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DOI: 10.1002/ls.137

Squeeze lm characteristics between a sphere and a rough porous at plate with micropolar uids

Abdallah A. Elsharkawy*, and Khaled J. Al-Fadhalah

Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait

ABSTRACT The effects of surface roughness on the squeeze lm characteristics between a sphere and at plate covered with a thin porous layer are investigated in this paper. The sphere and the plate are separated with a non-Newtonian lubricant of a micropolar uid. The well-established Christensen stochastic theory of hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces is used to incorporate the effects of surface roughness into the Reynolds equation. The lm pressure distribution is solved and other squeeze lm characteristics, such as the load-carrying capacity,and timeheight relationship, are obtained. The results indicate that lubrication by a micropolar uid will increase the load-carrying capacity and lengthen the squeeze lm time, regardless to the surface rough and porosity of the at plate. It is also found that excessive permeability of the porous layer causes a signicant drop in the squeeze lm characteristics and minimises the effect of surface roughness. For the case of limited or no permeability, the azimuthal roughness is found to increase the load-carrying capacity and squeeze time, whereas the reverse results are obtained for the case of radial roughness. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Received 12 October 2009; Revised 15 July 2010; Accepted 16 July 2010 KEY WORDS: squeeze lm; porous layer; non-Newtonian uids; surface roughness

INTRODUCTION The squeeze lm phenomena arise from the behaviour of two lubricated surfaces approaching each other with a normal velocity. Since the viscous lubricant present in the lm has a resistance, it cannot be squeezed out instantaneously. The analysis of squeeze lm characteristics between a sphere and a plate is important for applications to human joints, ball bearings and the press moulding system. For instance, most bone surfaces in humans are covered by articular cartilages that are elastic and porous. With an age increase or sport injuries, cartilages are vulnerable to roughening. In general, the surface roughness and porosity can play major roles in alternating load-carrying characteristics. This is specically important for the case of porous bearing layer with small uid lm thickness, in which the roughness of bearing surfaces is on the microscale level and the mean of roughness asperities becomes

*Correspondence to: Abdallah A. Elsharkawy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Petroleum, Kuwait University, PO Box 5969, Safat 13060, Kuwait. E-mail: abdullah@kuc01.kuniv.edu.kw Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

of the same order as the mean height of the thin lm separating the approaching surfaces. Another complexity that can be raised is the non-Newtonian effect of the lubricant, which becomes signicantly important for thin uid lm. The hydrodynamic lubrication squeeze problem between rigid sphere and at surface has been investigated by many researchers.15 In the early work of Conway and Lee,1 it was shown that the increase of lubricant viscosity, during the squeeze motion of Newtonian lubricant between a rigid, a sphere and a at, cause large increases of pressure near the central area of the liquid bridge as compared with the pressure obtained for the case of isoviscous lubricant. Later study by Lin2 investigated the effect of non-Newtonian lubrication of a rigid sphere and a at, as modelled by a couple stress uid, to describe the microcontinuum behaviour of blending polymeric additives with Newtonian lubricant. Compared to the case of Newtonian lubrication, Lin concluded the couple stress effect provides an increase in the load-carrying capacity and a delay in the response time of approach, especially at low value of squeeze height. Moreover, Naduvinamani et al.3 extended Lins work to examine the effect of surface roughness on the squeeze characteristics of couple stress lubricant between a sphere and a at. The analysis is based on Christensens stochastic theory for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surface,6 describing the random character of surface roughness and considering independently the effects of roughness pattern on the at plate (i.e. azimuthal roughness and radial roughness). It was found that the presence of azimuthal roughness pattern on the at plate results in a signicant increases in load-carrying capacity and squeeze lm time as compared to the smooth case. The inverse is true for radial roughness pattern. In addition, Lu and Lin4 examined the combined effects of couple stress lubricant and viscosity-pressure dependence on the squeeze action between a sphere and a at. The results indicated that the combined effects provide enhancement in the load-carrying capacity and lengthen the response time as compared to the isoviscous Newtonian lubrication of the sphere-plate system. In another work by Lin and co-workers,5 hydrodynamic lubrication by couple stress uid was utilised to examine the squeeze process between two rigid spheres of different sizes. It was found that larger couple stress parameter and sphere ratio result in increasing the load-carrying capacity and squeeze lm time. Moreover, Chu et al.7 made an elastohydrodynamic lubrication analysis for different squeeze action geometries, with special attention to sphere-at plate case, considering the combined effects of surface roughness and couple stress uids. The results show that the azimuthal roughness enhances the pressure and lm thickness as compared to those of the radial roughness in the central contact region. Several researchers have examined the effect of surface roughness on the squeeze lm of different porous journal bearing elements.813 These studies indicate that the presence of surface roughness in the case of non-Newtonian lubricant has signicantly increased the load-carrying capacity and hence lengthens the squeeze time, as compared to the Newtonian case. Conversely, the increase in permeability of the porous layer causes a drop in the load-carrying capacity, even when a surface roughness is present. In addition, other works examined the surface roughness on the squeeze action of poroelastic-bearing elements.13,14 For example, Bujurke and Kudenatti13 studied the effect of roughness on the squeeze action of Newtonian joint cavity lubricant separating poroelastic cartilages in the synovial joints. The results indicated that there is a decrease in the load-carrying capacity, for a xed roughness parameter, with increasing the articular cartilage permeability. Bujurke et al.14 extended the previous work to examine the effect of non-Newtonian lubrication of lubricant with polymer additives, as presented by couple stress uid. It was found that the polymer additives in the lubricant oppose the squeezing action and enhance the pressure in the lm region leading to increase in the load-carrying capacity. The presence of rough porous surfaces has been shown to affect the performance of bearing elements adversely, especially for small lm thickness of non-Newtonian lubricants containing

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

polymer additives. In this case, the surface roughness is on the order of the gap height and permeability of the porous layer is affected by the size and motion of individual particles suspended in the lubricant. Such complex squeeze behaviour of non-Newtonian lubricant can be described by the micropolar uid theory, rst presented by Eringen,15 which accounts for the motion of suspended particles in the uid by considering an additional vector eld for the microelements, so-called angular velocity eld of rotation of particles (or micro-rotation vector) and extra vector equation, i.e. the conservation of angular momentum. Different lubrication models of micropolar uids have been used to analyse porous bearings1619 and found many advantages over lubrication with Newtonian uid such as an increase in load-carrying capacity and a delay in time of approach. The present paper extends the work of Lin2 and Naduvinamani et al.3 to incorporate the effects of the permeability and surface roughness on the squeeze characteristics of non-Newtonian behaviour of micropolar uid, for the hydrodynamic lubrication of a rigid sphere and a porous at surface. The effect of the roughness pattern (azimuthal and radial roughness) is also examined, following the Christensen stochastic theory.6 The modied Reynolds equation governing the squeeze lm pressure is derived based on the theory of micropolar uid, accounting for the motion of additives in the lubricating lm. Different squeeze lm characteristics are presented including load-carrying capacity and timeheight relation.

ANALYSIS Smooth porous surface Consider the squeeze lm mechanism as shown in Figure 1. A rigid sphere of radius R is approaching an innite porous plate with a velocity h/t under a constant load. The lubricant in the system is taken to be a micropolar uid. It is assumed that the uid lm is thin, the uid inertia is small, the body forces and body couples are absent and the thickness of porous layer is small. Following the work of

Figure 1. Schematic of squeeze lm process between a rigid sphere and a rough porous at plate.

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

Naduvinamani et al.,3,19 the Reynolds equation for hydrodynamic lubrication with micropolar uids can be written in the following modied form

1 p h rG( N , , h, ) r = 12 t r r

where

(1)

Nh 12t p G( N , , h, ) = h 3 + 12 2 h 6 N 2 h 2 coth + 2 + h = hm + r2 2R

12

(2)

(3)

N = + 2 = 4

12

(4)

(5)

h denotes the nominal smooth part of the geometry, provided that the variable radius r is much smaller than the sphere radius R, and hm is the minimum lm thickness. The parameter m is the viscosity of the base uid as in the case of Newtonian uid, and c and g are the two additional viscosity coefcients for micropolar uids, commonly grouped in the form of two parameters N and . The parameter N is a dimensionless parameter called the coupling number, for it characterises the coupling of the linear and angular momentum equations. When N is identically zero, the equations of linear and angular momentum are decoupled and the equation of the linear momentum reduces to the classical Navier Stokes equation. The parameter is called the characteristic length for it characterises the interaction between the micropolar uid and the lm gap. This parameter is a function of the size of lubricant molecule. In the limiting case of 0, the microstructure becomes negligible and equation (1) reduces to Newtonian uid case. The second term in equation (2) is the contribution of the ow of micropolar lubricant in the porous matrix where f and tp are the permeability and thickness of the porous matrix, respectively. Equation (3) describes the lm thickness equation for smooth surfaces (see Figure 1). 2 r h pho * , hm = m , Introduce the dimensionless variables and parameters r * = , p* = R R ( h t ) ho ho t p ho = , = , h* = , = 3 , then equations (1) to (3) can be expressed in the following R ho ho R dimensionless form:

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

(6)

(7)

r*2 2

(8)

Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

p* = 0 at r * = 1 p* = 0 at r * = 0 r *

The squeeze lm pressure for smooth porous surface is given by

(9a) (9b)

p*(r *) =

r *=1

(10)

Rough porous surface Surface roughness effects can be incorporated into the lubrication analysis by applying the stochastic theory of hydrodynamic of rough surfaces developed Christensen.6 Following Gururajan and Parakash,20 Reynolds equation can be modied to incorporate both radial and azimuthal roughness patterns. To represent the surface roughness, the mathematical expression for lm thickness is considered to be made of two parts:

H = h + hs (r , , )

(11)

where hs(r, q, x) is the part due to the surface asperities measured from nominal level and is randomly varying quantity with zero mean. The parameter x is an index determining a denite roughness arrangement. For the one-dimensional radial roughness pattern having the form of long narrow ridges and valleys running in r-direction (i.e. they are straight ridges and valleys passing through z = 0, r = 0 to form star pattern). In this case, the Reynolds equation can be in the following dimensionless form:

p* r* r*E [G*( N , , H *, )] r* = 12 r * where H * = h* + hs , and E is the expectancy operator and is dene as E (*) =

(12)

s s

(13)

* * where hs = hs ho , and f (hs ) is the probability density distribution of the random variable. This chosen as 35 C 2 (h* )2 3 s * f (hs ) = 32C 7 0 * C < hs < C elsewhere

(14)

where C = c/ho is the dimensionless roughness parameter (c is the maximum asperity deviation from the nominal lm height). This function terminates at d = 3s, where s is the standard deviation. The expectancy function given in equation (13) can be written as

E [G*( N , , H *, )] =

35 32C 7

[C

(15)

Integrating equation (13) with boundary conditions (9), the pressure distribution can be obtained as

p*(r *) =

r *=1

(16)

Once the pressure distribution is determined, the load-carrying capacity can be computed by integrating the lm pressure acting on the sphere, and is given by

E (W ) = 2 E ( p ) rdr

0

(17)

W* =

2 E(W )ho 3 R ( h t )

(18)

W* =

(19)

t* =

2 E(W )ho t R 4

(20)

* dhm = dt*

1 6

0 1

(21)

For one-dimensional azimuthal roughness, the surfaces have the form of long narrow ridges and valleys running in the q direction (i.e. they are circular ridges and valleys on the at plate that are concentric on z = 0, r = 0); the point directly under the lowest point of the sphere). In this case, the Reynolds equation can be expressed in the following dimensionless form:

r* r* p* = 12 r E [1 G*( N , , H *, )] r*

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

(22)

Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

where

1 35 E = G*( N , , H *, ) 32C 7

s

* [C 2 (hs )2 ]3

(23)

In the case of azimuthal roughness, the pressure distribution, load and variation of the nominal lm thickness with respect to time can be expressed in the following dimensionless forms, respectively,

p*(r *) =

1

r *=1

(24)

W* =

0 1

(25)

* dhm = dt*

(26)

The non-dimensional lm pressure and load capacity equations, given in (16) and (19) for radial roughness and in (24) and (25) for azimuthal roughness, were numerically integrated using the method of Gaussian quadrature. The non-dimensional timeheight relationship (equations 21 and 26) is highly non-linear ordinary differential equation and can be solved numerically by using forth-order Runge * Kutta method with the initial condition of hm = 1 at t* = 0 and with a step interval of Dt* 0.01. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The analysis of this paper examined the combined effects of surface roughness and lubrication by a micropolar uid on the squeeze lm characteristics between a rigid sphere and a porous at plate. The non-Newtonian effect of the micropolar uid is examined by using the two non-dimensional parameters N = (c/c + 2m)1/2 and t = l/ho, presenting the effects of micro-rotation and size of lubricant additives, respectively. The effect of surface roughness for both types of roughness patterns is characterised by the roughness parameter C = c/ho, where c is the maximum asperity height. The effect 3 of permeability of porous at plate is analysed through the permeability parameter = t p ho . Table I presents the parameters of sphere size, micropolar uid, surface roughness and permeability of the porous layer used in the current analysis. It should be noted that in the limiting case of C = 0 and Y = 0, the modied Reynolds equations, presented in non-dimensional form in equations (12) and (22), reduce to the case of squeeze ow of micropolar uid between a sphere and a smooth solid at. The simulation results examined the following squeeze lm characteristics: lm pressure, load-carrying capacity, timeheight relationship and maximum pressure-height relationship. Model validation In the work of Lin2 and Naduvinamani et al.,3 the squeeze characteristics of non-Newtonian lubricant between a sphere and a at were predicted by using the couple stress uid model. To validate the

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

Sphere size Micropolar uid Roughness Permeability b t N C Y

Parameters values

0.05 0.2 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9 0, 0.1, 0.2 0, 0.001, 0.01

current simulation results with the above couple stress models, an alternative form of function G* is used to account for the effect of lubricating with couple stress uid, and it is expressed by

(27)

The above function accounts for the couple stress characteristic length of the additives, presented by the non-dimensional parameter tc. The last part of the function accounts for the permeability effect where Y presents the permeability parameters and a denotes the ratio of additives size in the couple stress lubricant to the pore size in the porous layer. The effect of surface roughness follows Christensens stochastic theory6 described in the second part of the analysis section. Figure 2 compares the squeeze lm characteristics of the current model with that of Lins2 for a couple stress lubricant between a sphere and a smooth solid at plate (i.e. C = 0 and Y = 0). The simulation results of the current model provide a good agreement with the results obtained by Lin, which show increase in maximum pressure pmax and load-carrying capacity W and a delay in timeresponse t as the couple stress parameter tc increases. Figure 3 compares the current model with the work of Naduvinamani et al.,3 examining the combined effects of couple stress uid and surface roughness on the squeeze performance of sphere-at system, for the case of radial of radial roughness. The simulation results agree very well with that of Naduvinamani and co-workers,3 capturing the effect of increasing the couple stress parameter tc from 0 to 0.2 on squeeze lm characteristics, while having radial surface roughness with C = 0.2. Effect of micropolar uids The squeeze lm characteristics are rst examined in the current analysis by evaluating the effect of lubricating by micropolar uids. The simulation results are shown in Figure 4 and obtained by varying the coupling number N from 0.1 to 0.9 while keeping the non-dimensional parameter t xed at value of 0.2. Permeability parameter was taken equal to Y = 0.01 and radial roughness was considered with C = 0.2. The squeeze lm pressure, presented in Figure 4a in dimensionless form p* as a function of dimensionless sphere radius r*, increases noticeably with increasing the value of N, especially in the vicinity of the position of minimum lm height (i.e. at r* = 0). Figure 4b depicts the dimensionless * * maximum lm pressure pmax as a function of dimensionless minimum lm height hm , indicating a signicant increase in the value of maximum pressure with increasing N, particularly for small values of minimum lm height. Moreover, the load-carrying capacity W* is plotted in Figure 4c as a function * of dimensionless minimum lm height hm .

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

40

Newtonian c = 0.04 c = 0.06 Newtonian (Lin) c = 0.04 (Lin) c = 0.06 (Lin) 1000 Newtonian c = 0.04 c = 0.06 Newtonian (Lin) c = 0.04 (Lin) c = 0.06 (Lin)

30

h*m=0.3

100

p* 20

p*max

10

10

0 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

r* (a)

1.0

h*max

(b)

14 12 10 8

Newtonian c = 0.04 c = 0.06 Newtonian (Lin) c = 0.04 (Lin) c = 0.06 (Lin) 0.6 0.8

W*

6 4

h*max

0.4

0.2

2 0 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.0

h max

0.00

0.06

0.12

0.18

0.24

0.30

0.36

(c)

t* (d)

Figure 2. Comparison of squeeze lm characteristics using the couple stress model of Lin (2000) and the current model for the case of lubrication of sphere and smooth non-porous at plate: (a) dimensionless * * pressure p* as a function of r*, (b) dimensionless maximum pressure pmax versus hm , * (c) dimensionless load-carrying capacity W* versus hm , (d) dimensionless * minimum lm height hm versus t*.

10

8 100

1.0

6

h*m=0.8

Newtonian c = 0.1 c = 0.2 Newtonian (Naduvinmani) c = 0.1 (Naduvinmani) c = 0.02 (Naduvinmani) Newtonian c = 0.1 c = 0.2 Newtonian (Naduvinmani) c = 0.1 (Naduvinmani) c = 0.02 (Naduvinmani)

0.8

0.6

p* 4

0.4

p*max 10

h*m

2 0.2

0 0.0

0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

0.1

1 0.3

0.4

r*

(a)

h*max

(b)

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.0 0.00

0.06

0.12

0.18

0.24

0.30

0.36

t*

(c)

Figure 3. Comparison of squeeze lm characteristics using the couple stress model of Naduvinamani et al. (2005) and the current model for the case of lubrication of sphere and rough non-porous at plate: (a) dimensionless pressure p* as a function of r*, * * * (b) dimensionless maximum pressure pmax versus hm , (d) dimensionless minimum lm height hm versus t*.

11

10

p* 6

p*max

10

0 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

r (a)

14 N = 0.1 N = 0.3 N = 0.5 N = 0.7 N = 0.9 1.0

h*max (b)

12

0.8

W*

4 0.2 2

0 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

h max (c)

t* (d)

Figure 4. Squeeze lm characteristics using different values of coupling parameter N, with t = 0.2, Y = 0.01 and C = 0.2: (a) dimensionless pressure p* as a function of r*, (b) dimensionless * * maximum pressure pmax versus hm , (c) dimensionless load-carrying capacity * * W* versus hm , (d) dimensionless minimum lm height hm versus t*.

12

The effects of micro-rotation and size of lubricant additives, presented by parameters N and t, * respectively, is clearly shown be very signicant at small hm in increasing the load-carrying capacity as the value of N increases from 0.1 to 0.9. In addition, the timeheight relationship is examined in Figure 4d, indicating that higher value of coupling parameter N provides longer dimensionless * response time t* and prevents surface-to-surface contact (i.e. hm = 0 ), regardless to the presence of porous layer and radial roughness that can signicantly reduce the lm height. Effect of porous layer The permeability of porous layer of the at surface is also examined by considering three different cases: no permeability (Y = 0), limited permeability (Y = 0.001) and moderate permeability (Y = 0.01). The simulation results, shown in Figure 5, were obtained by taking N = 0.5, t = 0.2 and C = 0.2 for the case of radial roughness. The effect of permeability on the lm pressure is plotted in * Figure 5a for minimum lm height of hm = 0.8. The results indicate that a noticeable drop in the lm pressure does not occur until a moderate permeability is present for which Y = 0.01, allowing the micropolar uid to occupy the pores of the porous layers and thus providing less resistant to the * * squeezing action. Figure 5b presents pmax as a function of hm . It can be noticed that at large value of * hm , the effect of permeability is only obvious for moderate permeability (Y = 0.01). For the case of * limited permeability (Y = 0.001), the dimensionless maximum pressure pmax becomes less than that * for non-porous at at a minimum lm height hm of 0.4 or lower. Similar results can be obtained by * plotting W* versus hm as shown in Figure 5c. The load-carrying capacity W* can be observed to * increase rapidly for the case of non-porous layer as the minimum lm height hm becomes less than 0.4. Figure 5d depicts the timeheight relationship is examined in Figure 4d, indicating that the increase in permeability yields a lower time response t*, as now the lubricant has more access to escape from the liquid bridge into the pores of the porous layer and thus it reduces the lm height at shorter time. The above results have provided estimation on the effect of permeability on the squeeze lm characteristics. A more realistic model is to include the effect of layers elasticity. This has been recently investigated by Bujurke and co workers,14 who examined the effect of surface roughness on squeeze lm poroelastic bearings, lubricated by couple stress uid. This was particularly applied to study the squeeze lm characteristics for synovial joints. The results indicated that the maximal supporting load sustained by a joint increases with increasing surface roughness parameter and the elastic modulus of the cartilage, while it decreases with increasing couple-stress parameter. Effect of surface roughness The surface roughness of the porous layer is examined by considering both radial and azimuthal roughness. For each roughness pattern, the severity of roughness was examined by evaluating the roughness parameter C at three different values: smooth surface (C = 0), small roughness (C = 0.1) and moderate roughness (C = 0.2). The simulation results, shown in Figure 6, were obtained by taking N = 0.5, t = 0.2 and having limited permeability for which Y = 0.001. The effect of surface roughness * on the lm pressure is plotted in Figure 6a for minimum lm height of hm = 0.8 . The results indicate * that the surface roughness plays a minor role on the lm pressure distribution at large values of hm , * with slightly larger (smaller) value of pmax in the case of azimuthal (radial) roughness compared to the case of smooth surface. However, it can be observed from Figure 6b that decreasing the minimum lm * * height hm below 0.4 causes pmax for the case of rough surface to deviate from that obtained for the

Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

13

6

=0 = 0.001 = 01

1000

=0 = 0.001 = 01

p* 3

p*max

10

0 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

r* (a)

25

=0 = 0.001 = 01

h*max (b)

1.0

=0 = 0.001 = 01

20

0.8

15

0.6 h

* max

W*

10

0.4

0.2

0 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

h*max (c)

t* (d)

Figure 5. Squeeze lm characteristics using different values of permeability parameter Y, with t = 0.2, N = 0.5 and C = 0.2: (a) dimensionless pressure p* as a function of r*, (b) dimensionless maximum * * * pressure pmax versus hm , (c) dimensionless load-carrying capacity W* versus hm , * (d) dimensionless minimum lm height hm versus t*.

14

7 C = 0.2 (radial) C = 0.2 (azimuthal) C = 0.1 (radial) C = 0.1 (azimuthal) C=0 h*m=0.8 4

1000 C = 0.2 (radial) C = 0.2 (azimuthal) C = 0.1 (radial) C = 0.1 (azimuthal) C=0 100

p*

3

p*max

10 2

0 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

r (a)

25 C = 0.2 (radial) C = 0.2 (azimuthal) C = 0.1 (radial) C = 0.1 (azimuthal) C=0 1.0

h*max (b)

20

0.8

15

0.6 h*max

W*

10

0.4

0.2

0 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.0 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

h*max (c)

t* (d)

Figure 6. Squeeze lm characteristics using different values of roughness parameter C, with t = 0.2, N = 0.5 and Y = 0.001: (a) dimensionless pressure p* as a function of r*, (b) dimensionless * * maximum pressure pmax versus hm , (c) dimensionless load-carrying capacity * * W* versus hm , (d) dimensionless minimum lm height hm versus t*.

15

case of smooth surface. This deviation is more accentuated for the case of azimuthal roughness where * * * the maximum pressure (at hm = 0.1) is pmax = 400 for smooth surface and pmax = 1300 for azimuthal roughness with C = 0.2. The results of the load-carrying capacity W*, presented in Figure 6c, also conrm the above ndings, as the azimuthal roughness causes an increase in the load-carrying capacity (and radial roughness decreases the load-carrying capacity) with decreasing the minimum lm height * hm . The timeheight relationship shown in Figure 6d indicates that the presence of surface roughness with limited permeability strongly affects the response time t*. It can be noticed that increasing the surface asperity, presented by the parameter C, causes longer delay in the response time for the case of azimuthal roughness, as suggested also by Naduvinamani et al.3 The reversed trend is observed for the case of radial roughness. Moreover, the case of moderate permeability of the porous layer (Y = 0.01) in the presence of surface roughness was also examined. The simulation results presented in Figure 7 indicate that excessive permeability does not only decrease the load-carrying capacity and squeeze time but also minimises the effect of surface roughness, regardless to the value of roughness asperity and/or roughness pattern. Another interesting point to observe in Figure 7 is that the surface roughness has very limited effect on the characteristics of the squeeze lm even for a small value of minimum lm height.

CONCLUSIONS The current hydrodynamic lubrication model presents a comprehensive analysis of the role of surface roughness on the squeezing ow of micropolar uid lm separating a rigid sphere from a porous at plate. Several ndings are obtained for the squeeze lm characteristics and are summarised as follows: Effect of the size and micro-rotation of the additives of the micropolar lubricant, presented by the parameters t and N, is found to be signicant (at all lm height hm) in increasing squeeze lm pressure, load-carrying capacity and in delaying the squeeze lm time. Limited permeability of the porous layer provides a reasonable characteristics response, compared to the case of non-porous at plate, especially at large lm heights. Extra permeability of the porous layer causes a noticeable decline in the lm pressure and load-carrying capacity, and thus shortens the squeeze lm time which might increase the possibility of sphere-to-at contact. The presence of surface roughness on the porous at plate has considerable effect on the characteristics of squeeze lm. The increase in roughness asperity with the presence of azimuthal (radial) roughness was found to increase (decrease) the load-carrying capacity and squeeze lm time, compared to the smooth case. This is particularly true for the case of no- or limitedpermeability of the porous layer. As the permeability increases, the effect of asperity and pattern of surface roughness becomes very small, even with decreasing the lm height.

NOMENCLATURE c C E H maximum asperity deviation from the nominal lm height dimensionless roughness parameter, c/ho expectancy operator lm thickness, h + hs

Lubrication Science 2011; 23:118 DOI: 10.1002/ls

16

100 C=0 C = 0.1 (radial) C = 0.1 (azimuthal) C = 0.2 (radial) C = 0.2 (azimuthal)

h*m=0.8

p* 3

p*max 10

0 0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

1 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

r* (a)

5 C=0 C = 0.1 (radial) C = 0.1 (azimuthal) C = 0.2 (radial) C = 0.2 (azimuthal) 1.0

h*max (b)

0.8

0.6

h*max

0.4

2 0.2

1 0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

h*max (c)

t* (d)

Figure 7. Squeeze lm characteristics using different values of roughness parameter C, with t = 0.2, N = 0.5 and Y = 0.01: (a) dimensionless pressure p* as a function of r*, (b) dimensionless * * maximum pressure pmax versus hm , (c) dimensionless load-carrying capacity * * W* versus hm , (d) dimensionless minimum lm height hm versus t*.

17

h hs hm ho H* h* * hm tp l t N p p* * pmax r, z r* R t t* W W* b m g, c f Y x h lc tc a

nominal lm thickness of smooth surface, hm + r2/2R part of lm thickness due to surface asperities nominal minimum lm thickness (value of h at r = 0) minimum lm thickness at t = 0 dimensionless lm thickness, H/ho dimensionless nominal lm thickness, h/ho dimensionless nominal minimum lm thickness, hm/ho porous layer thickness additives characteristic length of micropolar uid, (g/4m)1/2 dimensionless characteristic length of micropolar uid, l/ho coupling number for micropolar uid, (c/c + 2m)1/2 lm pressure 2 dimensionless lm pressure, pho R ( h t ) dimensionless maximum lm pressure radial and axial coordinates dimensionless radial coordinate, r/R radius of sphere time 2 dimensionless time, E(W )ho t R 4 load-carrying capacity 2 dimensionless load-carrying capacity, E(W )ho R 3 ( h t ) dimensionless central lm thickness at t = 0, ho/R Newtonian lubricant viscosity viscosity coefcients for micropolar uids permeability of the porous layer 3 permeability parameter, t p ho random variable determining the denite roughness arrangement material constant for couple stress additives characteristic length of couple stress uid, (h/m)1/2 dimensionless couple stress parameter, lc/ho ratio of microstructure size to the pore size, lc /f

REFERENCES

1. Conway D, Lee HC. Impact of lubricated surface by a sphere. Journal of Lubrication Technology 1975; 97:613 615. 2. Lin JR. Squeeze lm characteristics between a sphere and a at plate: couple stress uid model. Computers and Structures 2000; 75:7380. 3. Naduvinamani NB, Hiremath PS, Gurubasavaraj G. Effect of surface roughness on the couple-stress squeeze lm between a sphere and a at plate. Tribology International 2005; 38:451458. 4. Lu RF, Lin JR. A theoretical study of combined effects of non-Newtonian rheology and viscosity-pressure dependence in the sphere-plate squeeze-lm system. Tribology International 2007; 40:125131. 5. Lin JR, Chu LM, Liaw WL, Mou LJ. Effects of non-Newtonian couple stresses on the squeeze lm characteristics between two different spheres. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology 2008; 222:693701. 6. Christensen H. Stochastic models for hydrodynamic lubrication of rough surfaces. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part I 1969; 18:10131026.

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7. Chu LM, Li WL, Lin JR, Chang YP. Coupled effects of surface roughness and ow rheology on elastohydrodynamic lubrication. Tribology International 2010; 43:483490. 8. Gururajan K, Prakash J. Effect of surface roughness in a narrow porous journal bearing. ASME Transactions. Journal of Tribology 2000; 122:472475. 9. Naduvinamani NB, Hiremath PS, Gurubasavaraj G. Surface roughness effects in a short porous journal bearing with a couple stress uid. Fluid Dynamics Research 2002; 31:333354. 10. Naduvinamani NB, Fathima ST, Hiremath PS. Effect of surface roughness on characteristics of couple stress squeeze lm between anisotropic porous rectangular plates. Fluid Dynamics Research 2003; 32:217231. 11. Naduvinamani NB, Bujurke NM, Fathima ST, Benchalli SS. Effect of surface roughness on couple stress squeeze lm lubrication of long porous partial journal bearings. Industrial Lubrication and Tribology 2006; 58:176186. 12. Naduvinamani NB, Siddangouda A. Effect of surface roughness on the hydrodynamic lubrication of porous step-slider bearings with couple stress uids. Tribology International 2007; 40:780793. 13. Bujurke NM, Kudenatti RB. Surface roughness effects on squeeze lm poroelastic bearings. Applied Mathematics and Computation 2006; 174:11811195. 14. Bujurke NM, Kudenatti RB, Awati VB. Effect of surface roughness on squeeze lm poroelastic bearings with special reference to synovial joints. Mathematical Biosciences 2007; 209:7689. 15. Eringen AC. Theory of micropolar uids. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics 1966; 16:118. 16. Verma PDS, Agrawal VK, Bhatt SB. Porous inclined slider bearing lubricated with micropolar uid. Wear 1979; 53:101 106. 17. Zaheeruddin KH, Isa M. Characteristics of a micropolar lubricant in a squeeze lm porous spherical bearing. Wear 1978; 51:110. 18. Zaheeruddin KH, Isa M. One-dimensional porous journal bearing lubrication with micropolar uid. Wear 1980; 83:257 270. 19. Naduvinamani NB, Marali GB. Dynamic Reynolds equation for micropolar uid lubrication of porous slider bearings. Journal of Marine Science and Technology 2008; 16:182190. 20. Gururajan K, Parkash J. Surface roughness effects in innitely long porous journal bearings. ASME Transactions. Journal of Tribology 1999; 121:139147.

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