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Chapter 4
PREPARATION OF THE ONE-LINE DIAGRAMs & ONE-LINE METER AND RELAY DIAGRAMs

PREPARATION OF THE ONE-LINE DIAGRAM


Single-line diagrams are the most essential documents that are developed during the Basic and detail design phase of a project. They identify almost all the main items of power equipment and their associated ancillaries. Initially they define the starting point of a project. Finally they are a concise record of the design, from which all the design and purchasing work evolved. The final single-line diagrams should contain at least the following information. Complicated power systems may require the single-line diagrams to be sub-divided into several companion diagrams, in which aspects such as protection, interlocking and earthing are treated separately. This ensures that the diagrams are not overly congested with information. The end results should be unambiguous and be easily read and understood by the recipient. A. DEFINITIONS 1 One-Line Diagram A one-line diagram shows, by means of single lines and graphic symbols, the course of an electric circuit or system of circuits and the component devices or parts used therein. In a three-phase system, a single line represents all three phases. 2 Schematic Diagram A schematic diagram shows, by means of graphic symbols, the electrical connections and functions of a specific circuit arrangement. Schematic diagrams are used to present the control circuits of electrical equipment such as motors, heaters etc. or to show the control and protection circuits of transmission line switching equipment such as circuit breakers, disconnectors, etc. 3 Symbol Graphic symbols represent the functions or interconnections of a circuit. Graphic symbols are used on one-line diagrams, on schematic diagrams, or, as applicable, on connection or wiring diagrams. Graphic symbols are correlated with parts lists, descriptions, or instructions by means of designations. 4 Function Number A device function number, with an appropriate prefix and appended suffix is used to identify the function(s) of each device installed in electrical equipment. These numbers are used in one-line diagrams, on schematic diagrams, instruction books, publications and specifications. In addition, function number may be physically placed on, or adjacent to, each device on the assembled equipment. B. TABLE OF SYMBOLS Symbols used to create one-line and schematic diagrams according to ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards are given in Table I. Symbols are not always unique. In some cases, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN 1 of 25

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within the same standard, the symbols of the same device are defined in different ways. Table I gives typical representation of symbols. The table also gives alternative representation of the same symbol if the alternative representation is specified by Standard. IEEE standard 315-1975 states: A substantial effort has been made to have this American National Standard compatible with approved IEC Recommendations. Electrical diagrams are a factor in international trade; the use of one common symbol language ensures a clear presentation and economical diagram preparation for a variety of users. Hence many of the ANSI symbols presented in this table use the IEC designated symbols. Protective relay function numbers are defined by ANSI standard C37.2-1996 and they are commonly used in both ANSI and IEC projects. In most cases IEC projects use function numbers defined by ANSI C37.2-1996, however some projects may choose to use symbolic representations given by IEC-60617. ANSI Standard C37.2-1996 defines letters and numbers that may be used as prefixes or suffixes to device function numbers to provide a more specific definition of the function. They may serve to denote individual or specific parts or auxiliary contacts of these devices or certain distinguishing features, characteristics, or conditions that describe the use of the device or its contacts in the equipment. Similarly as the device function numbers, prefix and suffix letters and numbers can be used in both ANSI and IEC Projects. Table 1.

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Table 2

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C. IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS WHEN READING IEC ONE-LINE (SINGLE-LINE) AND SCHEMATIC (ELEMENTARY) DIAGRAMS Some common points that may mislead a reader familiar with ANSI/IEEE Standards when reading one-line diagrams and schematic diagrams that comply with IEC Standards, are given in this Section. 1. Rated power of transformers Rated power of a power transformer indicated in one-line diagrams or schematic diagrams need to be properly interpreted. Rated power of a power transformer is defined in sub-clause 4.1 of IEC 60076-1 as the power into transformer. The power available for the load is therefore generally slightly less than the rated power of the transformer. Misinterpretation of the rated power definition may lead to underestimating the rated power required. Sub-clause 4.1 IEC 60076-1 states that if different values of apparent power are assigned under different circumstances (for example with different cooling methods), the highest of these values is the rated power. It is essential that the short circuit per unit impedance given in one-line diagram is defined for the rated power. Misinterpretation of the rated power of a power transformer given in one-line diagrams in this case may lead to underestimating the short circuit current. 2. System voltages for low voltage Several years ago, it was decided to harmonize the values of voltage used in 50Hz applications. Previously, the 2 values were 220/380V and 240/415V, and the new harmonized value was chosen to be 230/400V. All the new applications should have a nominal system voltage of 230/400V, but different values may appear when reading old one-line and schematic diagrams. The fact that the no-load voltage of step-down transformers is indicated on one-line diagrams sometimes leads to confusion since no-load voltage of 400V is used for systems having a nominal voltage of 380V. For a nominal system voltage of 400V, a secondary no-load voltage of 420V is typically used. REFERENCES 1. ANSI/IEEE Std 315-1975 (Reaffirmed 1993) Graphic Symbols for Electrical and Electronics Diagrams . 2. ANSI/IEEE Std C37.2-1996 (Reaffirmed 2001) IEEE Standard Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers and Contact Designations 3. IEC 60617: 2003 Graphical Symbols for Diagrams Database 4. IEC 60050: 1984 International Electro technical Vocabulary

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D. Format Use to prepare single Line Diagram 1. Voltage Levels A one-line diagram should cover all ac voltage levels within the electrical distribution system. It is conventional to prepare the diagram beginning with the highest voltage level at the top of the sheet and proceed down to the lower voltage levels of the system in the order indicated below: a. Extra high voltage (switchyard) 765 kV, 500 kV, 345 kV, and 230 kV (voltages above 140 kV) b. High voltage (switchyard and substation) 138 kV, 115 kV, and 69 kV (voltages above 36 kV, up to and including 140 kV) c. Medium voltage 34.5 kV (distribution), 22 kV, 13.8 kV, 6.9 kV, 4.16 kV, and 2.4 kV (voltages above 1 kV, up to and including 36 kV) d. Low voltage (unit substation and MCCs) 480 V, 600 V (voltages up to and including 1 kV) NOTE: 250 V, 125 V dc, and 120 V ac UPS and 240 V/120 V distribution system one-line diagrams may be covered on separate drawings. 2. Phase Rotation (or Phase Sequence) Phase rotations for all voltage levels within the entire electrical distribution system should be shown, preferably at the top right hand corner of the diagram, starting with the highest voltage phasor as the reference, and the first phase of the highest voltage system pointing upward (12 oclock position).The usual notation of the phase rotations is A-B-C (or X-Y-Z or U-V-W or 1-2-3 or L1-L2-L3 or by three colors, R-Y-B) counterclockwise (or) AC-B counterclockwise. In addition, phase relationship (electrical angular displacement) between the various voltage levels should be shown. 3. Definition of Scope and Responsibility The One-line diagram must include boundary lines clearly identifying the equipment and engineering work within Contractor's scope and responsibility. Also, major components and interconnections covered by Others (for example, the Utility's switchyard) but interfacing with the equipment within Contractor's scope and responsibility must be shown on the diagram with a specific note that these are provided by Others.

E. Equipment Details
The Main One-line Diagrams should present ratings and details of the major electrical equipment and interconnecting components as listed below. a. Switchboards and motor control centres: All switchboards and motor control centre names, bus-section numbers, line voltages, number of phases, number of wires, frequency, busbar continuous current rating. Identification of main incoming, bus-section, outgoing and interconnecting circuit breakers, including spare and unequipped cubicles. Some diagrams show the cable tag number of the principal cables. A simplified breaker arrangement including the associated disconnect switches, surge (lightning) arresters for extra-high or high voltage breakers, and the Current

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and Voltage transformers that interface with the plant for synchronization, protective relaying and metering should be shown. b. Generators: Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in MVA or kVA and power factor. D-axis synchronous reactance in per-unit. D-axis transient reactance in per-unit. D-axis sub-transient reactance in per-unit. Neutral earthing arrangements, e.g. solid, with a neutral earthing resistance (NER), with a common busbar, switches or circuit breakers for isolation. Current and time rating of the NER if used, and the voltage ratio of the earthing transformer if used. c. Generator breaker (if applicable) Names and tag numbers. No. of Poles. Type of interruption. Nominal ratings in voltage , Amps and kA d. Transformer feeders: Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in MVA or kVA. Leakage impedance in per-unit. Symbolic winding arrangement of the primary and secondary. Line voltage ratio. e. Surge arresters, and surge capacitors Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in voltage, Amps and kA f. Isolated-phase buses Names and tag numbers. No. of Poles. Nominal ratings in voltage, Amps and kA g. Non-segregated buses Names and tag numbers. No. of Poles. Nominal ratings in voltage, Amps and kA h. High voltage and large low voltage motors: Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in kW. i. Current limiting reactors Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in Amp. j. Power factor improvement capacitors Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in Voltage , kVAr and short circuit current kA. k. Distribution 120 V ac (including UPS) system (on separate diagrams) Names and tag numbers. Nominal ratings in Voltage , KW or AmpHr and short circuit current kA..

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General notes column or box: Usually several notes are added to the diagram to explain unusual or particular features, such as interlocking, limitations on impedance values for fault currents or voltdrop.

F. PROCEDURE FOR PREPARATION


The following discrete steps are recommended for preparation of project Main Oneline Diagrams. Step 1: Collection of Basic Data This step is intended to obtain and organize basic technical data for the major elements in the electrical distribution system that is listed below. (If actual data/information specific to the project are not available at the preliminary stage, data/information from a similar project recently executed by Contactor be used to approximate the data. However, as and when technical data specific to the project become available, these shall substitute for the approximated data/information.). a. Utilize the project Equipment List to prepare the electrical load lists for the medium voltage and low voltage loads.Normal operating and spare loads should be assigned to separate busses. Notes may be added to indicate nature of loads such as common facility loads, essential loads, intermittently operating, and spares. b. Determination of load centers and their dedication to the systems; eg, HRSG Load center. c. Selection of voltage levels appropriate to the subsystems d. Selection of distribution system (radial, primary loop, ring bus etc.) e. Selection of grounding system (ungrounded, high resistance, low resistance or solidly grounded) f. Major equipment ratings (per ANSI or IEC Std) g. Interconnecting components (isophase bus, non-segregated bus, power cables) h. Scope and responsibility (marked by boundary lines between the plant and the switchyard, boundary lines covering equipment and systems within Others scope of supply) The extent of the equipment data, details, and notes shown on the one-line diagrams may vary from one project to another, or from one industry to another. Reference may be made (on the diagrams) to Medium Voltage and Low Voltage Diagrams or vendor or contractor drawings for equipment ratings and details. Step 2: Configuration of Electrical Distribution System The electrical distribution system shall be configured showing interconnections between equipment at different voltage levels. In general, the physical locations of individual pieces of equipment need not be considered in the layout. However; the equipment arrangement shall be from top to bottom based on the voltage levels. If any special features such as automatic or manual bus transfers (for example, between start-up and normal sources of power) and interlocks are involved, these should also be indicated and notes on the drawing should cover their details/description.

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Step 3: Drafting of the Diagram Drafting of the diagram shall comply with company standards. Typical project oneline diagrams are included in this design guide. These figures depict generic arrangement and are for drafting references only.

G. Preparation of SLD of Individual Switchboards and Motor Control Centres


Switchboards and motor control centre name and tag number. Bus-section numbers or letters. Cubicle numbers or letters. Line voltage, number of phases, number of wires, frequency, busbar continuous current rating. Busbar nominal fault breaking capacity in kA at 1 or 3 seconds. Identification of all circuit breakers, fuse-contactor units, and their nominal current ratings. Neutral earthing arrangements, e.g. connections to the incomers. Protective devices of all incomers, bus-section circuit breakers, busbars, and outgoing circuits. Interlocking systems in schematic form. Local and remote indication facilities. Details of special devices such as transducers, automatic voltage regulators, synchronizing schemes, fault limiting reactors, reduced voltage motor starters, busbar trunking. Rating, ratio and accuracy class of current and voltage transformers. Identification of spare and unequipped cubicles. References to other drawing numbers, e.g. continuation of a switchboard, associated switchgear, drawing in the same series, legend drawing, cables schedule and protective relay schedule. Column or box for detailed notes. Column or box for legend of symbols.

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PREPARATION OF ONE-LINE METER AND RELAY DIAGRAMS


A. GENERAL 1. The system Single Line Meter And Relay Diagram (SLM&RD) is a schematic representation of a specific electrical system illustrating the functional relationships among the various components and the electrical control, metering, and protective relays. A system SLM&RD is a key project document, and is intended to fulfill the following primary objectives: a. Furnish all information related to the system design b. Provide interface information to other disciplines c. Provide the client, regulatory and other agencies, and equipment vendors with a means of better understanding the system design and requirements d. Serve as a primary record of system design information and requirements for major equipment (such as generator, transformer, switchgear, load centers/unit substations) protective relaying and meters e. Serve as a basis for generating additional project documents, including system description, protection logic and schematic diagrams, circuit and raceway schedules, electrical equipment index, and loop diagrams for distributed control systems (DCS) 2. System SLM&RDs shall include all applicable major electrical equipment, meters and their switches, protective relays with associated instrument transformers, motor protectors, electrical transducers, resistance temperature detectors, and interlock devices. These equipment and components are to be represented schematically. The following technical information and details are to be included in system SLM&RDs: a. System phase rotation (phase sequence) b. Equipment names, ratings, device identification numbers, and associated location c. A Protective Relay Table covering device numbers, description of relays, make/model, locations, and intended function of relays d. Types of meters and transducers with specified ranges e. Main generator ratings, excitation, and neutral grounding f. Power transformer and instrument transformer connection (delta-wye, wye-wye, etc.) and grounding requirements, including polarity markings for instrument transformers g. Continuous current ratings of power circuit breakers, or motor starters, and their numbering and cubicle location numbers in switchgear assemblies and motor starter assemblies h. Isolated phase bus and/or nonsegregated phase bus continuous current ratings i. Cable entry (top or bottom) to switchgear, medium voltage motor starter lineups, load centers, and current limiting reactor (This information may be noted on the diagrams where physical elevation of the equipment is shown). j. Power cable sizes (Types and installation [conduit, underground ductbank, or tray] may be noted on the diagrams.) k. The quantities of each protective relay and associated instrument transformers and fuses l. Current ratios of current transformers and polarities and voltage ratios of potential transformers (Metering or relay accuracy classes may be noted on the diagrams.)

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m. "Local" and/or "remote" control points of an electrically operated circuit breaker; the associated control switch, selector switch, and meter; and their respective location numbers (This information may be indicated on the diagrams.) n. Computer input requirements o. Identification of the electrical system designators p. Power and control cable numbers may be shown q. Medium voltage motor RTDs (windings and bearings) and differential CTs as applicable r. Interlocking between breakers as applicable 3. The following details and information are not to be shown on system SLM&RDs: a. Contact development of control switches b. Indication lights c. Contacts of auxiliary relays and control switches (including alarm initiating contacts) d. Cable block diagrams, and wire numbers e. Detailed wiring or connections between equipment, components, and devices 4. For low voltage MCCs, the meter and relay requirements may be documented in the form of a schedule of tabulated design information.Low voltage MCCs feed motors (typically up to 75 hp, or up to 200 hp, depending on the project design criteria), battery chargers, HVAC system, heaters, etc. The MCC schedule (or single line) is an expedient means to define the electrical design requirements for each load supplied from the MCC. The following information is to be furnished on the schedule format (Refer to Figure 7 for a typical MCC schedule of tabulated design information): a. Identification of the MCC by its location number and/or system designation b. Service description of load, its assigned identification number, its system designation (where applicable), and its rating in appropriate unit c. The MCC cubicle number feeding the load and its vertical cubicle dimension d. Horsepower rating, service factor, the full load current (FLA), locked rotor current (LRA), and feeder cable size for motor load e. Control point, whether local or remote, from which the load can be controlled f. Fuse disconnect switch or breaker rating requirements, including frame size, continuous current rating, and trip setting or fuse type and rating g. Starter size, type, and overload element or solid-state trip device settings h. Control transformer rating and associated fuse rating i. Breaker or disconnect switch number assigned to the load (Other Bechtel or vendor document numbers may be referenced, if applicable.) j. Motor space heater requirements, if applicable k. Any special design features, such as adding a relay or switch, etc. 5. The meter and relay diagram for the high voltage, extra-high voltage switchyard and substation system is a schematic representation illustrating the primary circuit equipment and bus arrangement, secondary circuits with meters, protective relays and functional relationships among the various components. The primary circuit equipment and bus arrangement shown on the diagram should be in agreement with

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the physical layout arrangement. The following technical information and details are to be included in the high and extra-high voltage system single line meter and relay diagrams: a. System phase rotation (phase sequence) b. Type of circuit breaker either dead tank or live tank design and whether gang operated or independent pole operated may be noted on the diagram. For dead tank breakers, current transformers are located on both side bushings and form a part of the circuit breaker. For live tank breakers, current transformers are to be shown as separate equipment. c. Main bus voltage, continuous current rating and bus identification d. Type of operator of the disconnect switches and ground switches, show whether motor or manually operated e. Current transformers ratios, polarities, metering and relay accuracy classes, burden designation f. Potential transformers ratios, connection (wye-wye, wye-open delta etc.), metering or relay accuracy classes g. Surge arrestor location h. Line trap and line tuner details and location (where applicable) i. Equipment names, ratings, identification number, transmission line or feeder descriptions j. Current and voltage transformer secondary circuits showing the devices connected to each secondary circuit. Current transformer secondary circuits shall be summed up for multiple breaker application. Redundant relays shall be connected from different current transformer circuits. (Test switches are not to be shown on the single line meter and relay diagrams). k. A protective relay, meter and transducer table covering device number, description of devices, make/model, locations, intended functions, measuring ranges for meters and transducers l. Synchronizing potential signals and its interface with synchronizing devices m. Potential signal to transformer load tap changer (where applicable) n. Electrical signals between relays, breakers, and disconnect & ground switches for trip, close and safety interlocks o. Revenue meters, make/model, accuracy class, associated current and potential transformers (where separate instrument transformers are used for revenue measurement) p. Interfaces of the revenue meters with the computer and/or RTU/SCADA system q. Interface of protection signals with remote ends of the lines and with the plant including basic details of communication arrangement r. Interfaces with fault recorder (where applicable) s. Local and/or remote control points of circuit breakers and disconnect switches (This information may be indicated as operating philosophy notes on the diagram) t. Computer input requirement (This information may be covered on a separate drawing/list) u. RTU/SCADA input requirement (This information may be covered on a separate drawing/list) v. Event recorder input requirement (This information may be covered on a separate drawing/list)

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B. FORMAT FOR SLM&RDs 1. System SLM&RDs must be simple, neat, and presented in schematic form. Since all information may not be available during the early stages of the project, system SLM&RDs shall first be prepared on a conceptual basis, and then updated with changes and additions as design progresses. 2. The system SLM&RDs may be presented in a manner such that the components represented schematically on the drawing are in agreement with the physical arrangement as installed when viewed from the front. If this relationship cannot be maintained, thefront view of the equipment depicting the actual arrangements of the components may be added to the drawing. A concerted effort must be made to develop the system SLM&RDs so that all of the components of a system appear on the one or more drawings assigned to that system. The following specific drawing format is recommended: a. System phasing sequence should be shown at top left or right b. The device or relay table should be shown on the upper right portion of the drawing c. The location number summary table, if furnished, should be near the device or relay table d. Space should be allowed for explanatory notes and device legends on the right side of the drawing above the title block e. If the front elevation of a piece of equipment is required, it may be shown at the top of the drawing f. Reference drawings should be listed Note: If power is delivered to motors, MCCs, and other loads scoped within mechanical systems, these components may also be shown in the electrical distribution system, indicating applicable system designators for both electrical and mechanical systems. C. DEVELOPMENT OF SLM&RDs Since all of the information to be shown on system SLM&RDs may not be available during the early stages of a project, it is recommended that system SLM&RDs be prepared at several stages during project development, in the following discrete issues: a. Preliminary issue b. Design issue (construction issue) c. as-built issue An explanation of the need for these discrete issues follows. 1. Preliminary Issue During the early stages of the project, the function, control, and protection philosophies for different systems are required to be established and incorporated into the plant design criteria. To support this effort, system SLM&RDs are prepared for preliminary issue based on equipment design data available for the project or on the data extracted from a similar plant type (reference plant) of recent design. The preliminary issue is primarily intended for client review and/or approval and request for bid proposals from vendors of switchgear, transformers, load centers, MCCs, etc. 2. Design Issue The design issue of SLM&RDs is to include design requirements and additional, more accurate information from successful vendor bid proposal documents. The design issue ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN 22 of 25

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is generally marked as "issued for award" or "issued for Purchase." 3. Construction Issue The construction issue is prepared to update system SLM&RDs by incorporating information from as-built or certified documents (supplied by equipment vendors). 4. As-Built Issue The As-built issue will incorporate any field changes implemented during construction or Startup of the system. This may be treated as the final issue of SLM&RDs to clients.

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