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User Interface

Visualforce is the Force.com component-based user interface framework. It uses the MVC pattern, is extensible (you can create your own components), and supports the standard platform user interface, as well as a completely custom look and feel.

Visualforce Cheat Sheet

AJAX and JavaScript
The reRender attribute on action links such as commandButton let you refresh a part of a page. The following tags provide additional AJAX and JavaScript support: apex:actionFunction apex:actionPoller apex:actionRegion Define JavaScript functions to be called from JavaScript code A timer that sends an AJAX update request at specified interval Defines an area in a page that demarcates which components should be processed when AJAX requests generate A component that displays the status of an AJAX update request Adds asynchronous refresh support to a component

Getting Started
Enable Developer Mode by clicking Setup | My Personal Information | Personal Information. Select the Development Mode checkbox to enable an inline Visualforce editor. To create a page, navigate to a URL based on your current instance, like: https://<instance>.salesforce.com/apex/helloWorld All Visualforce page markup lies within an <apex:page> tag. Here's a simple page: <apex:page showHeader="false"> <h1>Hello World</h1> </apex:page> All tags take an optional or obligatory set of attributes, such as showHeader above. Use the inline editor auto-completion, or the Component Reference, to determine the attributes for components. List all Visualforce pages and Apex classes by navigating to Setup | Develop.

apex:actionStatus apex:actionSupport

Core Form
Here are the core components used in forms. These should be embedded within a single form component on a page: apex:form apex:commandButton apex:commandLink apex:inputCheckbox apex:inputField apex:inputFile apex:inputHidden apex:inputSecret apex:inputText apex:inputTextArea apex:selectList apex:selectRadio apex:selectOption Container for input components A form button used to submit/reset a form An HTML link that performs an action An HTML input element of type checkbox Input element that corresponds to a field on a custom object An input field to upload a file An HTML input element of type hidden An HTML input element of type password An HTML input element of type text A text area input element A list of options for radio/checkboxes A set of related radio button input elements, displayed in a table A possible value for a selectCheckboxes or selectList component A set of related checkbox input elements, displayed in a table A collection of possible values for the selectCheckboxes, selectRadio, or selectList components

Visualforce supports auto-generated standard controllers, as well as extensions, to minimize the amount of coding needed. Here's an example of a Visualforce page that uses a custom controller: <apex:page showHeader="false" controller="Hello"> <apex:form> <apex:inputText value="{!theText}"/> <apex:commandButton value="Go" action="{!action}" rerender="dynamic"/> </apex:form> <apex:outputPanel id="dynamic"> {!theText} </apex:outputPanel> </apex:page> This Visualforce page displays an input field and a button labeled Go. When clicked, it sends the value of the field to the controller, which performs an action on it here, it duplicates the input. The page renders the result using an AJAX update. Here's the controller: public class Hello { public PageReference action() { theText = theText + theText; return null; } public String theText {get;set;} }

apex:selectCheckboxes apex:selectOptions

Core Output
Mirroring many of the Core Form Components, these components are used for outputting text: apex:outputField apex:outputLabel apex:outputLink apex:outputPanel A read-only display of a label and value for fields on custom objects A label for an input or output field A link to a URL A set of content that is grouped together, rendered with an HTML span tag, div tag, or neither Displays styled or escaped text for a page

Core Tags
Here are core tags that often make up a Visualforce page: apex:page apex:includeScript apex:stylesheet The obligatory outer tag A link to a JavaScript library, often in a static resource A link to a CSS stylesheet, often in a static resource


Tables and Lists Output

These components are used to generate tables or lists by iterating over a collection: apex:dataTable apex:column apex:dataList apex:facet apex:panelGrid apex:panelGroup An HTML table A single column in a table An ordered or unordered list of values A placeholder for content that is rendered in a specific part of the parent component An HTML table element that lays out its components in consecutive cells A container for multiple child components so that they can be displayed in a single panelGrid cell

Template System
Template components let you create Visualforce pages that act as templates, having named areas inserts that must be filled when the template is used. apex:insert apex:composition apex:define Declares a named area that must be defined Adds the defined template Provides content for the inserts


Miscellaneous HTML
These components generate HTML for embedding flash, iframes and images: apex:flash apex:iframe apex:image A Flash movie, rendered with object and embed tags Creates an iframe in a page A graphical image, rendered with an img tag

Applications that integrate Ideas have additional components available: ideas:detailOutputLink ideas:listOutputLink ideas:profileListOutputLink apex:vote A link to the page displaying an idea A link to the page displaying a list of ideas A link to the page displaying a user's profile Displays the vote control for an idea

Miscellaneous Visualforce
These components provide Visualforce messages, iteration, and include functionality: apex:repeat apex:message apex:messages apex:include apex:param apex:scontrol apex:variable An unformatted iteration component A message for a specific component, such as a warning or error All messages that were generated for all components on the current page Inserts a second Visualforce page into the current page Lets parameters be fed into other components An inline frame that displays an s-control A local variable representing an expression

Visualforce can also be used to create email templates: messaging:attachment messaging:emailHeader messaging:emailTemplate messaging:htmlEmailBody messaging:plainTextEmailBody Appends an attachment to the email Adds a custom header to the email Defines a Visualforce email template (*) The HTML version of the email body The plain text (non-HTML) version of the email body

Default Look and Feel

CRUD and other screens have a standard look and feel. The following components generate output that conforms to that look and feel: apex:detail apex:enhancedList apex:listViews apex:relatedList apex:pageBlock apex:pageBlockButtons apex:pageBlockSection apex:pageBlockSectionItem apex:pageBlockTable apex:pageMessage apex:pageMessages apex:panelBar apex:panelBarItem apex:sectionHeader apex:tab apex:tabPanel apex:toolbar apex:toolbarGroup The standard detail page for a particular object The list view picklist for an object, including its associated list of records The list view picklist for an object, including its associated list of records A list of records that are related to a parent record with a lookup or master-detail relationship Defines a visual block within a page Defines buttons related to a block A section of data within a pageBlock component A single piece of data in a pageBlockSection that takes up one column in one row A list of data displayed as a table within either a apex: pageBlock or pageBlockSection component Displays custom messages Displays all messages that were generated for all components on the page A page area that includes one or more panelBarItems that can expand A section of a panelBar that can expand or retract A title bar for a page A single tab in a tabPanel A page area that displays as a set of tabs A toolbar that can contain any number of child components A group of components within a toolbar

Static Resources
Upload static resources, such as stylesheets and images, into a zip, and then reference them using the URLFOR formula and $Resource merge field. For example, if you've uploaded images/Blue.jpg into a zip called TestZip, reference it like this: <apex:image url="{!URLFOR($Resource.TestZip,'images/Blue.jpg')}"/>

Global Variables
These reference general information about the current user and your organization on a Visualforce page: $Action $API $Component $CurrentPage $Label $ObjectType $Organization $Page $Resource $SControl $Site $System.OriginDateTime $User $UserRole $Profile Reference standard actions on objects Refer to API URLs or sessions IDs Reference a component from within, for example, JavaScript Reference name, parameters, URL of current page References a custom label Access metadata of objects Access information about the company profile The way to reference a Visualforce page Used for accessing static resources References an existing custom s-control by name Reference site information, such as domain name Represents the literal value of 1900-01-01 00:00:00 Information about the current user The current user's role information The current user's profile

Custom Components
Create your own components that will reside in the c namespace, for example <c:helloWorld/>: apex:component apex:attribute apex:componentBody The outer tag that starts the definition of a component A definition of a typed attribute on a custom component A place holder for content injected into a component

Apex Support
Here are Apex classes, available in the ApexPages namespace, which can be used to reference Visualforce functionality: Action Message PageReference SelectOption StandardController StandardSetController Create an invoke actions on an object Create messages to be displayed, usually for errors A reference to a Visualforce page Specifies one of the possible values for the selectCheckboxes, selectList, or selectRadio components Reference the standard Visualforce controllers Reference standard set controllers for iteration

Sites is based on Visualforce pages, and the following tag provides additional functionality: site:googleAnalyticsTracking Used to integrate Google Analytics