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CLIL:ANewApproachtoTEFL

ManuelF.LaraGarrido
InordertoteachEnglisheffectively,anEFLteachermustsubscribetoone(ormore)ofthecurrent approachestoteachingEnglishasaforeignlanguageandincorporateitslanguagelearning strategiesandtechniquesintoeachofhisorherlessons. Thoughthereisnoonecorrectapproach,mostteachersusuallyfindthemselvesmorecomfortable usingoneortheotheroftheapproacheslistedanddescribed.

STATEOFTHEART
Soastogivesomedepthofunderstandingastotheevolutionofideasthathasmarkedthe emergenceofneweranddifferentapproachestolanguageteaching,wehavetriedtoplacethe followinglistofmethodologicalapproachesinchronologicalorder.

GrammarTranslationMethod DirectMethod TheReadingApproach AudioLingualMethod SilentWay TotalPhysicalResponse(TPR) CommunityLanguageLearning(CLL) Suggestopedia(Suggestology) FunctionalnotionalApproach CommunicativeApproach NaturalApproach

GrammarTranslationMethod
ThisapproachwashistoricallyusedinteachingGreekandLatin.Theapproachwasgeneralizedto teachingmodernlanguages. Classesaretaughtinthestudents'mothertongue,withlittleactiveuseofthetargetlanguage. Vocabularyistaughtintheformofisolatedwordlists.Elaborateexplanationsofgrammarare alwaysprovided.Grammarinstructionprovidestherulesforputtingwordstogether;instruction oftenfocusesontheformandinflectionofwords.Readingofdifficulttextsisbegunearlyinthe courseofstudy.Littleattentionispaidtothecontentoftexts,whicharetreatedasexercisesin grammaticalanalysis.Oftentheonlydrillsareexercisesintranslatingdisconnectedsentencesfrom thetargetlanguageintothemothertongue,andviceversa.Littleornoattentionisgivento pronunciation.

DirectMethod
Thisapproachwasdevelopedinitiallyasareactiontothegrammartranslationapproachinan attempttointegratemoreuseofthetargetlanguageininstruction. Lessonsbeginwithadialogueusingamodernconversationalstyleinthetargetlanguage.Material isfirstpresentedorallywithactionsorpictures.ThemothertongueisNEVER,NEVERused.There

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isnotranslation.Thepreferredtypeofexerciseisaseriesofquestionsinthetargetlanguagebased onthedialogueorananecdotalnarrative.Questionsareansweredinthetargetlanguage.Grammar istaughtinductivelyrulesaregeneralizedfromthepracticeandexperiencewiththetarget language.Verbsareusedfirstandsystematicallyconjugatedonlymuchlateraftersomeoral masteryofthetargetlanguage.Advancedstudentsreadliteratureforcomprehensionandpleasure. Literarytextsarenotanalyzedgrammatically.Thecultureassociatedwiththetargetlanguageisalso taughtinductively.Cultureisconsideredanimportantaspectoflearningthelanguage.

TheReadingApproach
Thisapproachisselectedforpracticalandacademicreasons.Forspecificusesofthelanguagein graduateorscientificstudies.Theapproachisforpeoplewhodonottravelabroadforwhom readingistheoneusableskillinaforeignlanguage. Thepriorityinstudyingthetargetlanguageisfirst,readingabilityandsecond,currentand/or historicalknowledgeofthecountrywherethetargetlanguageisspoken.Onlythegrammar necessaryforreadingcomprehensionandfluencyistaught.Minimalattentionispaidto pronunciationorgainingconversationalskillsinthetargetlanguage.Fromthebeginning,agreat amountofreadingisdoneinL2,bothinandoutofclass.Thevocabularyoftheearlyreading passagesandtextsisstrictlycontrolledfordifficulty.Vocabularyisexpandedasquicklyaspossible, sincetheacquisitionofvocabularyisconsideredmoreimportantthatgrammaticalskill.Translation reappearsinthisapproachasarespectableclassroomprocedurerelatedtocomprehensionofthe writtentext.

AudioLingualMethod
Thismethodisbasedontheprinciplesofbehaviorpsychology.Itadaptedmanyoftheprinciples andproceduresoftheDirectMethod,inpartasareactiontothelackofspeakingskillsofthe ReadingApproach. Newmaterialispresentedintheformofadialogue.Basedontheprinciplethatlanguagelearningis habitformation,themethodfostersdependenceonmimicry,memorizationofsetphrasesandover learning.Structuresaresequencedandtaughtoneatatime.Structuralpatternsaretaughtusing repetitivedrills.Littleornogrammaticalexplanationsareprovided;grammaristaughtinductively. Skillsaresequenced:Listening,speaking,readingandwritingaredevelopedinorder.Vocabularyis strictlylimitedandlearnedincontext.Teachingpointsaredeterminedbycontrastiveanalysis betweenL1andL2.Thereisabundantuseoflanguagelaboratories,tapesandvisualaids.Thereis anextendedprereadingperiodatthebeginningofthecourse.Greatimportanceisgiventoprecise nativelikepronunciation.Useofthemothertonguebytheteacherispermitted,butdiscouraged amongandbythestudents.Successfulresponsesarereinforced;greatcareistakentoprevent learnererrors.Thereisatendencytofocusonmanipulationofthetargetlanguageandtodisregard contentandmeaning.

SilentWay
Thismethodbeginsbyusingasetofcoloredrodsandverbalcommandsinordertoachievethe following: Toavoidtheuseofthevernacular.Tocreatesimplelinguisticsituationsthatremainunderthe completecontroloftheteacherTopassontothelearnerstheresponsibilityfortheutterancesofthe descriptionsoftheobjectsshownortheactionsperformed.Tolettheteacherconcentrateonwhat thestudentssayandhowtheyaresayingit,drawingtheirattentiontothedifferencesin

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pronunciationandtheflowofwords.Togenerateaseriousgamelikesituationinwhichtherules areimplicitlyagreeduponbygivingmeaningtothegesturesoftheteacherandhismime.Topermit almostfromthestartaswitchfromthelonevoiceoftheteacherusingtheforeignlanguagetoa numberofvoicesusingit.Thisintroducescomponentsofpitch,timbreandintensitythatwill constantlyreducetheimpactofonevoiceandhencereduceimitationandencouragepersonal productionofone'sownbrandofthesounds. Toprovidethesupportofperceptionandactiontotheintellectualguessofwhatthenoisesmean, thusbringinthearsenaloftheusualcriteriaofexperiencealreadydevelopedandautomaticinone's useofthemothertongue.Toprovideadurationofspontaneousspeechuponwhichtheteacherand thestudentscanworktoobtainasimilarityofmelodytotheoneheard,thusprovidingmelodic integrativeschematafromthestart.

TotalPhysicalResponse(TPR)
JamesJ.Asher(1977)definestheTotalPhysicalResponse(TPR)methodasonethatcombines informationandskillsthroughtheuseofthekinestheticsensorysystem.Thiscombinationofskills allowsthestudenttoassimilateinformationandskillsatarapidrate.Asaresult,thissuccessleads toahighdegreeofmotivation.Thebasictenetsare: Understandingthespokenlanguagebeforedevelopingtheskillsofspeaking.Imperativesarethe mainstructurestotransferorcommunicateinformation.Thestudentisnotforcedtospeak,butis allowedanindividualreadinessperiodandallowedtospontaneouslybegintospeakwhenthe studentfeelscomfortableandconfidentinunderstandingandproducingtheutterances.

CommunityLanguageLearning(CLL)
Thismethodologyisnotbasedontheusualmethodsbywhichlanguagesaretaught.Ratherthe approachispatterneduponcounselingtechniquesandadaptedtothepeculiaranxietyandthreatas wellasthepersonalandlanguageproblemsapersonencountersinthelearningofforeign languages.Consequently,thelearnerisnotthoughtofasastudentbutasaclient.Thenative instructorsofthelanguagearenotconsideredteachersbut,ratheraretrainedincounselingskills adaptedtotheirrolesaslanguagecounselors. Thelanguagecounselingrelationshipbeginswiththeclient'slinguisticconfusionandconflict.The aimofthelanguagecounselor'sskillisfirsttocommunicateanempathyfortheclient'sthreatened inadequatestateandtoaidhimlinguistically.Thenslowlytheteachercounselorstrivestoenable himtoarriveathisownincreasinglyindependentlanguageadequacy.Thisprocessisfurtheredby thelanguagecounselor'sabilitytoestablishawarm,understanding,andacceptingrelationship,thus becomingan"otherlanguageself"fortheclient.

Suggestopedia(Suggestology)
Inthelate70s,aBulgarianpsychologistbythenameofGeorgiLozanovintroducedthecontention thatstudentsnaturallysetuppsychologicalbarrierstolearningbasedonfearsthattheywillbe unabletoperformandarelimitedintermsoftheirabilitytolearn.Lozanovbelievedthatlearners mayhavebeenusingonly5to10percentoftheirmentalcapacity,andthatthebraincouldprocess andretainmuchmorematerialifgiven"optimal"conditionsforlearning.Basedonpsychological researchonextrasensoryperception,Lozanovbegantodevelopalanguagelearningmethodthat focusedon"desuggestion"ofthelimitationslearnersthinktheyhave,andprovidingthesortof relaxedstateofmindthatwouldfacilitatetheretentionofmaterialtoitsmaximumpotential.This methodbecameknownas"Suggestopedia"thenamereflectingtheapplicationofthepowerof

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"suggestion"tothefieldofpedagogy. OneofthemostuniquecharacteristicsofthemethodwastheuseofsoftBaroquemusicduringthe learningprocess.Baroquemusichasaspecificrhythmandapatternof60beatsperminute,and Lozanovbelieveditcreatedalevelofrelaxedconcentrationthatfacilitatedtheintakeandretention ofhugequantitiesofmaterial.Thisincreaseinlearningpotentialwasputdowntotheincreasein alphabrainwavesanddecreaseinbloodpressureandheartratethatresultedfromlisteningto Baroquemusic.Anotheraspectthatdifferedfromothermethodstodatewastheuseofsoft comfortablechairsanddimlightingintheclassroom(otherfactorsbelievedtocreateamorerelaxed stateofmind). OthercharacteristicsofSuggestopediawerethegivingoverofcompletecontrolandauthoritytothe teacher(whoattimescanappeartobesomekindof"instructionalhypnotist"usingthismethod!) andtheencouragementoflearnerstoactas"childishly"aspossible,oftenevenassumingnamesand characters"in"thetargetlanguage.Alloftheseprinciplesincombinationwereseentomakethe students"suggestible",andthereforeabletoutilizetheirmaximummentalpotentialtotakeinand retainnewmaterial.

FunctionalnotionalApproach
Thismethodoflanguageteachingiscategorizedalongwithothersundertherubricofa communicativeapproach.Themethodstressesameansoforganizingalanguagesyllabus.The emphasisisonbreakingdowntheglobalconceptoflanguageintounitsofanalysisintermsof communicativesituationsinwhichtheyareused. Finocchiaro,M.&Brumfit,C.(1983)establishthefollowingunitsinordertoanalyse communication: Notionsaremeaningelementsthatmaybeexpressedthroughnouns,pronouns,verbs,prepositions, conjunctions,adjectivesoradverbs.Theuseofparticularnotionsdependsonthreemajorfactors:a. thefunctionsb.theelementsinthesituation,andc.thetopicbeingdiscussed. Asituationmayaffectvariationsoflanguagesuchastheuseofdialects,theformalityor informalityofthelanguageandthemodeofexpression. Exponentsarethelanguageutterancesorstatementsthatstemfromthefunction,thesituationand thetopic. Codeisthesharedlanguageofacommunityofspeakers. Codeswitchingisachangeorswitchincodeduringthespeechact,whichmanytheoristsbelieveis purposefulbehaviortoconveybonding,languageprestigeorotherelementsofinterpersonal relationsbetweenthespeakers. FunctionalCategoriesofLanguage MaryFinocchiaro(1983,p.6566)hasplacedthefunctionalcategoriesunderfiveheadingsasnoted below:personal,interpersonal,directive,referential,andimaginative. Personal=Clarifyingorarrangingonesideas;expressingonesthoughtsorfeelings. Interpersonal=Enablingustoestablishandmaintaindesirablesocialandworkingrelationships: Enablingustoestablishandmaintaindesirablesocialandworkingrelationships. Directive=Attemptingtoinfluencetheactionsofothers;acceptingorrefusingdirection.

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Referential=talkingorreportingaboutthings,actions,events,orpeopleintheenvironmentinthe pastorinthefuture;talkingaboutlanguage(whatistermedthemetalinguisticfunction:=talking orreportingaboutthings,actions,events,orpeopleintheenvironmentinthepastorinthefuture; talkingaboutlanguage(whatistermedthemetalinguisticfunction). Imaginative=Discussionsinvolvingelementsofcreativityandartisticexpression

CommunicativeApproach
Allthe"methods"describedsofararesymbolicoftheprogressforeignlanguageteachingideology underwentinthelastcentury.Theseweremethodsthatcameandwent,influencedorgavebirthto newmethodsinacyclethatcouldonlybedescribedas"competitionbetweenrivalmethods"or "passingfads"inthemethodologicaltheoryunderlyingforeignlanguageteaching.Finally,bythe mideightiesorso,theindustrywasmaturinginitsgrowthandmovingtowardstheconceptofa broad"approach"tolanguageteachingthatencompassedvariousmethods,motivationsforlearning English,typesofteachersandtheneedsofindividualclassroomsandstudentsthemselves.Itwould befairtosaythatifthereisanyone"umbrella"approachtolanguageteachingthathasbecomethe accepted"norm"inthisfield,itwouldhavetobetheCommunicativeLanguageTeachingApproach. ThisisalsoknownasCLT. TheCommunicativeapproachdoesalottoexpandonthegoalofcreating"communicative competence"comparedtoearliermethodsthatprofessedthesameobjective.Teachingstudentshow tousethelanguageisconsideredtobeatleastasimportantaslearningthelanguageitself.Brown (1994)aptlydescribesthe"march"towardsCLT: "Beyondgrammaticaldiscourseelementsincommunication,weareprobingthenatureofsocial, cultural,andpragmaticfeaturesoflanguage.Weareexploringpedagogicalmeansfor'reallife' communicationintheclassroom.Wearetryingtogetourlearnerstodeveloplinguisticfluency,not justtheaccuracythathassoconsumedourhistoricaljourney.Weareequippingourstudentswith toolsforgeneratingunrehearsedlanguageperformance'outthere'whentheyleavethewombofour classrooms.Weareconcernedwithhowtofacilitatelifelonglanguagelearningamongourstudents, notjustwiththeimmediateclassroomtask.Wearelookingatlearnersaspartnersinacooperative venture.Andourclassroompracticesseektodrawonwhateverintrinsicallysparkslearnerstoreach theirfullestpotential." CLTisagenericapproach,andcanseemnonspecificattimesintermsofhowtoactuallygoabout usingpracticesintheclassroominanysortofsystematicway.Therearemanyinterpretationsof whatCLTactuallymeansandinvolves.SeeTypesofLearningandThePPPApproachtoseehow CLTcanbeappliedinavarietyof'morespecific'methods.

NaturalApproach
StephenKrashenandTracyTerrelldevelopedthe"NaturalApproach"intheearlyeighties(Krashen andTerrell,1983),basedonKrashen'stheoriesaboutsecondlanguageacquisition.Theapproach sharedalotincommonwithAsher'sTotalPhysicalResponsemethodintermsofadvocatingthe needfora"silentphase",waitingforspokenproductionto"emerge"ofitsownaccord,and emphasizingtheneedtomakelearnersasrelaxedaspossibleduringthelearningprocess.Some importantunderlyingprinciplesarethatthereshouldbealotoflanguage"acquisition"asopposed tolanguage"processing",andthereneedstobeaconsiderableamountof"comprehensibleinput" fromtheteacher.Meaningisconsideredastheessenceoflanguageandvocabulary(notgrammar) istheheartoflanguage. AspartoftheNaturalApproach,studentslistentotheteacherusingthetargetlanguage

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communicativelyfromtheverybeginning.IthascertainsimilaritieswiththemuchearlierDirect Method,withtheimportantexceptionthatstudentsareallowedtousetheirnativelanguage alongsidethetargetlanguageaspartofthelanguagelearningprocess.Inearlystages,studentsare notcorrectedduringoralproduction,astheteacherisfocusingonmeaningratherthanform(unless theerrorissodrasticthatitactuallyhindersmeaning). CommunicativeactivitiesprevailthroughoutalanguagecourseemployingtheNaturalApproach, focusingonawiderangeofactivitiesincludinggames,roleplays,dialogs,groupworkand discussions.Therearethreegenericstagesidentifiedintheapproach:(1)Preproduction developinglisteningskills;(2)EarlyProductionstudentsstrugglewiththelanguageandmake manyerrorswhicharecorrectedbasedoncontentandnotstructure;(3)ExtendingProduction promotingfluencythroughavarietyofmorechallengingactivities. Krashen'stheoriesandtheNaturalapproachhavereceivedplentyofcriticism,particularly orientatedaroundtherecommendationofa"silentperiod"thatisterminatedwhenstudentsfeel readyto"emerge"intooralproduction,andtheideaof"comprehensibleinput".Criticspointout thatstudentswill"emerge"atdifferenttimes(orperhapsnotatall!)anditishardtodetermine whichformsoflanguageinputwillbe"comprehensible"tothestudents.Thesefactorscancreatea classroomthatisessentiallyverydifficulttomanageunlesstheteacherishighlyskilled.Still,this wasthefirstattemptatcreatinganexpansiveandoverall"approach"ratherthanaspecific "method",andtheNaturalApproachlednaturallyintothegenerallyacceptednormforeffective languageteaching:CommunicativeLanguageTeaching.

MYNEWAPPROACH:ContentbasedApproach(CBA)
Thereismuchscientificresearchonhowwelearnlanguages,whichnowgivesusgreater understandingoftheroleof'acquiringlanguage'inrelationtolearninglanguage. Infantsandyoungchildrencanbeverygoodatacquiringlanguageswhentheyareusedinthehome, andthisisonereasonwhypeoplesometimesthinkthatwelearnlanguagesbestwhenwearevery young.Olderchildrenandadultstendtobetaughtlanguages,usuallyinlanguagelearning classrooms.Successfullanguagelearningcanbeachievedwhenpeoplehavetheopportunityto receiveinstruction,andatthesametimeexperiencereallifesituationsinwhichtheycanacquirethe language. Eventhoughtheremaybedifferencesinhowthebrainworksasachildgrowsolderandbecomesan adult,akeyissuein'pickingup'languagesrelatestotheopportunitieswehaveforlearning languages.ThisiswhereContentandLanguageIntegratedLearning(CLIL)orContentbased Approach(CBA)canbeofinterest.Onereasonwhyveryyoungchildrenseemsogoodatpicking uplanguageisoftentodowiththenaturalnessoftheenvironmentaroundthem.Alanguage classroom,wherelearnersgothroughtheoftendifficultprocessofsortingoutsounds,structures, grammarorvocabularyisrarelynatural. WhatCLILcanoffertostudentsofanyage,isamorenaturalsituationforlanguagedevelopment whichbuildsonotherformsoflearning.Thisnaturaluseoflanguagecanboostayoungster's motivationandhungertowardslearninglanguages.Itisthisnaturalnesswhichappearstobeoneof themajorplatformsforCLILsimportanceandsuccessinrelationtobothlanguageandother subjectlearning1.
1 Derived:Marsh&Lang,UsingLanguagestoLearnandLearningtoUseLanguages.TIECLIL:Milan

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CLILhasbecometheumbrellatermdescribingbothlearninganother(content)subjectsuchas physicsorgeographythroughthemediumofaforeignlanguageandlearningaforeignlanguageby studyingacontentbasedsubject.InELT,formsofCLILhavepreviouslybeenknownasContent basedApproach(CBA),Contentbasedinstruction(CBI),Englishacrossthecurriculumand Bilingualeducation. Cumminswritesofcontextualembeddingoflearningandofscaffoldingforlearnerstohelpthem succeedinthelanguageofeducationandlearning.Theamountofbackgroundweprovideto learnersmayinfluencetheextenttowhichtheywillsucceedinthelearningcontext.Languageis oneimportantelementofthissupport.Scaffoldingitselfisausefultermsinceitreflectsthe structuralsupportthatvisualscanofferlearnersworkinginsubjectsinaforeignlanguage.Itisalso ausefulanalogyfordescribingthelanguagesupportsheetsattheheartofCLIL.GoodCLIL practiceandmaterials,then,arefullofscaffoldingthroughvisualsandlanguagesupport. CBIorCLILapproachiscomparabletoEnglishforSpecificPurposes(ESP),whichusuallyisfor vocationaloroccupationalneeds,orEnglishforAcademicPurposes(EAP).ThegoalofCBIisto preparestudentstoacquirethelanguageswhileusingthecontextofanysubjectmattersothat studentslearnthelanguagebyusingitwithinthespecificcontext.Ratherthanlearningalanguage outofcontext,itislearnedwithinthecontextofaspecificacademicsubject. Aseducatorsrealizedthatinordertosuccessfullycompleteanacademictask,secondlanguage(L2) learnershavetomasterbothEnglishasalanguageform(grammar,vocabulary,etc.)andhow Englishisusedincorecontentclasses,theystartedtoimplementvariousapproachessuchas ShelteredInstructionandlearningtolearninCLILclasses. WhileShelteredInstructionismoreofateacherdrivenapproachthatputstheresponsibilityon theteachers'shouldersbystressingseveralpedagogicalneedstohelplearnersachievetheirgoals suchasteachersshouldhavetheknowledgeofthesubjectmatter,theknowledgeofinstructional strategiestocomprehensibleandaccessiblecontent,theknowledgeofL2learningprocess,andthe abilitytoassesscognitive,linguisticandsocialstrategiesthatstudentsusetoassurecontent comprehensionwhilepromotingEnglishacademicdevelopment;LearningtoLearnismoreofa studentcenteredapproachthatstresstheimportanceofhavingthelearnerssharethisresponsibility withtheirteachers.Learningtolearnemphasizesthesignificantrolethatlearningstrategiesplayin theprocessoflearning. Researchonsecondlanguageacquisitionhasshownthatconsiderableexposuretonaturally occurringlanguageisnecessarytoensuretheachievementofagoodlevelofcompetenceintheL2. Ontheotherhand,CLILcallsforaninteractiveteachingstyle.Thismeansthatstudentshavemore opportunitiestoparticipateverballybyinteractingwiththeteacherandotherfellowstudentsusing theL2.Inthiswaylearnerscantryoutwhattheyknowoftheforeignlanguage.Learningisatleast partlyaproblemsolvingactivityandCLILrequireslearnerstosolveproblemsthroughtheforeign language.

ConnectionofCLILtopreviousTEFLApproaches
IntheMiddleAges,theteachingofLatinandtosomeextentGreekwereimplementedbyusingthe languagetaughtasameansofinstruction.Somechildrenenjoyedaprivatetuitionandthe communicationbetweenthemasterandhispupilalsotookplaceentirelyintheTL(Latin). Inlateryears,thedirectmethodinLTfullyexploitstheintralingualtechniques,sinceclassroom instructionisconductedexclusivelyintheTL.IntheXIXthcentury,theinitiativewasdevelopedby C.Marcel(17931896)andF.Gouin(18311896).ItwasconsideredthatL1learningcouldbeagood

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modeltobereproducedwiththeTLlearning.Theyemphasisetheimportanceofmeaningin learningandtrytopresentthelanguageinacontextthatmakestheirmeaningclear. Morerecently,Terrell(1977)andKrashenandTerrell(1983)havedevelopedanaturalapproach, wheretheentireclassperiodisdevotedtocommunicativeactivities.Thisapproachaimstodevelop basicpersonaloralandwrittencommunicationskills:


Thegeneralgoaliscommunicationskills. Comprehensionprecedesproduction. Productionemergeswithoutforcingit,afterasilentperiod. Learningactivitiesmustpromotesubconsciousacquisitionratherthanconsciouslearning.

InrelationtotheCommunicativeApproach(CA),wecanseehowCLILrootsintheCA.TheCA proposestoworkwithmotivatedactivities,topicsandthemeswhichinvolvethelearnerinauthentic communication.Ingeneral,thetechniquesusedbytheCAarepredominantlyholisticandglobal, experientialandnonanalytic. Communicativesyllabusestendtofocusmoreonthemessageofthecontentthanonthe singleformalaspectsofthelanguageused.Inthissenseitismessageorientatedasisthe CBT.


Opportunitiesforauthenticlanguageusearesought. LearningtheTLthroughtheTL.Thelanguageclassisconsideredanidealsettingtodevelop communicationthroughtheTL,soclassroominstructionsandmanagementareconductedin theTL. Relevanttopics.TheCAoftenseekssubstantivetopicswhichsatisfythestudent'sinterests andneedsandthathavesomeeducationalrelevance. Semanticemphasis.TheemphasisthattheCBAputsonthesemanticaspectsisalsorooted intheCAthatemphasisestheexpressionofmeaning,conceptsandideasaboveall.

Influenceofthelanguageteachingthroughcrosscurricularcontents
ThelanguageacrossthecurriculummovementhasinfluencedL2instructionaltheoryandpractice. ThismovementputsagreatemphasisontheteachingoftheL1acrossthecurricularsubjects (Maths,Science,Geography,History,etc.). TheSpanishreformalsointroducestheteachingofcrosscurricularcontents(transversalidad curricular)(civiceducation,healtheducation,etc.)throughtheTL.Thathasoftenimpliedsome emphasisoncontents.

ConnectionwithESPmovement
CLILalsoconnectswiththeEnglishforSpecificPurposes(ESP)movement,whichaimsto satisfythestudentsneedsandinterests.Thecontentandaimsofteachingaredeterminedbythe requirementofthelearner. Thecontentisrestrictedtofitthelearner'spurposes,selectedaccordingtohis/herinterests, developedthroughthemesandtopicsaccordingtohis/herneedsandfocusedtosatisfyhis/her communicativeneeds.

Similaritieswithbilingualeducationprograms
TheCBAusestheTLasthemeansofinstructionand,throughit,avarietyofcurricularsubjectsare

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taught.Thisisacommonfeatureofbilingualeducationprogrammes.Twowellknownexamplesare thebilingualprogramsinCanada(Genesee,F.,LambertandTucker,1972;Swain,1972;Swainand Lapkin,1981,Stern,1984)andintheUSA(CDE2,1990). Theseprogramsworkaccordingtothefollowingprinciples:


Agreatemphasismustbeputonthinking,communicationandproblemsolving. Arichcontentinallcurricularareas,includinghistory,scienceandliteratureshouldbe presented. Theymustbecontentbasedandemphasisecentralconcepts,patternsandrelationshipsfrom eachdiscipline. Theymustprovideaholisticviewoflearningbyintegratingandconnectingthecurricular areas. Theapproachfollowedinthepresentationandorganisationofcontentsmustbesequentially andspirallyorganised,sothattheconcepts,skillsandtopicsintroducedinthefirststagesare cyclicallyexploitedandtreatedinlaterstages. Varietyofteachingstrategies.Itisrecommendedtouseawiderangeoftechniquesand strategieswhichsatisfythevarietyanddiversityofstudents. Theskillsandinformationprovidedmustberelevantforthestudents,sothatitkeeps relationwiththereallifesituationsthatthestudentsmayencounterinsociety.

RelationwiththeCognitiveAcademicLearningApproach(CALLA)
TheCBAkeepsimportantsimilaritieswiththeCALLA,designedbyChamotandO'Malley(1994). TheCALLA,thesameastheCBA,integrateslanguageandcontentforL2instructionasfollows (1994:10):

ThecontenttopicsarealignedwithanallEnglishcurriculum. Practiceisprovidedofthetopicsthatthestudentswillencounteringradelevelclassrooms. Beginningwithscienceinstructionisrecommendedbecausethiscontext,richindiscovering andhandsontechniques,easilysupportstheacademiclanguagedevelopment. Anothercontentsubjectthatcanbeintroducedismathematics,currentlyinvolvedinsolving wordproblems. SocialstudiesisthethirdcontentsubjectintroducedinaCALLAprogramme.

WhatarethedimensionsofCLILintheclassroom?
CLILtakesvariousformsinEurope.Itisseenasaspecialopportunityforlanguagelearning,forthe acquisitionofcontentsubjectknowledgeandcompetencesandforculturalandintercultural learning.Itentailstransnationalsimilaritiesandlocaldifferenceswithintheparameterssetupby nationaleducationpolicies. Havingthisinmind,asuccessfulCLILlessonshouldcombineelementsoftheprinciplesbelow: 1. CONTENT:Progressioninknowledge,skillsandunderstandingrelatedtospecificelements ofadefinedcurriculum. 2. COMMUNICATION/LANGUAGE:Usinglanguagetolearnwhilstlearningtouse
2 CaliforniaDepartmentofEducation

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language.Thekeyisinteraction,NOTreaction. 3. COGNITION/LEARNING:Developingthinkingskillswhichlinkconceptformation (abstractandconcrete),understandingandlanguage 4. CULTURE:Exposuretoalternativeperspectivesandsharedunderstandings,whichdeepen awarenessofothernessandself. 5. TRANSNATIONAL:Prepareforinternationalisation,accessInternationalCertification, ETC. TheimplementationofCLILinSpain,wouldhaveclearadvantages: 1. Flexibilityincurriculardesignandtimetableorganisation:CLILconnectsdifferentareasof thelearningcurriculumintoameaningfulandeconomicuseofstudytime. 2. Quantityofexposure:Usingforeignlanguagesasthemediumofinstructionofcontent subjectsmaybetheonlywayofprovidingenoughexposuretothoselanguagesinorderto guaranteesuccessfullearningoftwoadditionallanguages. 3. Qualityofexposure:CLILcallsforaninteractiveteachingstyle.Thismeansthatstudents havemoreopportunitiestoparticipateverballybyinteractingwiththeteacherandother fellowstudentsusingtheL2. 4. Motivationforlearning:CLILreliesonintrinsicmotivation,thatis,thelearnersareinvolved ininterestingandmeaningfulactivitieswhileusingthelanguage. 5. Boostingthecareerperspectives:CLILispartofanapproachgearedtowards internationalisationofthestudents. 6. Integratinglinguisticandculturaldiversity:Studyingasubjectthroughthelanguageofa differentculturepavesthewayforunderstandingandtoleratingdifferentperspectives.

References
1. Asher,J.(1977):LearningAnotherLanguagethroughActions:TheCompleteTeachers Guidebook.LosGatos,CA.:SkyOaksProductions. 2. Chamot,A.U.,&OMalley,J.M.(1994).TheCALLAHandbook:Implementingthe CognitiveAcademicLanguageLearningApproach.Reading,MA:AddisonWesley. 3. Cummins,J.(2000)Language,PowerandPedagogy:BilingualChildrenintheCrossfire. Clevedon:MultilingualMatters. 4. Curran,CharlesA.CounselingLearninginSecondLanguages.AppleRiver,Illinois:Apple RiverPress,1976. 5. Finocchiaro,M.&Brumfit,C.(1983):TheFunctionalNotionalApproach.NewYork,NY: OxfordUniversityPress. 6. Gattegno,Caleb(1972):TeachingForeignLanguagesinSchools:TheSilentWay.NewYork City:EducationalSolutions,1972. 7. Genesee,F.,Lambert,W.,&Tucker,G.(1977). Anexperimentintrilingualeducation. . Montreal:McGillUniversity. 8. Krashen,S.D.,&Terrell,T.D.(1983):TheNaturalApproach:LanguageAcquisitioninthe Classroom.Hayward,CA:TheAlemanyPress.

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9. KRASHEN,S.yT.D.TERRELL,(1983):TheNaturalApproach:LanguageAcquisitioninthe Classroom.Oxford,Pergamon. 10. Lozanov,G.(1978):SuggestologyandOutlinesofSuggestopedy.NewYork:Gordonand BreachSciencePublishers.


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12. Stern,H.H.(1984).AQuietLanguageRevolution:SecondLanguageTeachinginCanadian ContextsAchievementsandnewDirections.CanadianModernLanguageReview,40(5). 13. SWAIN, (1981):"Linguistic expectations: core, extended and immersion programs". CanadianModernLanguageReview,37:48697.346,512,n.4. 14. Swain,MerrillKathleen(1972) Bilingualismasfirstlanguage. Dissertation,Universityof CaliforniaIrvine. 15. Swain,Merrill,andSharonLapkin.(1981): Evaluatingbilingualeducation:ACanadian case study. Clevendon, Avon, England: Multilingual Matters. 127 pages. 0905028090. Location:DallasSILLibrary371.97S971.Interestlevel:general. 16. TERRELL,T.D.(1977):"Anaturalapproachtotheacquisitionandlearningofalanguage", ModernLanguageJournal61(7):32536.

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