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Transformer Paralleling

Technical Presentation Tuesday April 21: 4:45-6:00 p.m.

Jim Graham

* Reasons for paralleling transformers * Examples of users concerns & needs

Additional Capacity Standardization of Xfmr Ratings Security/Local Back Up Improved Access for Maintenance

User Issues

Voltage / Ratio Mismatch Impedance Mismatch Unbalanced Loads Volt/Current Sensors Connected in phase Incompatible Controllers Tap Changer Locations Increased Fault Currents Do I need Paralleling Controls?

Unequal Load Sharing Excessive Circulating Currents Excessive LTC Operations

High Maintenance Costs Lower Transformer Reliability Voltage Complaints Transformer Overloading Transformer Loss of Life Due To Overheating

Jin Sim

* Manufacturer Concerns * Specification needs

Manufacturers Request

Existing units with Load Tap Changers Serial Numbers of existing units Test report LTC Wiring and Schematic Drawings Method Circulating Current Master Follower Other Manual

ZA, ZB = per Unit Impedance of Transformers A & B IA, IB = per Unit Load Current of Transformers A & B IL = per Unit load current of Transformers A & B in parallel Assuming the voltage drop thru both transformer is equal Then: IA x ZA = IB x ZB and IL = IA + IB

And

IA = ZB/(ZA+ZB)

& IB = ZA/(ZA+ZB)

Bank A 10/12.5 MVA; Z @ 10 MVA base = 0.08/unit Bank B 12/16/20 MVA; Z @ 12 MVA base = 0.08/unit On the same base (12.5 MVA) Bank A 10/12.5 MVA; Z @ 12.5 MVA base = 0.10/unit Bank B 12/16/20 MVA; Z @ 12.5 MVA base = 0.083/unit Transformers share load inversely to the ratio of the bank to the sum of the impedances of the banks in parallel. Bank A Loading = ZB/(ZA+ZB) = 0.83/(0.10+0.083) = 0.454/unit Bank B Loading = ZA/(ZA+ZB) = 0.10/(0.10+0.083) = 0.546/unit Note: Since the max rating of Bank A is 12.5 MVA and it carries 0.454/unit of substation capacity: The max total load of bank A and B paralleled w/o overloading bank A is 12.5/0.454 = 27.5 MVA. Therefore, the max loading of Bank B w/o overloading Bank A is 27.5 12.5 = 15.0 MVA (less than 20 MVA rating).

(Modified for optimum load sharing)

Assuming that Bank A exists and the need is to purchase and install a new transformer rated 12/16/20 MVA to operate in parallel with Bank A while providing a substation capacity of 32.5 MVA. The specified impedance of the new transformer for Bank B is determined as follows to utilize the full nameplate capacity of both transformers when they are paralleled. * Bank A: 10/12.5 MVA; Z @ 20 MVA base = 0.16/unit * Anticipated total load = 32.5 MVA * Bank As rated per unit load capacity of 12.5 MVA is: 12.5/32.5 = 0.385/unit of the total bank loading of 32.5 MVA. Bank Bs rated load capacity of 20 MVA is 20/32.5 = 0.615 per unit of the paralleled bank rating of 32.5 MVA; therefore Bank Bs impedance needs to be calculated to carry 0.615 per unit of the bank capacity. Bank B loading 0.615 per unit = 16/(16+X) and solving for X. X=0.10 per unit on 20 MVA base. Converting to a 12 MVA base, the impedance needs to be 0.06 per unit on the self cooled nameplate 12 MVA rating.

If the transformers are both rated with two identical stages of cooling and both have identical impedances on there self cooled bases, each will share load according to its rating: Bank A 12/16/20 MVA; Z @ 12 MVA base = 0.8/unit Bank B 24/32/40 MVA; Z @ 24 MVA base = 0.8/unit On the same base (40 MVA) Bank A = 0.267/unit Bank B = 0.133/unit Transformers share load inversely to the ratio of the bank to the sum of the impedances of the banks in parallel. Bank A Loading = ZB/(ZA+ZB) = 0.133/(0.133+0.267) = 0.33/unit Bank B Loading = ZA/(ZA+ZB) = 0.267/(0.133+0.267) = 0.67/unit This validates that transformers of equal per unit impedances (expressed on their own base will load proportionally to their ratings)

CFVV - LTC operation regulates the transformer secondary by increasing or decreasing the turns in the secondary winding while the primary winding turns are constant. Impedance is Constant Step Voltage is Constant Load Tap Changer is installed in the LV winding to vary the output by varying the turns in the LV winding.

VFVV - LTC operation regulates the transformer secondary by increasing or decreasing the turns in the primary winding while the secondary winding turns are constant. > Impedance is Variable > Step Voltage is Variable Load Tap Changer is installed in the HV winding resulting in a variable flux regulation. > Increase output voltage by reducing HV turns Step > Decrease output voltage by increasing HV Turns

Paralleling Issues Constant Flux Voltage Variation vs Variable Flux Voltage Variation

Tom Jauch

Transformer Paralleling Application

LTC Control basics Paralleling basics Control paralleling techniques System variables configuration Transformer Differences

BASICS

VARIABLES

Paralleling Control methods Applications & Limitations Common Errors

Paralleling self-correction

CONCLUSIONS

Control Basics

Control Basics

"Paralleled Transformers:

Two or more transformers connected in such a manner that they share in the supply of a common load bus." Note: Any system operation that removes the supply source from a paralleled transformer(s) or separates a transformer load winding from a common load bus ends the parallel operation of the transformer(s).

LINES

The transformers must continue their basic function of controlling the regulated bus voltage as prescribed by the basic settings on the control (band center, bandwidth and line drop compensation).

The tap changers must operate to maintain tap position so as to minimize the current that circulates between them. Depending upon the designs of the transformers, the appropriate tap positions on the paralleled transformers are not necessarily on the same tap to achieve this.

These functions must operate correctly and automatically regardless of system configuration changes or breaker operations.

Need for paralleling equipment Example 1: TIMING ERROR: One tapchanger faster than other (tolerances) causes one transformer to do all voltage regulation

Setpoints

V1,2

SP

VOLTAGE ERROR: One tapchanger voltage magnitude higher than other causes one transformer to do all raising and other do all lowering (tolerances) RESULT: tap position runaway

Setpoints

V1 V2

SP

Inserts voltage source

--------------

----------------

-----------------

There are three basic control Techniques for controlling paralleled transformers.

a)Direct operation technique (from one control) (Master / Follower) b) Blocking technique which blocks controls from operating in an inappropriate direction (Power Factor) c) Biasing technique for adjusting control set points (Negative Reactance, Circulating Current, Circulating reactive current or vars)

1)System & Bus Configuration Variables * Normal Conditions * Emergency Operation * Contingency Conditions 2) Transformer Variables

LINES

LOADS

LINES

LOADS

LINES

LOADS

LINES

LOADS

TRANSFORMER VARIABLES

Transformer Impedance - Z%

(Matched: Equal Z% @ max rating)

Transformer Rating MVA Tap Size tap size Number of taps #taps Number of windings - # windings Winding configuration Dynamic Z% CT Ratios ct ratios Voltage Ratings V Rating Voltage Ratio V ratio = Primary Voltage

Master / Follower MF Power Factor - PF Negative Reactance - NR Circulating Current - CC Circulating Reactive Current or vars - CRC

Master/Follower Method

(Direct operation technique)

Master/Follower Method

(Direct operation technique)

Requires:

Feedback

Feedback of follower unit(s) action to master Usually by external relays or communication channel(s)

Master/Follower Method

(Direct operation technique)

OR

Master/Follower Method

(Direct operation technique)

Application:

Z% Matched Transformers Solid HS bus Different CT ratios OK

OR

Limitations:

Not applicable for: Unmatched Z% Different Tap Sizes Different # of Taps Separated HS bus Dynamic Z% # windings (tertiary)

Control Blocking Technique

V1, V2

I1A, I2A

+

Control Blocking Technique

V1, V2 I2A

I1A

Control Blocking Technique

Application:

Z% Matched Transformers Solid HS bus Different tap sizes OK Different # of taps OK Different CT ratios OK

V1, V2 I2A I1A

Limitations:

Not applicable for: Unmatched Z% Separated HS bus Dynamic Z% # windings (tertiary)

(Negative reactance, Circulating & Circulating Reactive Current)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

SP

SP

(Negative reactance, Circulating & Circulating Reactive Current)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

SP

SP

(Negative reactance, Circulating & Circulating Reactive Current)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Importance of SENSITIVITY

SP V SP

(Negative reactance, Circulating & Circulating Reactive Current)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Importance of SENSITIVITY

SP V SP

-1

SP

SP

(Negative reactance, Circulating & Circulating Reactive Current)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Importance of SENSITIVITY

SP V SP

-1

SP

SP

SP

SP

OVERSENSITIVE HUNTING !!

Setpoint Biasing Technique (Using LDC Settings)

Setpoint Biasing Technique (Using LDC Settings)

Setpoint Biasing Technique (Using LDC Settings)

SP

SP

Setpoint Biasing Technique (Using LDC Settings)

SP

SP

Setpoint Biasing Technique (Using LDC Settings)

Application:

Z% Matched Transformers Solid HS bus Different tap sizes OK Different # of taps OK Different CT ratios OK

Limitations:

Not applicable for: Unmatched Z% Separated HS bus Dynamic Z% # windings (tertiary) Significant load changes

Setpoint Biasing Technique Removes Load Current errors

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Typical Systems

Setpoint Biasing Technique

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

SP

SP

Setpoint Biasing Technique

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Circulating Current Commissioning

1) 2)

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Setting the Sensitivity Set both PBMs sensitivities on neutral Find tap combination that minimizes circulating current & produces voltage closest to setpoint Raise one transformer one tap and lower on transformer one tap 4) Adjust sensitivities (together) to the level where both transformers return to original tap positions Reduce both sensitivity levels by one

3)

Common Error

(STOPPING HERE)

5)

Setpoint Biasing Technique

METHODS Master/Follower Power Factor Neg Reactance Circ current Circ reac current

Typical Backup

Setpoint Biasing Technique

Application:

Z% Matched Transformers Solid HS bus Different tap sizes Different # of taps

Limitations:

Not applicable for: Unmatched Z% (Comped) Different MVA rating Separated HS bus Dynamic Z% # windings (tertiary)

CT ratios need to be in the same relationship as impedances to balance difference current (Circ I = Diff I) 100MVA,10%IZ 100MVA,8% IZ

80A 100A

180A

CT ratios need to be in the same relationship as impedances to balance difference current (Circ I = Diff I) 100MVA,10% IZ

ct = 80/1A 80A 100A

100MVA,8% IZ

ct = 100/1A

180A

CT ratios need to be in the same relationship as KVA ratings to balance difference current (Circ I = Diff I) 100 MVA,10%IZ

ct = 100/1A 100A 50/A

50 MVA,10%IZ

ct = 50/1A

Errors of unequal ct ratios

1) Definition of circulating current: Ic = difference current 2) Definition of circulating reactive current: Icr = difference reactive current EXAMPLE: With either circulating current method

100MVA

Ic=2 2/1

1A

50MVA

Ic=2 1/1

2A

APPLICATION PROBLEM

VT1

OPEN

VT2

Setpoint Biasing Technique

VT1

OPEN

VT2

* Same connections as circulating current Control reacts ONLY to circulating reactive current Equalizes transformer var flows * CT ratios equivalent to rating sizes (not %Z)

Setpoint Biasing Technique

Application:

OPEN/CLOSED HS bus

VT1

OPEN

Different HS voltages Different Z% Dynamic Z% # windings (tertiary) Different tap sizes Different # of taps

VT2

Limitations:

Requires: MVA matched ct ratios (Equalizes var flows by rating)

Paralleling Self Correction

+1%Tap

5% Z

SP

+

SP

Paralleling Self Correction

+1%Tap

5% Z

IN FACT: Could cause OVERSENSITIVE Operation (hunting) if used with Paralleling control !

SP

+

SP

"Paralleled Transformers: Two or more transformers connected in such a manner that they share in the supply to a common load bus." Suggestion: Two questions must be asked to determine if this Guide (paralleling control) is applicable. #1 Is there any system condition that will cause this transformer to be paralleled (in parallel) with another? (IF YES) #2 Will all system conditions cause paralleling self correction? (IF NO)

Theparallelingguidedescribesandcomparescontrol methodsofparalleling power transformersequipped withloadtapchangers(LTC)orseriesregulators.

LTC Control basics Paralleling basics Control paralleling techniques System variables configuration Transformer Differences

BASICS

VARIABLES

Paralleling Control methods Applications & Limitations Common Errors

Paralleling self-correction

CONCLUSIONS

Conclusions

Several methods of paralleling to choose from depending on needs of the application In choosing consider: all possible configurations* all future possibilities

PC57.153

The paralleling guide describes and compares control methods of paralleling power transformers equipped with load tap changers (LTC) or series regulators.

(PC57.153) I. Definition & Purpose of a Paralleling Guide: II. General Overview of Paralleling Requirements: III. Basic Tapchanger Control: IV. Basic Paralleling Method Descriptions/Applications: V. Special Transformer Application Considerations: VI. Special System Application Considerations: VII. Backup protection: VIII. Typical problems: IX. Field commissioning / troubleshooting: X. Conclusions

Transformer Paralleling

Questions , Answers & Comments

Jim Graham Electrical Engineer Alliant Energy, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Tom Jauch Application Consultant Beckwith Electric Co. Largo, FL Jin Sim VP, Chief Technology Officer Waukesha Electric Systems.

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