1 I =0
2
Z12 = Z 21 = Z 22 =
V1 I2 V2 I1 V2 I2
= Z B + ZC
I1 = 0
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Lecture 14
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Z + ZC Z] = A [ ZC
ZC Z B + ZC
Notice that this matrix is symmetric. That is, Z ij = Z ji for i j . It can be shown that [ Z ] will be symmetric for all reciprocal networks. Whats the usefulness of an impedance matrix description? For one thing, if a complicated circuit exists between the ports, one can conveniently amalgamate the electrical characteristics into this one matrix. Second, if one has networks connected in series, its very easy to combine the Z matrices. For example:
I1 + V1 I1 + V1 I1 + V1 
[ Z ] [ Z ] [Z ]
I 2 + V  2 I 2 + V  2
I2 + V2 
By definition V I V I 1 1 1 = [ Z ] and = [ Z ] 1 V2 I 2 V2 I 2
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Lecture 14
Page 4 of 8
From the figure we see that I1 = I1 , I 2 = I 2 , and that V1 = V1 + V1 , V2 = V2 + V2 . So, summing the above two matrix equations gives V + V I I 1 1 1 = [ Z ] + [ Z ] 1 V2 + V2 I 2 I 2 Also from the figure, note that I1 = I1 and I 2 = I 2 . Therefore, V1 I = {[ Z ] + [ Z ]} 1 (2) V I2 2
[Z ]
From this result, we see that for a series connection of twoport networks, we can simply add the Z matrices to form a single super Z matrix (3) [ Z ] = [ Z ] + [ Z ] that incorporates the electrical characteristics of both networks and their mutual interaction.
Y Matrices
A closely related characterization is the Ymatrix description of a network:
I1 + V1 I2
[Y ]
+ V2 
By definition:
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Lecture 15
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t1
t3
V3+ , I 3+
Z0
V ,I
1 1 + V2+ , I 2
Z0 t2
[S ]
V3 , I 3
tN
+ VN+ , I N
Z0
V2 , I 2
Z0
VN , I N
Rather than focusing on the total voltages and currents (i.e., the sum of + and  waves) at the terminal planes t1 ,., tn , the S parameters are formed from ratios of reflected and incident voltage wave amplitudes. When the characteristic impedances of all TLs connected to the network are the same (as is the case for the network shown above), then the S parameters are defined as
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Lecture 15
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V1 S11 = VN S N 1
or
S1N V1+ + S NN VN
(4.40),(1)
As we defined in the last lecture, the terminal planes are the phase = 0 planes at each port. That is, with j z t j z t Vn ( zn ) = Vn+ e n ( n n ) + Vn e n ( n n ) n = 1,, N then at the terminal plane tn Vn ( zn = tn ) Vn = Vn+ + Vn Each S parameter in (1) can be computed as
Vi Sij = + Vj
(4.41),(2)
Vk+ = 0, k j
Notice in this expression that the wave amplitude ratio is defined from port j to port i: Si j Lets take a close look at this definition (2). Imagine we have a twoport network:
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Lecture 15
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V1+
t1
t2
V2+
Z0
V1
[S ]
V1 S11 = + V1
Z0
V2
V2+ = 0
Simple enough, but how do we make V2+ = 0 ? This requires that: 1. There is no source on the port2 side of the network, and 2. Port 2 is matched so there are no reflections from this port. Consequently, with V2+ = 0 S11 = 11 , which is the reflection coefficient at port 1. Next, consider
V2 S2 1 = + V1
V2+ = 0
Again, with a matched load at port 2 so that V2+ = 0 , then S 21 = T21 which is the transmission coefficient from port 1 to port 2. It is very important to realize it is a mistake to say S11 is the reflection coefficient at port 1. Actually, S11 is this reflection coefficient only when V2+ = 0 .
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Lecture 16
Page 1 of 10
where [ S ] indicates the transpose of [ S ] . In other words, (1) is a statement that [ S ] is symmetric about the main diagonal, which is what we also observed for the Z and Y matrices.
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Lecture 16
Page 2 of 10
(4.51),(2)
This result can be put into a different, and possibly more useful, t form by premultiplying (2) by [ S ]
[ S ] [ S ] = [ S ] {[ S ] }
t * t
t 1
= [I ]
(3)
0 1
j
* S12
S11 S 12 S1N
S21 S22
* S N 1 S11 * S21 * S NN S N 1
t
* 22
S1*N 1 = 0 * S NN
0 (4) 1
=[ S ]
Three special cases Take row 1 times column 1: * * S11S11 + S 21S 21 + Generalizing this result gives
* + S N 1S N 1 = 1
(5)
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Lecture 16
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S
k =1
ki
* Ski = 1
(4.53a),(6)
In words, this result states that the dot product of any column of [ S ] with the conjugate of that same column equals 1 (for a lossless network). Take row 1 times column 2: * * S11S12 + S 21S 22 + Generalizing this result gives
* + S N 1S N 2 = 0
S
k =1
ki
* S kj = 0 ( i, j ) , i j
(4.53b),(7)
In words, this result states that the dot product of any column of [ S ] with the conjugate of another column equals 0 (for a lossless network). Applying (1) to (7): If the network is also reciprocal, then [ S ] is symmetric and we can make a similar statement concerning the rows of [ S ] . That is, the dot product of any row of [ S ] with the conjugate of another row equals 0 (for a lossless network).
Example N16.1 In a homework assignment, the S matrix of a two port network was given to be
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Lecture 16
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0.2 + j 0.4 0.8 j 0.4 S] = [ 0.8 j 0.4 0.2 + j 0.4 t Is the network reciprocal? Yes, because [ S ] = [ S ] .
Is the network lossless? This question often cannot be answered simply by quick inspection of the S matrix. Rather, we will systematically apply the conditions stated above to the columns of the S matrix: C1 C1* : ( 0.2 + j 0.4 )( 0.2 j 0.4 ) + ( 0.8 j 0.4 )( 0.8 + j 0.4 ) = 1 C2 C2* : Same = 1 C1 C2* : ( 0.2 + j 0.4 )( 0.8 + j 0.4 ) + ( 0.8 j 0.4 )( 0.2 j 0.4 ) = 0 C2 C1* : Same = 0 Therefore, the network is lossless. As an aside, in Example N15.1 of the text, which we saw in the last lecture, 0.1 j 0.8 S] = [ j 0.8 0.2 This network is obviously reciprocal, and it can be shown that its also lossy.
Example N16.2 (Text Example 4.4). Determine the S parameters for this Tnetwork assuming a 50 system impedance, as shown.
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Lecture 16
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V1+
V2+
Z 0 = 50
V1
Z in
V1
VA
V2
Z 0 = 50
V2
[S ]
First, take a general look at the circuit: Its linear, so it must also be reciprocal. Consequently, [ S ] must be symmetric (about the main diagonal). The circuit appears unchanged when viewed from either port 1 or port 2. Consequently, S11 = S 22 . Based on these observations, we only need to determine S11 and S 21 since S 22 = S11 and S12 = S 21 . Proceeding, recall that S11 is the reflection coefficient at port 1 with port 2 matched: V1 S11 = 11 V + =0 = + 2 V1 V + =0
2
The input impedance with port 2 matched is Z in = 8.56 + 141.8 ( 8.56 + 50 ) = 50.00 which, not coincidentally, equals Z 0 ! With this Zin: Z Z0 S11 = in =0 Z in + Z 0 which also implies S 22 = 0 .
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Lecture 17
Page 1 of 7
V2 2
V2
By definition,
V1 = S11V1+ + S12V2+ V2 = S 21V1+ + S 22V2+ At port 1, the total voltage is V1 = V1+ + V1
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Lecture 17
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and the total time average power at that port is comprised of the two terms (see 2.37): 2Z 0 2Z 0 Further, since port 2 is matched the total voltage there is V2 V + =0 = V2
2
Pinc =
V1+
and Pref =
V1
(4),(5)
(6)
Ptrans V + =0 =
2
V2
2Z 0
(7)
Using the results from (4), (5), and (7), we will consider ratios of these time average power quantities at each port and relate these ratios to the S parameters of the network. At Port 1. Using (4) and (5), the ratio of reflected and incident time average power is:
Pref V1 = = + + 2 Pinc V V1 1
V1
(8)
then in (8):
Pref Pinc
= S11
V2+ = 0
(9)
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Lecture 17
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This result teaches us that the relative reflected time average 2 power at port 1 equals S11 when port 2 is matched. At Port 2. Using (7) and (4), the ratio of transmitted and incident time average power is:
Ptrans V + =0
2
Pinc
V2 V
+ 2 1
(10)
Ptrans Pinc
= S21
V2+ = 0
(11)
This result states that the relative transmitted power to port 2 2 equals S21 when port 2 is matched. Equations (9) and (11) provide an extremely useful physical interpretation of the S parameters as ratios of time average power. Note that this interpretation is valid regardless of the loss (or even gain) of the network. However, if the network is lossless we can use (9) and (11) to develop other very useful relationships. Recall that for a lossless network, S11 S12 [S ] = S S 22 21 must be unitary. As a direct result of this
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We will examine the basic subsystems of a VNA in this lecture and some important topics concerning the sources of error and calibration of the VNA. The following pages are from Network Analyzer Basics, Agilent Product Note E206. (Agilent Technologies is the company that was formed when Hewlett Packard Corporation spunoff its test and measurement business.)
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Lecture 19
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A VNA measures both the magnitude and phase of S parameters. Note that a VNA is intrinsically making frequency domain measurements, i.e., sinusoidal steady state.
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If you overtighten a connection, it is possible you will damage the VNA connector, the cable or your microwave circuit. There may be different types of torque wrenches lying about the lab. Be certain you are using the BLACKhandled torque wrench. Standard operating procedures for making microwave coax connections include: 1) When initially making coaxial connections: Make sure you are electrostatically grounded. Be certain there are no metal filings or other debris inside the connectors.
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Unlike in the definition used for Z and Y parameters, notice that I 2 is directed away from the port. This is an important point and well discover the reason for it shortly. The ABCD matrix is defined as
V1 A B V2 I = C D I 2 1
(4.63),(1)
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Lecture 20
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A=
V1 V2
,
I 2 =0
B=
V1 I 2 V =0
2
C=
I1 V2
, D=
I2 =0
I1 I2
V2 = 0
Note that not all of these parameters have the same units. The usefulness of the ABCD matrix is that cascaded twoport networks can be characterized by simply multiplying their ABCD matrices. Nice! To see this, consider the following twoport networks:
I1 + V1 A1 C 1 B1 D1
I2 + V2 + V2 
I 2
A2 C 2 B2 D2
I3 + V3 
In matrix form
V1 A1 I = C 1 1 B1 V2 D1 I 2
(4.64a),(2) (3)
and
V A 2 = 2 I 2 C2
B2 V3 D2 I 3
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I1 + V1 
I2
A1 C 1
B1 D1
I 2 + + V2 V2  
I3
A2 C 2
B2 D2
+ V3 
it is apparent that V2 = V2 and I 2 = I 2 . (The latter is the reason for assuming I 2 out of the port.) Consequently, substituting (3) into (2) yields V1 A1 B1 A2 B2 V3 (4.65),(4) I = C D C D I 1 2 2 3 1 1 We can consider the matrixmatrix product in this equation as describing the cascade of the two networks. That is, let A3 B3 A1 B1 A2 B2 (5) C D = C D C D 3 1 2 2 1 3 V1 A3 B3 V3 (6) so that I = C D I 3 3 1 3
I1 I3
A3 C 3 B3 D3
where
+ V1 
+ V3 
In other words, a cascade connection of twoport networks is equivalent to a single twoport network containing a product of the ABCD matrices. It is important to note that the order of matrix multiplication must be the same as the order in which the two ports are
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Lecture 21
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[S ]
Z0 b2
A signal flow graph is a diagram depicting the relationships between signals in a network. It can also be used to solve for ratios of these signals. Signal flow graphs are used in control systems, power systems and other fields besides microwave engineering. Key elements of a signal flow graph are: 1. The network must be linear, 2. Nodes represent the system variables, 3. Branches represent paths for signal flow. For example, referring to the twoport above, the nodes and branches are (Fig 4.14b):
a1 S11 b1 S12 a2 S 21 b2 S 22
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4. A signal yk traveling along a branch between nodes ak and b j is multiplied by the gain of that branch:
ak
S jk
bj
That is,
b j = S jk ak
5. Signals travel along branches only in the direction of the arrows. This restriction exists so that a branch from ak to b j denotes a proportional dependence of b j on ak , but not the reverse.
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then
(4.69),(1)
In other words, two series paths are equivalent to a single path with a transmission factor equal to a product of the two original transmission factors. 2. Parallel Rule. Consider the relation: V2 = S aV1 + SbV1 = ( Sa + Sb )V1 In a SFG, this is represented as (Fig 4.16b):
Sa V1 Sb V2 Sa + Sb V1 V2
(4.70),(2)
In other words, two parallel paths are equivalent to a single path with a transmission factor equal to the sum of the original transmission coefficients. 3. SelfLoop Rule. Consider the relations V2 = S 21V1 + S 22V2
(4.71a),(3)
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and
V3 = S32V2
(4.71b),(4)
V2 (1 S22 ) = S 21V1
V2 =
S21 V1 1 S22
(4.72),(5)
S32 V2 V3
S32 S 21 1 S 22
V1 V3
In other words, a feedback loop may be eliminated by dividing the input transmission factor by one minus the transmission factor around the loop. 4. Splitting Rule. Consider the relationships: V4 = S 42V2 V2 = S 21V1 and V3 = S32V2
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The SFG is
S42 V4
S21 V1 V2
S32 V3
From (6) and (7) we find that V4 = S 42 S 21V1 . Hence, if we use the Series Rule in reverse we can define: V4 = S 42V4 and V4 = S21V1 In a SFG, this is represented as (Fig 4.16d):
S42 V4 S21 V4' S42 V4
S21 V1 V2
S32 V3 V1
S21 V2
S32 V3
In other words, a node can be split such that the product of transmission factors from input to output is unchanged.
Example N21.1. Construct a signal flow graph for the network shown below. Determine in and VL using only SFG algebra.
a1 S in b1 t1 t2 a2 L
b2
VL
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Lecture 22
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Lecture 22
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measurements, calibration has a much different meaning than calibrating lowfrequency equipment.) To do this calibration, we need to assume a general model for the effects of systematic errors, such as that shown in Fig 4.20:
Well define S m as the S parameters that are actually measured by the VNA. These include all of the errors we mentioned earlier. The error boxes (with parameters [ S ] ) and how these are specifically connected to the DUT form the model of the systematic errors. The parameters [ S ] are those we desire to know. These are the S parameters of the DUT, which also, unfortunately, contain random errors. The purpose of network analyzer calibration is to determine the numerical values of all the S (or ABCD) parameters in the error model at each frequency of interest.
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For coaxial measurements, we often use precision Short, Open, Load and Thru (SOLT) standards as loads connected to the test ports. With these known standards as loads, we make several Sparameter measurements to construct enough equations from which we can numerically determine the error parameters.
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Lecture 22
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3. Line. Connect the two ports together through a microstrip approximately /4 longer than the Thru (at the center frequency). We will step through each of these connections and outline the solutions for the S parameters using signal flow diagrams. 1. Thru Standard. The configuration for this measurement is shown in Fig 4.21a. The measured S matrix is defined as [T ] :
Notice that: a. The [ S ] matrices for the two error boxes are assumed to be identical. This simplifies things for us right now, though this is not assumed in actual VNA TRL cal kits. b. The reflection planes for the DUT are coincident. Consequently, this is called a zero length Thru. Youll use this in the lab. c. S 21 = S12 for a reciprocal error box.
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where and 0 1. The same device can often be used as a power combiner:
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Lecture 23
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P = P2 + P3 1
Divider or Coupler
P2 P3
We see that even the simplest divider and combiner circuits are threeport networks. It is common to see dividers and couplers with even more than that. So, before we consider specific examples, it will be beneficial for us to consider some general properties of three and fourport networks.
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If the network is matched at every port, then S11 = S 22 = S33 = 0 . (It is important to understand that matched means 1 , 2 and 3 = 0 when all other ports are terminated in Z 0 .) If the network is reciprocal, then S 21 = S12 , S31 = S13 and S32 = S 23 . Consequently, for a matched and reciprocal threeport, its S matrix has the form: 0 S12 S13 (7.2),(2) [ S ] = S12 0 S23 S13 S 23 0 Note there are only three different S parameters in this matrix. Lastly, if the network is lossless, then [ S ] is unitary. Applying (4.53a) to (2), we find that 2 2 S12 + S13 = 1 (7.3a),(3) S12 + S 23 = 1
2 2
S13 + S 23 = 1
2 2
From (6)(8), it can be surmised that at least two of the three S parameters must equal zero. If this is the case, then none of the equations (3), (4) or (5) can be satisfied. [For example, say
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Lecture 23
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S13 = 0 . Then (6) and (8) are satisfied. For (7) to be satisfied and S 23 0 , we must have S12 = 0 . But with S12 and S13 both zero, then (3) cannot be satisfied.]
Our conclusion then is that a threeport network cannot be lossless, reciprocal and matched at all ports. Bummer. This finding has wideranging ramifications. However, one can realize such a network if any of these three constraints is loosened. Here are three possibilities: 1. Nonreciprocal threeport. In this case, a lossless threeport that is matched at all ports can be realized. It is called a circulator (Fig 7.2):
Port 2
Port 1
Port 3
0 0 1 [ S ] = 1 0 0 0 1 0
Notice that Sij S ji . 2. Match only two of the three ports. Assume ports 1 and 2 are matched. Then, 0 S12 S13 (7.7),(9) [ S ] = S12 0 S23 S13 S23 S33
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Lecture 24
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2
3 Yin
Z1
V2
V1
Z2
V3+ V3
There are two basic constraints we need to incorporate into this power splitter: 1. The feedline should be matched. 2. The input time average power Pin should be divided between ports 2 and 3 in a desired ratio. In the text, this ratio is defined as X:Y where: X / ( X + Y ) 100% of the incident power is delivered to one output port, and Y / ( X + Y ) 100% of the incident power is delivered to the other.
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Lecture 24
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For example: 1:1 means 50% of the incident time average power is delivered to each output port. 2:1 means 67% of the incident time average power is delivered to one output port and the remaining to the other. Referring to the circuit above, in order to enforce the first constraint on the power splitter requires that 1 1 1 Yin = + = (7.25),(1) Z1 Z 2 Z 0 Consequently, to divide the incident power between the two output ports, we simply need to adjust the characteristic impedances of the two TLs.
Because port 1 is matched, the input time average power is simply: 2 1 V0 (2) Pin = 2 Z0 where V0 is the phasor voltage at the junction.
The output powers can be computed similarly as 2 2 1 V0 1 V0 and P2 = P= 1 2 Z1 2 Z2 Dividing (3) and (4) by (2) we find
(3),(4)
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Lecture 24
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P 1/ Z1 Z 0 1 = = Pin 1/ Z 0 Z1
and
P2 1/ Z 2 Z 0 = = Pin 1/ Z 0 Z 2
(5),(6)
Because the network is lossless: P P2 1 + =1 Pin Pin Substituting (5) and (6) into this expression gives Z0 Z0 1 1 1 + = 1 so that + = Z1 Z 2 Z1 Z 2 Z 0 Consequently, not only have we split the power between the output ports, but in light of (1) we have also ensured that the feedline is matched.
So, once we have specified the desired ratios for the output port powers, we can use (5) and (6) to compute the required characteristic impedances of these TLs: Z0 Z0 Z1 = and Z 2 = (7),(8) P Pin P2 Pin 1 Thats basically it for the design of a simple Tjunction power divider. An example of this design process is given in Example 7.1 of the text, which well cover later. From a practical standpoint, there are two important points that arise with Tjunction power splitters:
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1. Junction effects. At the junction of the TLs, there is likely to be an accumulation of excess charge. Take a microstrip junction for example:
+ +++ + + +++ +
   
This timevarying electric field is a displacement current, of course. We can model this effect as a lumped capacitor connected to ground, as shown in Fig. 7.6. 2. Characteristic impedance of the output lines. It is not too practical to have these Z1 and Z2 characteristic impedances in the system. We generally like to work with just one system impedance, Z0. To compensate for this, we can use QWTs for matching:
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Lecture 24
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V2+ V1+ V1
Z in,1
Z0 V2 V3+ Z0 V3
Z 0 Yin
Z in,2
Using QWTs makes this power splitter narrowbanded, unfortunately. Here, instead of Z1 and Z2, the impedances of interest in the power splitter design are Zin,1 and Zin,2. From (1), the match condition now becomes 1 1 1 + = (9) Z in,1 Z in,2 Z 0 and from (5) and (6), the power division constraints become Z Z P P2 1 = 0 and = 0 (10),(11) Pin Z in,1 Pin Z in,2
Example N24.1 (text example 7.1). Design a 1:2, Tjunction power divider in a 50 system impedance.
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Lecture 25
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Port 2
Port 1
Z0
Z 0,Q
R Z0 Port 3
/4
This is a popular power divider because it is easy to construct and has some extremely useful properties: 1. Matched at all ports, 2. Large isolation between output ports, 3. Reciprocal, 4. Lossless when output ports are matched. There is much symmetry in this circuit which we can exploit to make the S parameter calculations easier. Specifically, we will excite this circuit in two very special configurations (symmetrically and antisymmetrically), then add these two solutions for the total solution. This mathematical process is called an evenodd mode analysis. It is a technique used in many branches of science such as quantum mechanics, antenna analysis, etc.
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Lecture 25
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We will now show that for a 1:1 Wilkinson power divider, Z 0,Q = 2 Z 0 and R = 2 Z 0 . To simplify matters, as in the text, we will: 1. Normalize all impedances to Z 0 , 2. Not draw the return line for the TL. For example, a TL with characteristic impedance 2Z 0 will be delineated as
2
Hence, the Wilkinson power divider shown in the first figure above and with matched terminations can be drawn as
z0,Q z0,Q
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Lecture 25
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z0,Q z0,Q
Notice that I = 0 because we have symmetric excitation. Hence, V2 = V3 and we can bisect this circuit as shown to simplify the analysis (Fig. 7.10a):
x = /4
/4 2
x =0
V2e 1
e zin
1
Vg 2 = 2V
z0,Q
V1e
o.c.
r/2
o.c.
We can recognize this circuit as a QWT. Consequently, 2 z0,Q e zin = (7.33),(1) 2 e or z0,Q = 2 zin (2)
(3)
(4)
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Lecture 25
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V ( 0 ) = V + (1 + ) = V1e
+
(5)
Therefore,
2 j j 2 V ( 4 ) = V e 4 + e 4 = jV + (1 ) = V2e = V (4)
(7.34),(6)
is the reflection coefficient at port 1 seen looking towards the normalized load of 2 /. Therefore, 2 z0,Q 2 2 = = (7) 2 + z0,Q ( 3) 2 + 2
Substituting V + from (6) into (5) and using (7) we find that V V1e = (1 + ) = jV 2 j (1 ) (7)
Antisymmetric excitation (odd mode):
/4 2 B 2 /4
z0,Q z0,Q
(8)
V2 1 r/2 A r/2
1 2V
1 V3 1 2V
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Lecture 25
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Since the circuit is fed antisymmetrically, V3 = V2 and the voltage = 0 at points A and B. Hence, to simplify the analysis, we can bisect the circuit with grounds as shown (Fig 7.10b):
V2o
o zin
2V
V1o
o For zin , notice that the load is a short circuit and the TL is 4 o long (1/2 rotation around the Smith chart). This means zin = . Therefore, to match port 2 (and 3) for odd mode excitation, select r = 1 r = 2 [/] (9) 2 o Further, because zin = , then with r = 2 and port 2 matched: r 2 2V = V (10) V2o = r 2 +1 (9)
Even and odd solutions are eigenvectors. Any solution can be determined by summing appropriately weighted eigenvectors. With this information, well be able to deduce most of the S parameters. But first, lets determine zin,1 so we can compute S11 . Terminating ports 2 and 3 gives the circuit in Fig. 7.11a:
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Lecture 26
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Because of symmetry, we can simplify the analysis of this circuit considerably using evenodd mode analysis. This process
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Lecture 26
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is similar to what we did in the last lecture with the Wilkinson power divider.
/8
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Lecture 26
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A1o =
1
o 1 A4 =
/8
Observe that the circuit and its boundary conditions remain the same in both the even and odd mode configurations. It is only the excitation that changes. Because of this and the circuit being linear, the total solution is simply the sum of the even and odd mode solutions. Each solution (even and odd) is simpler to determine than the complete circuit, which is why we employ this technique. Even mode. Because the voltages and currents must be the same above and below the line of symmetry (LOS) in Fig 7.23a, then I = 0 at the LOS open circuit loads at the ends of /8 stubs, as shown. Referring to the definition of Bi ( i = 1,, 4 ) in Fig 7.22, we can write from Fig 7.23a that for the even mode excitation: e B1e = e A1e , B2 = Te A1e (1a) e e B3e = B2 = Te A1e , B4 = B1e = e A1e (1b) where A1e = 1 2 , and e and Te are the reflection and transmission coefficients for the even mode configuration.
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Lecture 26
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Odd mode. Because the voltages and currents must have opposite values above and below the LOS in Fig 7.23b, then V = 0 along the LOS short circuit loads at the ends of /8 stubs, as shown. Then,
o B1o = o A1o , B2 = To A1o (2a) o o (2b) B3o = B2 = To A1o , B4 = B1o = o A1o where A1o = 1 2 and o and To are reflection and transmission coefficients for the odd mode configuration.
Total solution. The total solution is the sum of the voltages in both circuits. From this fact, we can deduce that the total Bi coefficients will be the sum of (1) and (2): 1 1 B1 = B1e + B1o = e + o (7.62a),(3) 2 2 1 1 e o B2 = B2 + B2 = Te + To (7.62b),(4) 2 2 1 1 B3 = B3e + B3o = Te To (7.62c),(5) 2 2 1 1 e o B4 = B4 + B4 = e o (7.62d),(6) 2 2 Likewise, the incident wave coefficients are 1 1 A1 = A1e + A1o = + = 1 2 2 1 1 e o A4 = A4 + A4 = = 0 2 2
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Lecture 26
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These match the assumed excitation in the original circuit on p. 2. To finish the calculation of the S parameters for the quadrature hybrid, we need to determine the reflection and transmission coefficients for the even and oddmode configurations. Your text shows that the solutions for e and Te are 1 e = 0 and Te = (7.64),(7),(8) (1 + j ) 2 Here well derive solutions for o and To . From Fig 7.23b:
12
1
To
1
1 1
We have three cascaded elements, so well use ABCD parameters to solve for the overall S parameters of this circuit. Elements 1 and 3. These are short circuit stubs of length 8 , which appear as the shunt impedance 2 Z in = jZ 0 tan l where l = = 8 4 Z in Therefore, = j , or YN = j Z0 From the inside flap of your text:
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Lecture 27
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The second primary objective is to illustrate the three common ways to operate this device. These are: 1. Inphase power splitter:
Input Isolation 1 180 Hybrid 4 3 2 Through Coupled
With input at port 1 and using column 1 of [S], we can deduce that port 1 is matched, the outputs are ports 2 and 3 (which are in phase) and port 4 is the isolation port.
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Lecture 27
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With input at port 4 and using column 4 of [S], we can deduce that port 4 is matched, the outputs are ports 2 and 3 (which are completely out of phase) and port 1 is the isolation port. 3. Power combiner:
Sum () Difference () 1 180 Hybrid 4 3 2 Input A Input B
With inputs at ports 2 and 3 and using columns 2 and 3 of [S], we can deduce that both ports 2 and 3 are matched, port 1 will provide the sum of the two input signals and port 4 will provide the difference. Because of this, ports 1 and 4 are sometimes called the sum and difference ports, respectively. There are different ways to physically implement a 180 hybrid, as shown in Fig. 7.43. Well focus on the ring hybrid and specifically consider the first two applications described above.
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Lecture 27
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Ring Hybrid
The ring hybrid (aka the rat race) is shown in Fig. 7.43a:
Well analyze this structure using the same evenodd mode approach we applied to the Wilkinson power divider and the branch line coupler in the previous two lectures. In the present case, the physical symmetry plane bisects ports 1 and 2 from 3 and 4 in the figure above. 1. Inphase power splitter. Assume a unit amplitude voltage wave incident on port 1:
Port 2 Port 1 B1
1
B2
Port 3
B3
B4
Port 4
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Lecture 27
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As in Lecture 26, proper symmetric and antisymmetric excitations of this device are required to produce the even and odd mode problems, as shown in Fig. 7.44:
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
Each of the even and odd solutions for Bi ( i = 1,, 4 ) can be found by cascading ABCD matrices, then converting to S parameters. Since the ports are terminated by matched loads, we can directly determine e and Te from these S parameters.
o o
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Lecture 28
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This can be a serious problem on PCBs where lands are close together and carry signals changing rapidly with time. EMC engineers face this situation in high speed digital circuits and in multiconductor TLs. For coupled line directional couplers, this coupling between TLs is a useful phenomenon and is the physical principle upon which the couplers are based.
2008 Keith W. Whites
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Lecture 28
Page 2 of 11
2
++ +
r
    
When voltages are applied, charge distributions will be induced on all of the conductors. The voltages and total charges are related to each other through capacitance coefficients Cij:
1 V1 C11 C22 C12 2 V2
By definition (Q = CV ):
where C11 = capacitance of conductor 1 with conductor 2 present but grounded. C22 = capacitance of conductor 2 with conductor 1 present but grounded. C12 = mutual capacitance between conductors 1 and 2. (If the construction materials are reciprocal, then C21 = C12 .) By computing only these capacitances and the quasiTEM mode wave speed, well be able to analyze these coupled line problems. Why? Assuming TEM modes, then
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Lecture 28
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Z=
L LC 1 = = C C v pC
(1)
Notice that L doesnt appear here. Hence we only need v p and C , as conjectured. This is a widely used approach in all TL problems, not just microstrip or coupled lines.
Hence, the electric field has even symmetry about the plane of symmetry (POS). This plane is called an Hwall. Notice that no E field lines from conductor 1 (2) terminate on conductor 2 (1). Consequently, the two halves are decoupled, as we expect. This leads us to the equivalent circuit:
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Lecture 28
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1 V1 C11
2 V2 C22
We define the effective capacitance to ground for either conductor in this configuration as Ce = C11 = C22 (7.68),(2) Then using (1) 1 Z 0,e = (7.69),(3) v p ,eCe which is the characteristic impedance of either TL when both are operated in the even mode. This is called the even mode characteristic impedance. Odd mode. The voltages and currents are opposite on each line as shown in Fig 7.28(b):
Notice here that the electric field lines are perpendicular to the POS. Therefore, similar to image theory, we can consider the POS as an equipotential surface (or an E wall). That is, as a ground plane where V = 0 .
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The effective capacitance to ground of either conductor in this configuration is then Co = 2C12 C11 = C11 + 2C12 (7.70),(4) so that, from (1) Z 0,o = 1 v p ,oCo (7.71),(5)
This is the odd mode characteristic impedance. It is the characteristic impedance seen when a voltage wave is launched on the structure with odd symmetry, as shown in Fig. 7.28b. The computation of Ce and Co required in (3) and (5) is a bit involved. Alternatively, the text presents two examples of graphical design data for specific geometries. Fig 7.29 contains design data for striplines and Fig 7.30 for microstrips with r = 10 .
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Lecture 29
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[S ]
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Lecture 29
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is specified in the loss ratio PLR defined as: P Po PLR = inc = Pload Po 1 ( )2 or
2 PLR = 1 ( ) 1
(8.49),(1)
2
In Section 4.1, the text shows that ( ) is an even function of 2 . This implies that ( ) can be expanded in a polynomial series in 2 . In particular, for a linear and time invariant system, ( ) is a rational function meaning It can be expressed as a quotient of real polynomials M ( 2 ) and N ( 2 ) . Well choose: M ( 2 ) 2 (8.51),(2) ( ) = 2 2 M ( ) + N ( )
2
PLR = 1 +
M ( 2 ) N ( 2 )
(8.52),(3)
This is valid for any linear, time invariant system that is an even function of .
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Lecture 29
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1. Maximally Flat, Butterworth, Binomial Filter. For this type of low pass filter:
2N
(8.53),(4)
For large and with k = 1, then PLR k 2 =12 (5) c c From this result we learn that the insertion loss IL, defined as IL = 10log ( PLR ) , (8.50)
2N
2N
increases by 20N dB/decade in the stop band for the maximally flat low pass filter.
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Lecture 29
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2. Equal Ripple or Chebyshev Filter. For this type of low pass filter: 2 2 PLR = 1 + k TN (8.54),(6) c where TN ( x ) is the Chebyshev polynomial. A typical plot of 1 PLR in (6) is
PLR1
Po
Po 1+ k 2
Equal ripple
Pass band
Stop band
Generally, N is chosen to be an odd integer when the source and load impedances are equal (twosided filters). For large c and using the large argument form of TN , (6) becomes
k 2 2 PLR 4 c
2N
(7)
As with the Butterworth filter, (7) also increases at 20N dB/decade, but with the extra factor 22 N (8) 4 compared to (5). Consequently, there is more roll off with the Chebyshev low pass filter. For example,
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Lecture 30
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Lecture 30: Scaling of Low Pass Prototype Filters. Stepped Impedance Low Pass Filters.
In the last lecture, we discussed the design of prototype low pass filters where Rs = RL = 1 and c = 1 rad/s. Of course, one generally is not going to implement the prototype filter. So what good is it? It is possible to scale and transform the low pass prototype filter to obtain a low pass, high pass, band pass and band stop filters for any impedance level ( Rs = RL ) and cutoff frequency. Nice! The process of filter design has three basic steps as discussed in the last lecture: (1) collect the filter specifications, (2) design the low pass prototype filter, (3) scale and convert the prototype. The first two steps were performed in the previous lecture. Well now consider the last step, beginning with scaling. There are two types of scaling for low pass prototype circuits, impedance scaling and frequency scaling: 1. Impedance Scaling. Since the filter is a linear circuit, we can multiply all the impedances (including the terminating resistances) by some factor without changing the transfer function of the filter. Of course, the input impedances will change.
2008 Keith W. Whites
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Lecture 30
Page 2 of 13
If the desired source and load impedances equal R0 , then (8.64a),(1) X L = R0 X L = ( R0 L ) . Therefore, L = R0 L . 1R C X C = R0 X C = 0 . Therefore, C = . (8.64b),(2) R0 C Rs = R0 1 = R0 . (8.64c),(3)
RL = R0 RL = R0 RL .
(8.64d),(4)
2. Frequency Scaling. As defined for the prototype c = 1 rad/s. To scale for a different cutoff frequency, we substitute
(8.65),(5)
Applying this to the inductive and capacitive reactances in the prototype filter we find L L X L = L = . Therefore, L = . (8.66a),(6) c c c 1 1 C = c . Therefore, C = . (8.66b),(7) X C = C C c
c
For a onestep impedance and frequency scaling, we can combine (1)(4), (6) and (7) to obtain RL Lk = 0 k (8.67a),(8)
Ck =
Ck c R0
(8.67b),(9)
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Lecture 30
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Rs = R0
(10)
RL = R0 RL (11) where k = 1,, N as in Fig. 8.25. For example, in the circuit of Fig. 8.25a, C1 = g1 , L2 = g 2 , C3 = g 3 , etc.
Example N30.1. Design a 3dB, equiripple low pass filter with a cutoff frequency of 2 GHz, 50 impedance level and at least 15dB insertion loss at 3 GHz.
The first step is to determine the order of the filter needed to achieve the required IL at the specified frequency. From equation (7) in the previous lecture for c
k 2 2 PLR 4 c
2N
(12)
(This is just an approximation here since / c = 1.5 .) What value do we use for k? From Fig. 8.21
PLR1
Equal ripple
1 1+ k 2
Pass band
Stop band
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Lecture 30
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we see that the passband ripple equals 1 + k 2 . So, with A = ripple in dB, then 10log (1 + k 2 ) = A
k = 10 A /10 1 (13) so that Consequently, for A = 3 dB then k = 0.998 1. Therefore, equation (12) becomes PLR 32 N / 4 so that
N 1 3 5
The third column is the more accurate number since it originates from the plot in Fig. 8.27b. The second column is less accurate because we used (12) with / c = 1.5 , which is not 1. For this filter, well choose N = 3 to meet the IL specification. From Table 8.4 (3.0dB ripple), we find the immitance values to be g1 = 3.3487 , g 2 = 0.7117 , g3 = g1 and g 4 = 1. Using (8)(11) with R0 = 50 , f c = 2 GHz and arbitrarily choosing the prototype circuit having the fewest inductors
Rs
+ Vs 
L2 C1 C3 RL
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Lecture 30
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Port P1 Num=1
C C1 C=5.33 pF
L L1 L=2.83 nH R=
C C2 C=5.33 pF
Port P2 Num=2
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Lecture 30
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dB(S(2,1)) dB(S(1,1))
10
20
freq, GHz
200
phase(S(2,1)) phase(S(1,1))
100
100
freq, GHz
Using SmartComponents in ADS can greatly speed up the filter design process. Here using the low pass filter from the Filter DG All Networks palette. The filter is designed using the Filter DesignGuide, which is activated by pointing to DesignGuide > Filter.
DT DA_LCLowpassDT1_lpdesign1 DA_LCLowpassDT1 Fp=2 GHz Fs=3 GHz Ap=3 dB As=15 dB N=3 ResponseType=Chebyshev Rg=50 Ohm Rl=50 Ohm
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Lecture 31
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Lecture 31: Stub Synthesis. Kurodas Identities. Stub Low Pass Filters.
Another method for synthesizing microwave filters without lumped elements is to use shorted and opened stubs to realize the inductances and capacitances of the filter. However, the separations between the stubs are generally not negligible and thus will degrade the filter performance if they are neglected. Kurodas identities are transformations that prove useful with this type of problem.
Stub Synthesis
The text calls this stub synthesis process Richards transformation. Here well show a simpler approach. In Section 2.3 of text, we derived the stub input impedances: Short circuit TL: Z in = jZ 0 tan l (2.45c),(1) (2.46c),(2) Open circuit TL: Yin = jY0 tan l To be consistent with Section 8.4, the prime indicates an impedancescaled (i.e., normalized) value.
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Lecture 31
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From (1) with l < 4 (or l < 2 ), the input impedance for a short circuit stub is a positive reactance (i.e., an effective inductance) while from (2), the open circuit stub presents a negative reactance (i.e., an effective capacitance). Well use these two properties to construct effective inductances and capacitances for filters. From (1), it is apparent that we cannot express the input impedance in the form L since appears in the tangent function. We can conclude that this effective inductance varies with frequency. If this is the case, then which f would one choose? One choice is l = 8 ( l = 4 ), which is halfway between 0 and 4 (beyond this, the reactance changes sign). So, with l = 8 then tan l = 1 and (1) becomes Z in = jZ 0 Now, for an inductor at = c Z L = jc L Equating (3) and (4) we see that by choosing Z 0 = c L
(3) (4)
(5) then this /8long TL has the same input impedance as an inductor with inductance L.
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Lecture 31
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We will employ (5) in the design of stub filters. In such an application, the filter coefficients gk will be associated with unscaled component values (i.e., the unprimed Lk and Ck values in Section 8.4). So, from (5) Z 0 1 Z0 = c L = L (6)
(5)
where the unprimed quantity indicates an unscaled coefficient. This relationship in (6) is very useful. It shows us that we can realize an effective inductance with filter coefficient Lk by using a short circuit TL with an unscaled characteristic impedance Z 0 = Lk (7) that is /8long at = c . Similarly, one can show that a filter coefficient Ck can be effectively realized by an open circuit stub with unscaled characteristic impedance 1 Z0 = (8) Ck that is 8 long at = c .
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Lecture 31
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These effective L and C values for the stubs change with frequency. This affects, and generally degrades, the filter performance for f f c .
Kurodas Identities
Now that we can construct stubs to perform as effective inductors and capacitors in a filter [but with L ( f ) and C ( f ) ], we must next address the effects that occur when the stubs are separated from each other. This is an effect we ignored in the low pass prototype filter. We assumed it contained lumped elements that were interconnected without any time delay between them. In other words, all the elements existed at a point in space.
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Lecture 31
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In microwave circuits, this restriction may be difficult to realize in the physical construction. Hence, the distances between stubs may not be electrically small. The four Kuroda identities allow us to add redundant TLs to the microwave filter circuit and transform it into a more practical form. By definition, a redundant TL is a matched TL of 8 length. Because it is matched at both ends, these unit elements have no effect on the filter at the center frequency. However, they will have an effect at other frequencies. The four Kuroda identities are shown in Table 8.7:
Each box represents a unit element with the indicated characteristic impedance and length 8 . The lumped elements
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Lecture 31
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represent short or opencircuit stubs acting as normalized (i.e., unscaled) series or shunt TLs. For example, the first figure in entry (a) represents:
1 Z2
8 Z2
Z1
Z1
The text shows a proof of the first Kuroda identity entry in Table 8.7. Well prove the second one in the following example.
8 Z in Z1
Z2
Z in = jZ1 tan l = jZ1 where tan l . Zin is an unnormalized value because of Z1.
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Lecture 32
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Lecture 32: High Pass and Bandpass Microwave Filters. Resonant Stub Filters.
As has been stated in recent lectures, the low pass prototype can also be used to design high pass, bandpass, and bandstop filters, in addition to low pass filters. To achieve this, the prototype filter must be converted, in addition to impedance and frequency scaled. We will discuss the design process for high pass and bandpass filters in this lecture.
(8.68),(1)
in a transfer function converts a low pass filter response to a high pass one. Referring to the low pass prototype filters in Fig. 8.25, we will use (1) to convert the impedances of the series inductances and the shunt capacitances. Series Inductance. With Z L = j L and substituting (1):
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Lecture 32
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j Lk j
c 1 Lk = j Ck
(2)
1 (8.69a),(3) c Lk We can deduce from this result that the series inductances of the low pass prototype filter are converted to series capacitances. This is indicative of a high pass filter.
where
Ck
The purpose of the negative sign in (1) is also apparent from (3): it yields physically realizable capacitor values. Shunt Capacitance. With YC = jC and substituting (1): 1 jCk j c Ck = j Lk where Lk
(4)
1 (8.69b),(5) Ck Here we see that the substitution in (1) transforms the shunt capacitances in the low pass prototype to shunt inductances. This is also indicative of a high pass filter.
Including impedance scaling, the complete conversion of a low pass prototype circuit to a high pass filter is accomplished using 1 Ck = (8.70a),(6) R0 c Lk
Lk =
R0 c Ck
(8.70b),(7)
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Lecture 32
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Po Po 2
1 2 0 c
Notice that 0 is not the center frequency c. The text defines 0 = 1 2 (8.73) which is the geometric mean of 1 and 2, rather than the more common arithmeticmean definition. This was done to make the design equations simpler.
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Lecture 32
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As we did with the high pass filter, well apply the transformation (8) to the series inductors and shunt capacitors in the low pass prototype circuit. Series Inductance. With Z L = j L and substituting (8): 1 0 L 1 0 Lk j Lk j Lk = j k + 0 j 0 (8)
Lk 1/ Ck
(10)
From this result we see that the series inductors in the low pass prototype are transformed to a series LC combination with elements LR Lk = k 0 (series element 1 of 2) (8.74a),(11) 0 (series element 2 of 2) (8.74b),(12) 0 Lk R0 where weve also included the impedance scaling. and
Ck =
From this result we see that the shunt capacitors in the low pass prototype are transformed to a parallel LC combination with elements Ck Ck = (shunt element 1 of 2) (8.74d),(14) 0 R0
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Lecture 32
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(8.74c),(15)
summarizes
these
How do we implement these filters in microstrip? Consider a second order bandpass filter:
L1 C1
L2
C2
We could use the first Kuroda identity to transform L1 to a shunt capacitance, but what about the series capacitance C1 ? Kurodas fourth identity transforms a series capacitance to a series capacitance. Thats no help here. Were stuck!
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Lecture 33
Page 1 of 11
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Lecture 33
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two port, but possibly one with gain. This approach works well for the steady state analysis of linear, small signal amplifiers. For other types of active circuits, such as oscillators, mixers, or power amplifiers, the nonlinear behavior of the circuit devices must be explicitly accounted for, which precludes the use of S parameters. Much more difficult. One big difference with active devices is that the magnitude of the S parameters may be greater than one. Often it is only S21 that has this characteristic, with port 1 serving as the input and port 2 the output. With passive devices, S parameters with magnitudes greater than unity are physically impossible.
PL
there are three commonly used definitions for power gain. P G= L 1. Operating Power Gain: Pin
(1)
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Lecture 33
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This is the ratio of the timeaverage power dissipated in a load to the timeaverage power delivered to network. P GA = av ,n 2. Available Gain: (2) Pav , S This is the ratio of the maximally available timeaverage power from the network to the maximally available timeaverage power from the source. P GT = L 3. Transducer Gain: (3) Pav , S This is the ratio of the timeaverage power dissipated in the load to the maximally available timeaverage power from the source. It is this latter transducer gain that we used in EE 322 Electronics II Wireless Communication Electronics to characterize the performance (i.e. gain) of the active devices in circuits. Among other applications, these three definitions of power gain are used to design different types of amplifiers: 1. Operating Power Gain, G. Maximum linear output power amplifiers. 2. Available Power Gain, GA. Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs).
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Lecture 33
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3. Transducer Power Gain, GT. Simultaneously conjugate matched input and output ports (leads to maximum linear gain).
+ V1 S in Z in
[S]
(wrt Z0)
t2
out L
ZL
V1
V2
Z out
then by the definition of the S parameters we can write V1 = S11V1+ + S12 LV2 (11.2a),(4) and V2 = S 21V1+ + S 22 LV2 (11.2b),(5) In these equations we have used the relationship V2+ = LV2 . As we showed in Lecture 21 using signal flow graphs
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Lecture 33
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(11.3a),(6)
(11.3b),(7)
(8)
(9)
Now, using in = ( Z in Z 0 ) ( Z in + Z 0 ) and after some algebra, (9) can be reduced to 1 S VS (11.4),(10) V1+ = 1 S in 2 There are four different timeaverage power quantities we need to determine in order to compute (1)(3): 1. Pin: Timeaverage power provided by the source  V1+ 2 Pin = (1  in 2 ) 2Z 0 Substituting for V1+ from (10) gives  VS 2 1 S 2 Pin = (1  in 2 ) 8Z 0 1 S in 2
(11.5),(11)
(11.5),(12)
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Lecture 34
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Anytime a portion of a circuit has gain, the circuit may oscillate, even though that is not the intended function of the circuit. For example, an amplifier circuit has gain and if its not properly designed, it may oscillate. This concept is referred to as circuit stability. A circuit that is not stable may oscillate. This oscillation may not be easily detected. That is, you will probably not measure nice sinusoids at the circuit nodes.
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Lecture 34
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Instead, the circuit may just not work, or you will see DC voltages that are not possible, or the waveforms are incredibly noisy, etc. A very frustrating experience, especially if you dont understand circuit stability. Even a brief period of oscillation could permanently damage a circuit because of large voltages and power levels that might be generated. A thorough stability analysis requires a large signal analysis of the nonlinear circuit. Very difficult. Here, we will perform a much simpler twoport, Sparameter analysis. This is sufficient only for linear, small signal circuit applications. This analysis can be considered accurate as a test for startup instabilities. It can also provide a starting point for large signal analysis.
Negative Resistance
Consider the generic linear, smallsignal transistor amplifier circuit we saw in the last lecture:
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Lecture 34
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Z S Z in
Z out Z L
S in
out L
We will imagine the transistor is characterized by the S matrix: S11 S12 (1) [ St ] = S S 22 21 Further, we will assume the matching networks are passive so that S < 1 and L < 1 (2) Oscillation is possible in this circuit if a signal incident on the input or output port of the transistor is reflected with a gain > 1. That is, if in > 1 or out > 1 (3) the circuit may become unstable and oscillate. This could occur when noise in the circuit is incident on either port, is reflected with gain, is reflected again at the corresponding matching network, and so on. It is then possible that at some frequency, such noise could be amplified repeatedly to such a level that the device is forced into nonlinear operation and instability.
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Lecture 34
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In order for > 1, the real part of the impedance seen looking into the port must be negative. That is, (4) Rin < 0 or Rout < 0 for instability. This region lies outside the unit circle on a Smith chart. As we derived in Lecture 21
L S12 S21 (11.3a),(5) 1 L S22 S S out = S22 + S 12 21 (11.3b),(6) 1 S S11 Using these in (3), we find that for the circuit to be unconditionally stable: S S in = S11 + L 12 21 < 1 (11.19a),(7) 1 L S22 in = S11 +
and
out = S22 +
(11.19b),(8)
If S > 1 or L > 1, then (7) and (8) are requirements only for conditional stability.
Stability Circles
It can be very helpful to generate a graphical depiction of the range of S and L values that may lead to instability. Stability circles are one way to do this. They are particularly helpful
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Lecture 34
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because of the extra information we gain because they are drawn on the Smith chart. Stability circles define the boundary between stable and potentially unstable L or S . To determine these boundaries, we will set in = 1 (or out = 1) and draw these curves in the L (or S ) plane. For the load stability circle, from (5) we find S S S11 + L 12 21 = 1 1 L S22
(11.20),(9)
After some manipulation, as shown in the text, (9) can be rearranged to L CL = RL (10) which is an equation for a circle in the complex L plane. CL =
* ( S22 S11 ) *
(11.25a),(11)  S 22 2  2 is the center of the circle in the complex L plane, and S12 S21 (11.25b),(12) RL = 2 2  S22    is the radius, where
= S11S 22 S12 S 21
In (10)
(11.21),(13)
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Lecture 34
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For a conditionally stable circuit, the load stability circle may look something like this on the extended Smith chart:
Im ( L )
RL
CL
Im ( CL ) Re ( L )
Re ( CL )
Again, this circle defines those L values where in = 1. Inside the load stability circle (and with L 1) are those L that produce a stable or unstable circuit. We dont know which yet. The converse can be said for those L outside of the circle (and with L 1). So how do we identify the stable region? Very easily, as it turns out. We will choose a special load ZL that will quickly uncover the region of stability. Specifically, well choose Z L = Z 0 L = 0 so that from (5) in = S11  (14) Consequently, if S11 < 1, then the region containing the origin in the L plane (and L 1) is the stable region. Otherwise, if S11 > 1 , then the region inside the stability circle (and L 1) is the stable region. These two situations are illustrated below.
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Lecture 35
Page 1 of 9
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Lecture 35
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S in
out L
In this approach, we begin with the transducer gain we developed in Lecture 33: GT = GS G0GL (1) 1  S 2 GS = (11.16a),(2) where 1 in S 2 G0 = S 21 and
2
(11.16b),(3) (11.16c),(4)
1  L 2 GL = 1 S22 L 2
Maximum power transfer from the input matching network (IMN) to the transistor occurs when the two are conjugate * matched so that Z in = Z S . For a realvalued system impedance, this leads to the requirement in = * (11.36a),(5) S Similarly, maximum power is transferred from the transistor to the output matching network (OMN) when (11.36b),(6) out = * L When (5) and (6) are realized in the amplifier circuit, maximum transducer gain will be obtained (for lossless matching
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Lecture 35
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networks). The value of this maximum transducer gain, GTmax , is found by substituting (5) into (1) 1 1  L 2 2 GTmax = (11.37),(7)  S 21  2 2 1  S  1 S 22 L  In order to achieve this gain, the IMN and OMN must be simultaneously designed so that (5) and (6) are satisfied. To develop these design equations, we substitute the expressions for in and out derived in Lecture 33 into (5) and (6) giving S S (11.38a),(8) * = S11 + 12 21 ML MS 1 S22 ML S S (11.38b),(9) * = S22 + 12 21 MS ML 1 S11 MS where the M subscript indicates values obtained with conjugate matching.
These are two equations from which we can solve for the two unknowns MS and ML . As shown in the text, these solutions are
MS B1 B12 4  C1 2 = 2C1
(11.40a),(10)
2 B2 B2 4  C2 2 ML = and (11.40b),(11) 2C2 (not + as in the text see Gilmore and Besser, vol. II, p. 79). In (10) and (11):
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Lecture 35
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and
These design equations will produce physically realizable, passive matching networks provided the transistor is unconditionally stable (or has been stabilized). The final step is to construct these lossless passive matching networks. This will be illustrated in the following example.
Example N35.1 (Text example 11.3). For the amplifier circuit shown earlier in this lecture, design input and output matching networks to achieve maximum transducer gain at 4 GHz. The S parameters for the transistor, referenced to 50 , are:
The first step in this design process is to ensure that the device is unconditionally stable at 4.0 GHz.
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Lecture 36
Page 1 of 10
Unilateral Transistor
Before introducing the method of design for specific gain, we will first discuss the concept of a unilateral transistor. This is an approximation in which S12 = 0 is assumed for a transistor. This is in contrast to a bilateral transistor where S12 0 . The unilateral approximation can substantially simplify the design of an amplifier circuit while, in some cases, introducing acceptable error in the gain calculation.
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Lecture 36
Page 2 of 10
The assumption that S12 = 0 has some important consequences for the input and output reflection coefficients in a twoport network:
Z S Z in
Z out Z L
S in
out L
In particular, from (11.3a) for the input reflection coefficient and S12 = 0 : S S in = S11 + L 12 21 = S11 (11.3a),(1) 1 L S22 while from (11.3b) for the output reflection coefficient S S out = S22 + S 12 21 = S 22 (11.3b),(2) 1 S S11
Using (1) and (2) in the expression for GT (from (11.13) in the text) provides what is called the unilateral transducer gain, GTU, given as 1  S 2 1  L 2 2  S 21  GTU = (11.15),(3) 1 S S11 2 1 S 22 L 2 The error in gain calculated by the unilateral approximation is sometimes quantified through the ratio of GTU to the regular (or
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Lecture 36
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bilateral) transducer gain GT. As given in the text, this ratio is bounded as 1 G 1 (11.45),(4) < T < 2 2 (1 + U ) GTU (1 U ) where U is the unilateral figure of merit defined as S11 S 21 S12 S 22 U= 2 2 1 S11 1 S 22
)(
(11.46),(5)
The unilateral assumption is often found acceptable when the error is less than approximately 0.5 dB or so. We have found that this expression in (4) is actually not correct. You will be investigating this in your homework.
1 S11 S
, GLU =
2
1 L
2 2
1 S 22 L
(7),(8) (9)
G0 = S 21
The S parameters of the transistor are fixed by the device itself as well as the particular biasing.
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Lecture 36
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To achieve a specific gain, which is less than the maximum, from the transistor amplifier circuit, mismatch will be purposefully designed into the input and/or output matching networks to yield the gain we seek. In other words, the source and load gain factors in (7) and (8) will be adjusted downward from their maximum values GSU max and GLU max in order to achieve the specified gain. The maximum GS occurs when there is a conjugate match at the transistor input, so that for a unilateral device * (10) S = * = S11 in
(1)
Likewise, the maximum GL occurs when there is a conjugate match at the transistor output so that * (11) L = * = S 22 out
(2)
Applying (10) in (7) and (11) in (8) leads to an expression for the maximum unilateral transducer gain, GTU max , given as 1 1 2 (12) GTU max = S 21 GSU max G0GLU max 2 2 1 S11 1 S 22 where the maximum source and load gain factors for the unilateral device are 1 (11.47a),(13) GSU max = 2 1 S11
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and
GLU max =
1 1 S 22
2
(11.47b),(14)
We will define normalized gain factors gS and gL to quantify the amount of reduction in the source and load gain factors needed to achieve the desired gain. These factors are given as 2 1 S GS 2 (11.48a),(15) = gS 1 S11 2 GSU max 1 S11 S
and
1 L GL gL = GLU max 1 S 22 L
2 2
1 S 22
(11.48b),(16)
so that 0 g S 1 and 0 g L 1. As shown in the text, (15) and (16) can be cast in the forms S CS = RS and L CL = RL , (17),(18) respectively, where
CS = RS = and 1 (1 g S ) S11 1 g S 1 S11 1 (1 g S ) S11
* g L S 22
* g S S11 2
2 2
(11.51a),(19)
) )
(11.51b),(20)
CL = RL =
1 (1 g L ) S22 1 g L 1 S 22 1 (1 g L ) S22
2
2 2
(11.52a),(21)
(11.52b),(22)