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Hydraulic Fracturing in Indian Reservoirs

- Alok Nandan
Head WSS, ONGC, Ahmedabad

Contents
Hydraulic Fracturing

Fracturing: ONGC Scenario Technological Breakthrough


Future Opportunities

Objective
Enhance hydrocarbon production Increase recoverable reserves
Prefrac: Radial flow pattern Post frac : Area greatly increased

Bypassing damaged zone

Develop uneconomical/ marginal reserves

Why Fracturing ?
To bypass near-wellbore damage and return a
well to its natural productivity / injectivity To extend a conductive path deep into a formation and thus increase productivity / injectivity beyond the natural level

To produce hydrocarbon from


Tight formation (gas)


Shales (gas)

ONGC Scenario
First Fracturing job in Jul, 1982 in Ngm#95 (Amd)
2000+ Fracturing jobs executed ( 100 jobs/ year) HF jobs carried out in Assets/ Basins:

Western Onshore Ahmedabad, Mehsana, Ankleshwar/Cambay

Southern Onshore Cauvery, Rajahmundry


Eastern Onshore - Assam Mumbai Offshore Mumbai High, Neelam-Heera

CBM - Jharia, Parbatpur, Raniganj, North Karanpura etc.

HF jobs for Other E&P companies


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Divergence
Parameters
Avg. Depth (m)

Amd/Meh
1000 - 1700

Gandhar
2800 - 3600

ER
2600- 3500

SR
2500 - 5000

Reservoir Temperature
Permeability (mD) Frac gradient (psi/ft) X-mas tree rating (psi) Tubing (inch) size

50 - 130 C
2 - 20 0.65 - 0.7 5000 2 7/8 5000-10000

120- 150 C
5 - 500 0.8 0.9 5000 3 1/2 10000

60 - 75 C
10 - 15 0.8 0.95 5000 2 7/8 10000

95 - 250 C
0.01- 5 0.8 0.9 5000 - 15000 2 7/8 3 1/2 10000- 15000

Permanent Packer P (psi)

Divergence
Parameters
Pre-treatment

Amd/ Meh
Nil
Formulation for Low depth and Low to moderate temperatures LSP WSS, Amd

Gandhar
Solvent + Acid Formulation for High depth & temperature HSP WSS, Amd

ER
Solvent + Acid Formulation for High depth and Low temperature HSP WSS, Amd + WSS, Rjy

SR
Solvent + Acid Formulation for High depth & temperature ISP/HSP WSS, Amd + WSS, Rjy

Frac Fluid

Proppant Resources (Manpower + Equipment)

Technological Breakthrough
Fracturing in Geleki field of Eastern India Fracturing of Gandhar field in Western India Large Size fracturing jobs Fracturing in Cauvery Asset of Southern India Fracturing in Limestone Reservoirs of Mumbai Offshore Water Frac jobs in Water injectors Frac Pack jobs in unconsolidated formations
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Future Opportunities
More no. of Water Frac and Frac-Pack jobs

Shale Gas Fracturing


Large no. of treatments for CBM wells Wider application in deeper wells of Southern and eastern onshore fields

Foam Fracturing
Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontal and Multilateral wells
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Gandhar Field
1. Multi-layered deltaic sandstone reservoirs (14 sandsdesignated as GS0 to GS-13 from bottom to top).

2. Fluids have got large compositional variations with black to light volatile oil (API 35.7-47.3), crude of sand GS3A is asphaltic in nature 3. Pressure maintenance being done by
Water injection (Line injection, skewed 5 spot pattern, Edge water injection) Gas cap gas injection

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Stratigraphy
GS-13 Sandstone Shale GS-12 Sandstone Ardol Formation

GS-11 Sandstone GS-10 Sandstone GS-9 Sandstone


GS-8 Sandstone

GS-7 Sandstone GS-6 Sandstone


GS-5 Sandstone Hazad Formation

GS-4 Sandstone
GS-3 Sandstone GS-2 Sandstone GS-1 Sandstone
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Gandhar : Challenges for HF


Deep wells
Multilayered reservoirs Presence of water bearing layers nearby High Formation temperatures

High treating pressures Under rated well completion


Previous attempts unsuccessful due to poor injectivity at high pressure

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Strategy for HF
Frac friendly completion
3 frac string

Tree saver application


Packer with sealbore assembly

Re-perforations

Pre-HF treatments
Well bore cleaning Solvent and acid treatment

Development of High temperature frac fluid


Delayed crosslinking High temperature breaker
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Strategy for HF
Frac job Design considerations
Temperature log before and after minifrac for assessing height containment MiniFrac job data as a basis for finalization of design Nearby water bearing layer

Actual Field trial application of the High temperature frac fluid developed for delayed crosslinking and temperature stability

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Geleki Field
Geleki field located towards the southern fringe of Upper Assam valley Areal extent 25 sq. km.

Highly faulted, several blocks.


Producing since 1974 Main hydrocarbon bearing sands are Tipam & Barail pays Field on depletion drive

Water injection (Inverted 5 spot) since 1983

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Geleki : Challenges for HF


High tectonic activity

High fracturing pressures due to near well bore tortuosity


Low injectivity due to near well bore damage. Deeper zones & Long perforation intervals Presence of injection water nearby

Low formation temperatures


Under rated well completion Unsuccessful earlier attempts

Divided opinion of renowned fracturing experts


Intensive Logistics

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Geleki : Strategy for HF


Formation of Multidisciplinary Team (MDT)

Detail study of the field


Candidate selection Resource identification

Activity schedule

R&D activities
Delayed crosslink frac fluid for deeper depth

Low temperature breaker

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Geleki : Strategy for HF


Frac friendly completions
Re-perforations
Permanent packer with sealbore assembly (10000 psi) X-mas tree isolation tool (Tree saver)

Customized Pre-HF treatments (with CTU)


Wellbore cleaning
Solvent and acid treatment

Coordination for resource mobilisation


Cross-country mobilisation of fracturing equipment
Manpower

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HF in Geleki
Hydraulic phases) Cum. oil recovery of >90000 MT Fracturing executed in 18 wells (4

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Water Frac : W/I wells


Injector Producer

Streamlines in unfractured well Streamlines in fractured well Fracture length


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Water Frac
Advantages :

Low post-frac formation damage Improved aerial sweep Saving in chemical cost
Water injectors Polymer flood injectors ED wells

Suitable for :

Implementation:
LIM#92, NGM#213, WNA#92,96,97,98,99,102 AMD#119, NDJ#91, 95

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Frac Pack
Hydraulic fracturing and sand control done in a single trip Unlike conventional sand control methods, no productivity decline

Deliberate Tip Screen Out: Shorter but wider Fracture Effective in a wide range of formation with

mobile sands, especially high permeability sands

Implemented Successfully in
North Kadi#284 Santhal#174
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Challenges : Cauvery
Deeper zones & High treating pressures
Moderate to high formation temperatures Intensive Logistics & Resource mobilization

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Cauvery : Strategy for HF


Frac Friendly Completion
3 Frac string Tree Saver application

R&D in Frac Fluid for deeper and moderate to high temperature formations
Customized Pre-HF treatments

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HF in Cauvery Fields

High Temperature & Tight Gas Reservoirs


Solely dependent on Hydraulic Fracturing for exploitation of reserves

Bhuvanagiri, Mandapeta, Nandigama, Kuthalam etc.


Successful frac job in BV#10 (Costliest onshore well) opened up new vistas for field exploitation.

Gas production increased from 2500 to 45000 m3/Day


Condensate production of 25 m3/Day

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HF in Cauvery fields
Field Karaikal 2007 Wells fractured 7 Wells on prod. 5 (> 60000 m3/d gas and 50 m3/d oil) 6 (> 70000 m3/d gas and 20 m3/d oil)

Karaikal 2008

Karaikal 2009

2 ( 30 m3/d oil)

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Fracturing in Limestone Reservoirs: Challenges


Carbonate formation

Multi-layered reservoir Thin pay zones


Presence of water zone (OWC) nearby Injection water breakthrough Well Completion

Logistics
Design considerations Chemical formulation

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Fracturing Strategy
Completion integrity test
MIT Hydrotesting

Pre-HF wellbore cleaning and acid spotting Inspection of stimulation vessel and wellhead platforms

Tree saver application Lab studies for frac fluid optimisation Post Frac Activities
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Experience
Carried out first ever proppant fracturing in limestone reservoirs
HX#9 (Producer) WA#5 (Injector)

Proppant Fracturing in some more wells in offshore are under plan

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Frac Job Size


Large size fracturing job is beneficial in Pay zones having High Thickness

Low permeability Tight gas reservoirs Shale barriers above and below Absence of water bearing layers above and below

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Frac Job Size


Job sizes of 60 MT Increase in frac length Greater sustenance of post-frac production Likely application : Gamij, Nawagam LP, Nawagam UP, Mewad, Sobhasan etc.

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Case Study: HF in Gamij#100

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Well Completion:
GMJ#100

13 3/8 Casing

9 5/8 Casing

Cement rise 438 m 2 7/8 tubing N-80 6.5 ppf T/S 857.4 m

5 1/2 casing N-80 17 ppf shoe 1205m

Perf : 863-889 m

B/plug 915 m

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Well Data:
GMJ#100
Field Well type Net Pay Gamij Exploratory 26m Perforation Intervals Pay zone Deviation 863-889m

(18 spm)
Chhatral pay Vertical

Temp.
Permeability

72 C
~1 md

Porosity
Sw

15-20%
65-70%

CBL

Satisfactory

Injectivity

300 lpm at 60 ksc

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Methodology
Lab study for frac fluid optimization Design Sensitivity study

Execution of Minifrac

2% KCl water
Slick gel

Analysis of minifrac data Final job design

Execution of Main frac

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Job design
GMJ#100
320.0 50.0 50.0 80.0 150.0 250.0 200.0 100.0 80.0 70.0 40.0 14.0 0 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 0

Stage #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Elapsed Time (min:sec)


27:49 32:22 37:06 45:00 60:24 87:04 109:11 120:38 130:06 138:40 143:43 144:56

Clean Proppant Slurry Volume Conc. Rate (bbls) (ppg) (bpm)


11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50 11.50

Scheduled clean volume (bbls) Scheduled sand total (tonnes) Scheduled slurry volume (bbls)

1404.00 110.69 1666.85

Frac Dimensions:
Half-Length: 47.5 m Width: 0.71

Height: 100 m
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Frac Plot
GMJ#100

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Frac Parameters
GMJ#100
Well Proppants pumped Pad volume Volume with proppant Flush volume Avg. pumping rate Avg. proppant concentration GMJ#100
110 MT 300 bbl 1100 bbl 14 bbl 12.4bpm 5.24 ppg

Date of HF Breakdown Pressure Avg. pumping pressure Instantaneous shut-in pressure Avg. annulus pressure Max. Pumping Pressure

17.2.10 1490 psi 2000 psi 1750 psi 1300 psi 2300 psi

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Post-HF Observations
Fracture reopened at 1490 psi (at 6.8 BPM). Annulus pressure showed a slow and steady rise, especially

in the later part of job, indicating good packing


110 MT proppant pumped, as per plan Max. proppant conc. was 12 ppg.

The max. pumping pressure (2300 psi) was well within the
rating of xmas tree.

Frac Dimensions :
Half-Length: 48.8 m Width: 0.72

Height: 104 m

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Production
Pre-HF Production : Nil

Post-HF Production : 6m3/d on Self

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