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Processing Methods of Distributed Generation and Energy Storage Node in Power Flow Calculation
Shan Gao, Member, IEEE, Shen-zhe Wang

Abstract-- This paper introduced the profiles of main kinds of DGs (distributed generation) and energy storage devices, like wind power, photovoltaic power, fuel cells, micro turbines, supercapacitors and flywheel system. According to their characteristics different node processing methods of various DG and energy storage systems is discussed in power flow calculation. Index Terms-- Capacitive energy storage, energy-storage, Flywheels, Fuel cells, Micro motors, Photovoltaic cells, power flow, Power distribution, processing method, Wind power generation


HE capacities of DGs (distributed generation) are most in the extent of dozens of KW and MW. Power generation by energy source can be divided into two groups: those known as the use of renewable energy, including solar photovoltaic energy, wind energy; the other known as the use of non-renewable energy sources, including micro-turbines, Fuel cells. DGs in recent years have enjoyed great development, its proportion in the grid rise constantly, which brought forth a series of issues to power systems operation, such as: distributed power system will affect the power flow and losses of the networks, system voltage stability and power quality, unit commitment and generation plan, power system stability and configuration of relay protection devices. Power flow calculation including DGs is always used to analysis the system operation, and is also the base for further analysis. DGs have different characteristics to the traditional power generators, which must be taken into account in power flow node processing. At present, this area has not been fully studied. This paper gives processing methods of several DGs and energy -storage systems in power flow calculation. II. MODELS OF DGS AND ENERGY-STORAGE SYSTEMS IN POWER

with wind power, the core of which is wind power node approach. At present, three main forms of wind turbine are widely used in wind farm: asynchronous wind generators, double-fed wind generators and synchronous wind turbines. The wind turbines in different forms are treated in different nodes. Asynchronous wind turbines output is related to wind speed and reactive power output is not controllable. In order to guarantee its power quality and a constant output voltage, usually in the machine-side capacitors in parallel are used to provide reactive power support, and the wind power node is normally processed as a PQ node. Some literatures have given a simplify power flow model of asynchronous wind turbines. Assuming wind power factor known, reactive power is gotten by Q = P tan , and then this wind power node is calculated as a PQ node. This method is simple and has no additional power flow iterative calculations. However, the reactive power absorbed by wind turbine, wind turbine output voltage and active power are closely related to slip, so the above method does not accurately reflect the actual situation of wind power turbines. A wind turbine steady-state model was established in [2], reactive power and active power are functions relating to wind turbines slip; the internal fan equivalent circuit was introduced for iterative calculations. The basic calculation processing is: According to a given wind speed calculate wind power, given the initial voltage U ; use relationship between active power, machine terminal voltage and slip to calculate the initial slip

; by the reactive power equation to calculate

A. Wind power From the 1980s onwards, with the emergence of large-scale wind farms, people began to pay attention to the power flow
This work was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No.50707004. Shan Gao is with the School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China (e-mail: shangao @seu.edu.cn). Shen-zhe Wang is with the School of Electrical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China (e-mail: wangshenzhe@163.com).

reactive power, wind turbine will be treated as PQ node included in the power flow, calculated machine terminal compared with their difference voltage U , between U and U . If the answer meeting the requirements of precision, end the calculation; else update machine terminal voltage, recalculating slip into iterative, with the margin up to meet the requirements of precision. This approach involves the power flow itself and iterative calculation of slip

, a large amount

of calculation. Iteration model based on asynchronous generators simplified equivalent circuit model iteration of the PQ was given in [3]. Simplified equivalent circuit of asynchronous turbine is shown in Figure 1.

B. PV power generation system A single photovoltaic cell equivalent circuit given in [7] shown in Figure 3:

Fig1: asynchronous turbine equivalent circuit

As shown in Figure 1, the expression of wind turbine active and reactive power can be directly equated by the circuit:


2 2

x r x


s P

(1 )

Fig3: single photovoltaic cell equivalent circuit



U r


/ s)2 +

2 k


When the asynchronous turbine output active power is constant, the reactive power it absorbed is closely related to the voltage U and slip s. Programmers in this method is simple, so it is easy to interface with the existing power flow programmers. However, it has 2 iterative forms: iteration of traditional power flow itself; iteration of wind turbine machine terminal voltage, this iteration significantly increased the calculation amount of power flow. The RX model of wind turbine was given in [2][3]. This model connect the wind farm to the grid as RX resistance, according to the calculation of slip, get resistance Z by the relationship between wind turbine resistance and slip, then get the admittance matrix. This processing style is different with the traditional node style. In this method, the power flow involves double iteration of traditional flow and slip. The calculation efficiency of which is low. Double-fed wind generators is becoming the mainstream in wind farm because it has the advantages of constant output reactive power, constant output frequency, high wind power utilization rate. The double-fed wind turbine equivalent circuit that was given in [4] shown in the figure 2,

x =x +x
k 1

Z = j x m //( r 2 / s + j x k )

PV power systems are usually used a number of series and parallel manner battery power grid access, so that the series of photovoltaic cells for a number of n, a number of parallel modules for m of photovoltaic arrays for the output power:
P = V array * I array = mV * nI = mnV [ I ph I 0 {exp[ q(V + I R s ) / AkT ] 1} (V + I R s ) / R sk ]


, where U is generation voltage.

The use of Newton's iteration method can be carried out on solving. [8] [9] proposed to limit the output of the inverter in simulation, and control is divided into current and voltage control. Current control can be seen as PQ node, the output active power and input grid current is constant. At this time, reactive power output is associated with the current. Input grid reactive power can be calculated as follow:

Q =

I (e +


Under voltage control style, the system should be dealt with PV generator node. When input current reach the border, the PV node will be turned into PQ node. Such a situation just has one kind of inverter and photovoltaic cells equivalent circuit have also done a lot of simplification, so this model do not accurately reflect the characteristics of the photovoltaic systems output and the corresponding control strategy on the output characteristics of Impact.
C. Fuel cell power system The fuel cell has excellent efficiency, which theoretical value can be up to 90%. Fuel cell with capacity of 250kW5MW has considerable efficiency with advanced thermal power units of 300-500MW. Therefore, fuel cell is an excellent choice in distributed generation. The fuel cell output for DC that should be controlled and transferred into AC by inverter. The literature [10] gives fuel cells synchronization model as follow:

Fig2: double-fed wind turbine equivalent circuit

Double-fed wind turbine has two operation styles: constant power factor and constant voltage style. It will be processed to different nodes according to different style. Constant voltage operation in the usual manner can be equivalent to PV nodes, constant power operation, usually equivalent to PQ nodes.

Fig4: fuel cell synchronization model

From the map, active, reactive power that fuel cell output to the grid can be got.


t i

is node calculated voltage;

t fi

is imaginary

Q = mV

m cell s VV X



node voltage;

t fi

is imaginary slip resistance; superscript




2 s

is iteration degrees.
(7 )

m : AC voltage output adjustment of amplitude, : the

regulation of output voltage phase angle. DC voltage. Through the inverter control parameters m , reactive power output can be controlled, which is similar to the power regulate theory of traditional generator. So it always be treated as PV node in the power flow. Fuel cells do not need to absorb reactive power from the grid, the lower limit of reactive power Q = 0 ; the


: Cell output

E. Super-capacitor system As a promising energy storage element, Super Capacitor has the virtues of both energy density of battery and high power density of electrolytic capacitor. Moreover, it has long cycle life, high storage efficiency, sound temperature adaptability and environmental character. There are two forms of equivalent circuit of super capacitor used widely in practice in [21]. As shown as follow:

maximum reactive power:



2 max

N min


(8 )

is rated active power of the inverter;



minimum power factor of the inverter. In the course of iteration, when the fuel cell beyond reactive limit, the node should be turned into PQ. Injected reactive is fixed on the limit.
D. Micro-motor generation [11] put forward the principle of micro-gas turbines is similar to the common generator; it has speed control and excitation system. According to load level the speed control system adjust active power output: 1 N (9 ) P e = * [1 . 3 (W f 0 . 23 ) + 2 ] Where is the efficiency that turbine mechanical power be translated into electrical power; 0.23 is fuel flow ratio that meet fuel need in self-restraint and no-load operation. is

Fig 5: super capacitor equivalent circuit

This model is simple, but it can actually reflect the electrical spec of the capacitor. It is convenient to analysis and calculates, so it is used widely today. The output current and voltage is varying, so it is adapted to the grid by converter. Its output is closely related to the control style. Normally the capacitor work in the strong voltage control style in order to maintain the voltage. It can be equivalent to PQ node. F. Flywheels system Flywheel energy storage systems using four main motors today: induction motors, permanent magnet brushless DC motor, synchronous reluctance motors, switched reluctance motor. Permanent magnet brushless DC motor with easy-tospeed, wide constant power speed range, without loss of excitation, easy-to-achieve two-way power conversion / high speed, in which flywheel energy storage system applications is attractive. DC flywheel energy storage system should be adopted by the DC / AC inverter associated with the power grid. The literature [19] [20] gives the flywheel energy storage systems synchronize model, DC turbine output power:
d 0.5 * m kem 1 1 vc 2 1 kc vdc P vdc m * ( vdc * m) = R 2 4 Rm 4 R 2

fuel ratio; N is speed.

Q =

t i

t fi

t fi

t i

( 10 )

Excitation device maintain the stability of the output voltage, so the gas turbine can be seen as a PV node. Sensitivity matrix is used to amend voltage error in iteration. The node will transfer between PV and PQ type steadily when reactive power or voltage beyond its limit. [12] also referred to the use of slip on the imaginary to compensate reactive power of micro-turbine node in order to maintain the voltage. The use of imaginary slip and nodes, synchronous generators can also be treated as PQ node to deal with; its output reactive power can be calculated by constant voltage and imaginary node voltage.
Q =


Inverter output
P = Q =


t i

t fi

t fi

t i


sin cos

( 11 )

2 S

( 13 )

Where U is AC-side voltage virtual value,


bus virtual value, value. When sin = 1

X is grid-side inverter-connected reactor


is AC-side


= 0 . 5 v dc ,U

D * 2


When D = 1

= 0 . 5 v dc ,the duty is 1, inverter output active/reactive power can be adjusted through regulating D and inversion angle . At the same time, generator power should be limited by expression ; the duty should be limit < < min max

technology, distributed power generation has been continuous development of its weight in power system, so the study on the problem it bring to the system is becoming more and more urgent to the problems brought about by the study has become more urgent . DG and energy storage system has a feature of today's model is difficult to accurately reflect its identity and its effect on the power system. In future research, more accurate and more appropriate model of the node will be the equivalent method centers. V. REFERENCE
[1] [2] [3] WU Yichun, DING Ming, ZhANG Lijun, Power flow analysis in electrical power networks including wind farms, Proceedings of the CSEE, Vol.25 No.4 Feb. 2005 HU Weihong, WANG Wei, WANG Yinglin, XIAO Haibo, Power flow analysis in electrical power system including wind farms, North China Electric Power, No.10 2006 WANG Haichao, ZHOU Shuangxi, LU Zongxiang, WU Jun-ling, A joint iteration method for load flow calculation of power system containing unified wind farm and its application, Power System Technology, Vol.29 No.18 Sep. 2005 LIU Suqin, GAO Shan, Processing methods of the wind farm node in power flow calculation of the distribution system, Jiangsu Electrical Engineering, Vol.26 No.6 Oct. 2007 Andres E Feijoo, Jose Cidras, Modeling of wind farm in the load flow analysis, IEEE transactions on power system, 2000,15(1):110-115 CHEN Haiyan, CHEN Jinfu, DUAN Xianzhong, Study on power flow calculation of distribution system with DGs, Automation of Electric Power Systems, Vol.30 No.1 Jan.10 2006 L Zhang, A Al-Amoudi, Yunfei Bai, Real-time maximum power point tracking for grid-connected photovoltaic systems, Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, 18-19 September 2000:124-129. ZHOU Dejia, ZHAO Zhengming, WU Libo, YUAN Liqiang, SUN Xiaoying, Analysis characteristics of photovoltaic arrays using simulation, J Tsinghua Univ(Sci&.Tech), Vol.47 No.7 2007 Jayanta Deb Mondol, Yigzaw G.Yohanis, Brian Norton. Comparison of Measured and Predicted Long Term Performance of a Grid Connected Photovoltaic System, Energy Conversion and Management, 48(2007):1065-1080. M.Y.El-Sharkh, A.Rahman, M.S.Alam. Analysis of active and reactive power control of a stand-alone PEM fuel cell power plant, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 19, No.4, November 2004:20222028. Rekha T.Jagaduri, Ghadir Radman. Modeling and control of distributed generation systems including PEM fuel cell and gas turbine, Electric Power System Research 77(2007):83-92 SHEN Haiquan, LI Gengyin, ZHOU Ming, Dynamic performance analysis of gas turbine generators connected to grid, Power System Technology, Vol.28 No.16 Aug. 2004 LIU Zhengyi, TAN Shuntao, CENG Junxiang, Distributed generation and its impact on power system analysis, North China Electric Power, No.10 2004 Shigenori Naka, Takamu Genji, Yoshikazu Fukuyama. Practical Equipment Models for Fast Distribution Power Flow Considering Interconnection of Distributed Generators, Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 2001, IEEE. Vol.2, July 2001:1007-1012. RUAN Junpeng, ZHANG Jiancheng, Basic research on applying flywheel energy storage technology in wind power generation system, Ms.D. dissertation, Dept Electrical. Univ. North China Electrical, 2007 YANG Zhiyi, Research on key techniques of energy storage of flywheel battery, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept Mechanical Engineering. Univ. Heifei Technology, 2002 TANG Xisheng, Research on energy management and stability of distributed generation system with EDLC as energy storage, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept Power System and Automation, CAS, 2006

by 0 < m < 1 . The output power limit should be the min between max under this limit and inverter max output. Because synchronize output active/reactive power is related to the duty and inversion angle, the system will be equivalent to PQ node. III. EXAMPLE Wind plat and fuel cell system was connected to the IEEE 10 nodes system by 110kv circuitry. Node 5 has the wind farm and fuel cell was connected to node 10. At the same time, node 7 has the micro turbine. The start wind speed of the wind turbine is 3m/s, cut speed is 20m/s, rated speed is 13.5m/s. Double-fed wind turbine stator impedance is 0.00453 + j0.0507528, rotor impedance is 0.00486 + j0.1491528. Fuel cell simulation parameters: single-cell activation area of 50cm2, United States DuPont Nafion112 film, battery temperature is set to 80 , hydrogen partial pressure PH2 = 1.0atm, oxygen partial pressure PO2 = 1.0atm. Inverter adjust parameters: voltage adjust parameters is 1. Distributed power generation systems compared before and after the access of DG. The fuel cell system was connected to node 5, wind farm access node 10. Access node before and after the distributed power generation capacity and different access system, the node voltage amplitude and phase angle as shown in table 1:
2 Voltage angle 2 Voltage angle
0.9792 0.0238 0.992 -0.01

[4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]



0.987 -0.02 0.963 -0.04 0.948 -0.04 0.917 -0.06 0.907 -0.07 0.889 -0.08

[11] [12] [13] [14]

0.858 -0.09

0.837 -0.10

0.9435 0.0522


0.9130 0.1619 0.9233 0.2387 0.9267 0.2140 0.9324 0.2044 0.9426 0.1853

0.9821 0.1489

1.0372 0.1161

From the table, the node voltage and angle was changed greatly after DG was connected. DG system will provide extra active and reactive power to the system. Under this condition, the power flow of the system will be affected, which will bring series of problems such as system stability, voltage stability and so on. The power flow with DG connected is the base work to analysis these problems. The core of the power flow is processing methods of distributed generation and energy storage system. IV. CONCLUSIONS This article describes processing methods of several types of DG and energy storage systems in power flow. With the increasing depletion of conventional energy and advances in

[15] [16] [17]

Shan Gao was born in Rangxin, China, on June 20, 1973. He was received the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from the Southeast University,

5 China in 2000. He is working as an associate professor in Southeast University of china. His research interests are power system planning and control, especially artificial intelligent application in power system, load forecasting and control technique in distribution system with DGs Shenzhe Wang was born in Zhoukou, China, on July 20, 1987. He was received the Bachelor degree in electrical engineering from the Southeast University, China in 2007. He is studying for Master Degree in Southeast University now. His research interests are power system planning and control.