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BY RAVI

PARTS OF AN AIRCRAFT

DESIGN PROCESS
Research, Development and Market analysis

Customer Requirements Payload, Range, Endurance, Speed,

Conceptual Design

No

Requirements Satisfied ?

Yes
Preliminary Design

Stop

Final Evaluation Go Detailed Design

Test Article Fabrication

Flight Test

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Preliminary Estimate of Take-off Weight Wing Loading Selection Main Wing Design Fuselage Design Horizontal and Vertical Tail Design Engine Selection Take-off and Landing Enhanced Lift Design Structure Design and Material Selection Refined Weight Analysis Static Stability and Control Cost Estimate Design Summary and Trade Study

More weight

More lift needed

More wing area More induced drag More profile drag

More thrust

More fuel for a given range/mission Larger fuel tank volume Larger fuselage and/or wings

Larger engines Heavier supporting structure

FUEL FRACTION ESTIMATES

FUEL FRACTION ESTIMATES

3 VIEW

PRELIMINARY DESIGN
Freeze The Configuration Develop Lofting Develop Test and Analytical Base Design Major Items Develop Actual Cost Estimate

INBOARDS

VISION REQUIREMENT

DETAILED DESIGN
Design The Actual Pieces To Be Built Design The Tooling and Fabrication Process Test Major Item Structure, Landing Gear Finalize Weight and Performance Estimates

A/C STRUCTURES & SYSTEMS


AIRCRAFT CONSISTS OF:
1. STRUCTURES * FUSELAGE * WING * EMPENNAGE * LANDING GEAR 2. SYSTEMS * POWER PLANT & FUEL SYSTEM * FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM * HYDRAULICS * ECS * ELECTRICAL & AVIONICS PRIMARY FACTORS TO CONSIDER FOR AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES ARE: STRENGTH WEIGHT RELIABILITY

STRUCTURES

LOADS ON AN AIRCRAFT
Loads acting on each element of the structure are to be considered for design . FACTORS OF LOADS: AIR LOADS : Pressure, lift, drag during maneour, gust load. LANDING LOADS : On ground, water & arrested landing ( on ships). SPECIAL LOADS: seat jettisoning, bird strike, cabin pressurization etc. WT. & INERTIA LOADS : component weight & inertia POWER PLANT LOADS : Thrust, Torque.

FUSELAGE
MAIN STRUCTURE OR BODY OF THE AIRCRAFT PROVIDES SPACE FOR 1. PERSONNEL 2. CARGO 3. CONTROLS & ACCESSORIES PROVIDES ATTACHMENT FOR 1. NOSE CONE 2. WIND SCREEN & CANOPY 3. WING 4. EMPENNAGE 5. NOSE & MAIN LANDING GEAR 6. AIR INTAKE 7. POWER PLANT

FUSELAGE MAJOR ASSEMBLIES


3 MAJOR ASSEMBLIES: FRONT FUSELAGE CENTRE FUSELAGE REAR FUSELAGE FRONT FUSELAGE: CONSISTS OF: NOSE CONE - Radar Antenna RADAR EQUIPMENT BAY Multi Mode Radar WIND SCREEN & CANOPY NOSE U/C BAY & ATTACHMENT EQUIPMENT BAY AIR INTAKE STUB WING extension of Fuselage in Wing Shape DOORS COVERS

INTERFACE

INTERFACES: FRONT FUS. TO CENTER FUS. CENTER FUS. TO REAR FUS. WING TO FUSELAGE FIN TO FUSELAGE H.STABILIZER TO FUSELAGE

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


FRAMES / BULK HEADS SKINS LONGERONS /STRINGERS FLOORS WALLS AIR DUCT DOORS & COVERS Bulkhead: Heavier Transverse members located at intervals Transfers concentrated loads to the shell of the A/C. * Machined / Sheet metal built-up

Frame: Maintains shape of fuselage Reduces column length of the stringer to prevent in-stability of the structure and for panel breaking. * Light in construction

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


FRAME TYPES: SECONDARY FRAMES: To transfer air loads (sheet metals)

PRIMARY FRAMES : Transfer Concentrated / Inclined Load (Machined Or Built-up ) Eg: WING FUS, FIN FUS , U/C SEAT.

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


BULKHEAD TYPES:

Open ring type

Close ring type

Full web type

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Skin: Fabric Skin: * Truss Type * Slow speed A/C * Takes only Air Loads & cannot resist shear / bending load. Stressed skins: * Sheet metal/composites * Riveted or bonded to the Frames & Stringers. * Takes Air Loads, Shear, Bending Loads and Torsional Loads

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


Composites:
TOP SHEET CORE

BOTTOM SHEET

Composite Density(gm/cc) 1.8 Strength(Mpa) 1200

Al. 2.4 400

Engine Cowling

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE

Stringer / Longeron: * A longitudinal stiffener attached to skin * Increases effectiveness of skin * Increases Compressive and shear critical stress.

TYPICAL SKIN & STRINGER ASSEMBLY

STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF FUSELAGE


TYPICAL FLOOR ASSEMBLY FLOOR

WALL STRINGERS

LONGERON

WALLS & FLOORS: Transfer the shear load Side walls for fuel tanks Side walls for landing gear bay. Tank floors and ceilings Equipment bay floors Cockpit floors

TYPICAL WALL ASSEMBLY

WING
Most important lift-producing part of the aircraft. Wings vary in design depending upon the aircraft type and its purpose. The shape of a wing greatly influences the performance of an airplane, Speed of an airplane, its maneuverability & its handling qualities Wings also carry the fuel for the airplane.

Types: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Straight Sweep (forward and back) Delta Swing-wing.

WING
Straight Wing: * for small, low-speed airplanes * General Aviation airplanes often of this type * Provides good lift at low speeds & Stable flight * Not suitable for high speeds.

Simple Delta

Delta Wing: * Looks like a large triangle from top.

Complex Delta

* Can reach high speeds (supersonic a airplanes LCA, Concorde) * Landing speeds are very fast.

WING
Sweep-back Wing: * for most high-speed airplanes. * Creates less drag * More unstable at low speeds. * Take off and Landing at a high rate of speed. Forward-sweep wing: * Yet to make it into mass production. * Highly maneuverable & highly unstable (X-29). * Computer-based control system is a must to help the pilot fly. Swing Wing: * Has high lift characteristics of a primarily straight wing with the ability of the sweepback wing to enable high speeds. During landing and takeoff, the wing swings into an almost straight position. During cruise, the wing swings into a sweepback position.

ELEMENTS OF WING

Spar: It is a primary beam, which extends to the full length of the wing. Rib: a light structure conforming to the shape of the airfoil over which the skin is attached and transfers the air load to the spars. Nose rib: Rib between front spar and the leading edge of the airfoil. Inter-Spar rib: Rib between the adjacent spars.
Inter spar Rib Nose Rib

Lightening Holes

ELEMENTS OF WING
Spoilers: Located on top of the wings. Opposite effect of flaps and slats. Reduces lift and increases the drag. Helps the airplane to slow down sooner. Slats: Located on the leading edge of the wings. Flaps: Located on the trailing edge of the wings. Aileron: Hinged on the trailing edge of the wing. Helps in rolling motion of the airplane.

EMPENNAGE
Commonly called as Tail of A/c. Consists of Vertical stabilizer(Fin) and horizontal stabilizer(Tail Plane). Stabilizers help the aircraft maintain a straight path through the air as it flies. Stabilizers act like the feathers on an arrow.

EFFECTS OF CONTROL SURFACES


Rudder Elevator Elevator Flap Aileron

Slats

Spoilers

Aileron

Rudder

LANDING GEAR
Absorbs the forces imposed on the A/c by take-offs & landings.

NLG can be steered from the cockpit.

MLG is equipped with brakes for stopping the A/c & steering the A/c on the ground. Actuated by Hydraulic System
NOSE LANDING GEAR MAIN LANDING GEAR

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


JOINTS: Structural Elements are joined together to form sub-assembly Sub-assemblies are joined together to form major assemblies (Fuselage, Wing, Empennage, Canopy & Wind Shield etc.)

TYPES OF JOINTS: Temporary / Removable joints : Bolted (shear / tension). Permanent Joints IMPORTANT JOINTS : Riveted and Welded joints. : Engine mount Landing gear attachment Fin attachment Canopy & wind shield Wing attachment

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


Landing Gear attachment

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE - JOINTS


FASTENERS: 1. Permanent Fasteners(Standard): Rivets : HS 1005, HS 1006, HS 1014, HUCK MLGPL Blind Rivets: NAS 1919B, NAS 1921B (Used where there is no access on the other side) Removable Fasteners (Standard): Bolts : HS 1001, HS 1002 Nuts : 3373A Anchor Nuts: 3381A, 155H940, 155H942

2.

3. Special Fasteners: Wing Fuselage Attachment Bolts

MATERIALS
Aircraft Materials should have: * Good strength * Good Stiffness * Less Weight * High Reliability Material consideration for selection: Strength to weight ratio (Ultimate tensile strength to Density ) higher the ratio is better. Stiffness to Weight ratio ( Young's modulus to Density ) Availability Ease of manufacturing Cost Effective

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