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ethnocentrism stereotypes source encoder message channel receiver decoder noise

feedback setting identification

responsible knowledge quoting out of context plagiarism communication anxiety anticipatory anxiety anxiety sensitivity perfectionism presentation anxiety selective relaxation communication orientation cognitive restructuring visualization skills training dialogue

the tendency of any nation, race, religion or group to believe that its way of looking at and doing things is right and that other perspectives have less value. generalized pictures of a race, gender or group that supposedly represent its essential characteristics. the originator of a message the speaker's voice the words, nonverbal cues, and presentation aids that convey the speaker's ideas, motives and feelings toward a subject. air or medium through which the message flows. the audience; those for whom the message is intended and in anticipation of whom the message is shaped. process by which the listener determines the meaning of the speaker's message sometimes called interference, this can indicate a range of problems from physical noise such as distracting sounds in the room to psychological noise (stereotypes, distractions, cultural barriers, etc.) in listeners that can distort or even block the reception of the message. speaker's perception of how audience members react to the message both during and after its presentation physical and psychological context in which a speech is presented the feeling of closeness between speakers and listeners that may overcome personal and cultural differences, the feeling of sharing or closeness that can develop between speakers and listeners an understanding of the major features, issues, information, latest developments and local applications relevant to a topic an unethical use of quotation that changes or distorts the original speaker's meaning or intent by not including parts of the quote presenting the ideas and words of others without crediting them as sources the range of unpleasant sensations and fears you may experience before or during a presentation the fear of public speaking that occurs before the actual presentation of a speech the tendency to label weak symptoms of anxiety as fear and then to over-respond to them believing that you must be perfect to be effective the fear reactions that occur during the presentation of a speech the technique of tightening and relaxing muscles on command, used to help reduce communication anxiety looking at public speaking as an interactive communication event rather than as a performance the process of replacing negative thoughts with positive, constructive ones the process of systematically picturing oneself succeeding as a speaker and practicing a speech with that image in mind developing speaking abilities that help speakers control communication apprehension having the characters in a narrative speak for themselves, rather than paraphrasing what they say

transitions extemporaneous presentation key-word outline ethos competence integrity goodwill dynamism self-awareness inventory hearing discriminative listening comprehensive listening empathic listening appreciative listening critical listening constructive listening receiver apprehension trigger words filtering assimilation contrast effect facts inferences opinions demagogues critique audience demographics audience dynamics attitudes beliefs values

connecting elements used in transitions a form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and practiced, is not written out or memorized an abbreviated version of a formal outline that may be used in presenting a speech those characteristics that make a speaker appear honest, credible, powerful and appealing the perception of a speaker as being informed, intelligent and well-prepared the quality of being ethical, honest and dependable the dimension of ethos by which listeners perceive a speaker as having their best interests at heart the perception of a speaker as confident, decisive and enthusiastic a series of questions that a speaker can ask to develop an approach to a speech of introduction an automatic, involuntary process in which sound waves stimulate nerve impulses to the brain phase of listening in which we detect sounds of spoken communication phase of listening in which we focus on, understand and interpret spoken messages phase of listening in which we suspend judgment, allow speakers to be heard, and try to see things from their points of view phase of listening in which we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such factors as the simplicity, balance and the eloquence of language. listening with careful analysis and evaluation of message content search for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects fear of misinterpreting, inadequately processing and/or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages sent by others words that arouse such powerful feelings that they may interfere with the ability to listen critically and constructively listening to only part of a message, the part the listener wants to hear the tendency of listeners to interpret the positions of a speaker with whom they agree as closer to their own views than they actually are seeing positions different than yours as being more distant than they actually are information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony assumptions based on incomplete information expressions of personal attitude or belief offered without supporting material political speakers who try to inflame feelings without regard to the accuracy or inadequacy of their claims in order to promote their own agendas an evaluation of a speech that emphasizes strengths as well as weaknesses and that focuses on how a speaker might improve observable characteristics of listeners, including age, gender, educational level, group affiliations, and sociocultural backgrounds the motivations, attitudes, beliefs and values that influence the behavior of listeners feelings we have developed toward specific kinds of subjects what we know or think we know about subjects the moral principles that suggest how we should behave or what we should see as

sexism gender stereotyping sexist language

symbolic racism preliminary tuning effect discovery phase exploration phase refinement phase brainstorming topoi of topic discovery interest chart topic area inventory chart media prompts mind mapping topic analysis general purpose specific purpose thesis statement topic briefing information literacy responsible knowledge general search engine metasearch engine subject directory Invisible web Boolean search

an ideal state of being allowing gender stereotypes to control interactions with members of the opposite sex generalizations based on oversimplified or outmoded assumptions about gender roles making gender references in situations in which the gender is unknown or irrelevant, or using masculine nouns or pronouns when the intended reference is to both sexes an indirect form of racism that employs ode words and subtle, unspoken contrast to suggest that one race is superior to another the effect of previous speeches or other situational factors in predisposing an audience to respond positively or negatively to a speech phase of the process of finding speech topics that identifies large topic areas phase of the process of finding speech topics that involves the close examination of large topic areas to identify more precise topics that might be developed identifying the general and specific purposes of a speech topic and framing its thesis statement technique that encourages the free play of the mind probe questions used to stimulate the mind during topic exploration, centering on places, people, activities, things, events, ideas, values, problems, and campus concerns. visual display of a speaker's interests, as prompted by certain probe questions a means of determining possible speech topics by listing topics you find interesting and subjects your audience finds interesting, and then matching them sources such as newspapers, magazines, and the electronic media that can suggest ideas for speech topics changes customary patterns of thinking in order to free our minds for creative exploration using questions often employed by journalists to explore topic possibilities for speeches (who, what, why, when, where, and how) the speaker's overall intention to inform or persuade listeners, or to celebrate some person or occupation the speaker's particular goal or the response that the speaker wishes to evoke sometimes called the "central idea," it summarizes in a single sentence the message of your speech prospectus for a speech or series of speeches you propose to give the skills one needs to locate information efficiently and to evaluate what one learns an understanding of the major features, issues, information, latest developments and local applications relevant to a topic an internet search engine that allows you to enter a key-word and find related Web sites a search engine that combines the results from several search engines an organized list of links to Web sites on specific topics high-quality databases generally not included in the searches conducted by general or metasearch engines techniques that can help one limit or expand research on the Internet (and, or,

advocacy Web site authority accuracy objectivity currency coverage probes mirror questions verifier reinforcer source cards information cards supporting materials facts statistics disinformation definition explanation descriptions testimony expert testimony reluctant testimony lay testimony prestige testimony direct quotation paraphrase quoting out of context examples brief example extended example factual example hypothetical example narrative

not) A Web site whose major purpose is to change attitudes or behaviors criterion for evaluating the credentials of the author criterion for evaluating the correctness of information by checking it against other information criterion for evaluating whether or not a source is free from bias criterion for evaluating whether or not the information on a Web site is up-to-date criterion for evaluating the breadth of information on a topic questions that ask someone being interviewed to elaborate on a response questions that repeat part of a previous response to encourage further discussion a statement by an interviewer confirming the meaning of what has just been said by the person being interviewed a comment or action that encourages further communication from someone being interviewed Records kept of the author, title, place and date of publication, and page references for each research source research notes on facts and ideas obtained from an article or book the fats and figures, testimony, examples, and narratives that are the building blocks of successful speeches information that can be verified by observation or expert testimony numerical information deliberately false, fragmented, irrelevant, or superficial information designed to influence policies or opinions a translation of an unfamiliar word into understandable terms discussion that helps clarify a topic or demonstrates how a process works word pictures that help listeners visualize what you are talking about citing the opinions or conclusions of other people or institutions to clarify, support and strengthen a point offers judgments from those who are qualified by training or experience to speak as authorities on a subject highly credible form of supporting material in which sources speak against their apparent self-interest citing the views of ordinary people on a subject citing the views of someone who is highly regarded, but not necessarily an expert on a topic repeating the exact words of another to support a point summarizing in your own words something said or written an unethical use of a quotation that changes or distorts the original speaker's meaning or intent by not including parts of the quote verbal illustrations of the speaker's points using a concise instance or allusion to illustrate or develop a point a detailed illustration that allows a speaker to build impressions an illustration based on something that actually happened or that really exists a representation of reality, usually a synthesis of actual people, situations or events a story used to illustrate some important truth

embedded narrative vicarious experience narrative master narrative narrative coherence narrative fidelity comparison contrast

stories inserted within speeches that illustrate the speaker's point speech strategy in which the speaker invites listeners to imagine themselves enacting a story form of speaking in which the entire speech becomes a story that reveals some important truth whether a narrative or story flows well and fits together smoothly whether a narrative seems true and makes sense using supporting material to point out the similarities of an unfamiliar or controversial issue to something the audience already knows or accepts arranging supporting materials to highlight differences or gaining attention by using abrupt changes in presentation, dwelling upon opposites, or framing the pros and cons of a situation a connection established between two otherwise dissimilar ideas or things a comparison made between subjects within the same filed a comparison made between things that belong to different fields suggests that a speech has a limited number of main points and that they are short and direct suggests that the introduction, body and conclusion receive their proper share of the time allotted for the speech a consistent pattern used to develop a speech the most prominent ideas of the speaker's message a listing of the main sources of information that could be used in a speech and of the major ideas from each source an opening that establishes the context and setting of a narrative, foreshadows the meaning and introduces major characters the body of a speech that follows narrative design,; unfolds in sequence of scenes designed to build suspense the final part of a narrative that reflects upon its meaning connecting elements used in speeches a transition that reminds listeners of major points already presented in a speech before proceeding to new ideas questions that have a self-evident answer, or that provoke curiosity that the speech then proceeds to satisfy the part of the introduction that identifies the main points to be developed in the body of the speech and presents an overview of the speech to follow the speaker's reinterpretation of the speech's main ideas at the end of a presentation brief, concentrated form of comparison that is implied and often surprising. It connects elements of experience that are not usually related in order to create a new perspective. a tentative plan showing the pattern of a speech's major parts, their relative importance, and the way they fit together the major divisions of a speech's main points divisions of subpoints within a speech the final outline in a process leading from the first rough ideas for a speech to the

analogy literal analogy figurative analogy simplicity balance order main points research overview prologue plot epilogue transitions internal summary rhetorical questions preview summary metaphor

working outline subpoints sub-subpoints formal outline

finished product coordination the requirement that statements equal in importance be placed on the same level in an outline subordination the requirement that material in an outline descend in importance from main points to subpoints to sub-subpoints to sub-sub-subpoints parallel wording points in a similar fashion to emphasize their importance and to help the construction audience remember them source citation references in a speech to sources used works cited a form of bibliography in an outline that lists those sources of supporting material actually used in the speech works consulted a form of bibliography that lists all sources of research considered in the preparation of the speech key-word outline an abbreviated version of a formal outline that may be used in presenting a speech presentation aids visual and auditory illustrations intended to enhance the clarity and effectiveness of a presentation graphics visual representations of information, such as sketches, maps, graphs, charts and textual materials pie graph a circle graph that shows the size of a subject's parts in relation to each other and to the whole bar graph a graph that shows comparisons and contrasts between two or more items or groups line graph a visual representation of changes across time; especially useful for indicating trends of growth or decline flow chart a visual method of representing power and responsibility relationships, or describing the steps in a process textual graphics visuals that contain words, phrases, or numbers bulleted list a presentation aid that highlights ideas by presenting them as a list of brief statements acronym a word composed of the initial letters of a series of words flip chart a large, unlined tablet, usually a newsprint pad, that is placed on an easel so that each page can be flipped over the top when it's full computer-assisted the use of commercial presentation software to join audio, visual, textual, graphic, presentation and animated components analogous color colors adjacent on the color wheel; used in a presentation aid to suggest both scheme differences and close relationships among the components complementary colors opposite one another on the color wheel; used in a presentation aid to color scheme suggest tension and opposition monochromatic use of variations of a single color in a presentation aid to convey the idea of variety color scheme within unity denotative the dictionary definition or objective meaning of a word meaning connotative the emotional, subjective, personal meaning that certain words can evoke in meaning listeners jargon technical language related to a specific field that may be incomprehensible to a general audience euphemism sometimes humorous use of words to soften or evade the truth of a situation doublespeak using words that point in the direction opposite from the reality they should be describing

amplification slang malapropisms maxims cultural sensitivity figurative language metaphor

enduring metaphors simile personification culturetypes ideographs antithesis inversion parallel construction alliteration onomatopoeia integrated communication presentation expanded conversational style immediacy pitch habitual pitch optimum pitch rate rhythm vocal distractions articulation enunciation pronunciation dialect body language

the art of developing ideas by finding ways to restate them in a speech the language of the street language errors that occur when a word is confused with another word that sounds like it brief and particularly apt sayings the respectful appreciation of diversity within an audience the use of words in certain surprising and unusual ways in order to magnify the power of their meaning brief, concentrated form of comparison that is implied and often surprising. It connects elements of experience that are not usually related in order to create a new perspective metaphors of unusual power and popularity that are based on experience that lasts across time and that crosses many cultural boundaries a language tool that clarifies something abstract by comparing it with something concrete; usually introduced by "as" or "like" a figure of speech in which nonhuman or abstract subjects are given human qualities terms that express the values and goals of a group's culture compact expressions of a group's basic political faith a language technique that combines opposing elements in the same sentence or adjoining sentences changing the normal order of words to make statements memorable wording points in the same way to emphasize their importance and to help the audience remember them the repetition of initial consonant sounds in closely connected words the use of words that sound like the subjects they signify an ideal, harmonious convergence of voice, body language, and speech content to produce a self-reinforcing interplay of meanings the act of offering a speech to an audience, integrating the skills of nonverbal communication with the speech content a presentational quality that, while more formal than everyday conversation, preserves its directness and spontaneity a quality of successful communication achieved when the speaker and audience experience a sense of closeness the position of a human voice on the musical scale the vocal level at which people speak most frequently the level at which people can produce their strongest voice with minimal effort and that allows variation up and down the musical scale the speed at which words are uttered rate patterns of vocal presentation within a speech filler words such as "er," "um," and "you know," used in the place of a pause the manner in which individual speech sounds are produced the manner in which individual words are articulated and pronounced in context the use of correct sounds and of proper stress on syllables when saying words a speech pattern associated with an area of the country or with a cultural or ethnic background communication achieved using facial expressions, eye contact, movements and

proxemics distance elevation impromptu speaking PREP formula memorized text presentations manuscript presentation extemporaneous presentation feedback informative value speech of description speech of demonstration speech of explanation intensity repetition novelty activity contrast

gestures the study of how human beings use space during communication principle of proxemics involving the control of the space principle of proxemics dealing with power relationships implied when speakers stand above listeners a talk delivered with minimal or no preparation a technique for making an impromptu speech state a point, give a reason or example, and restate the point speeches that are committed to memory and delivered word for word a speech read from a manuscript a form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and practiced, is not written out or memorized speaker's perception of how audience members react to the message both during and after its presentation a measure of how much new and important information or understanding a speech conveys to an audience an informative speech that creates word-pictures to help the audience understand a subject an informative speech aimed at showing the audience how to do something or how something works offers understanding of abstract and complex subjects attention factor concerning how much an object contrasts with its background repeating sounds, words or phrases to attract and hold attention the quality of being new or unusual holding audience attention by offering a vigorous presentation, telling exciting stories, and using language that creates the sense of action arranging supporting materials to highlight differences or gaining attention by using abrupt changes in presentation, dwelling upon opposites, or framing the pros and cons of a situation holding attention by pointing out a subject's importance or value to vital interests the extent to which listeners remember and use the speaker's message a pattern for an informative speech that orders the main points as they occur in actual space a pattern for an informative speech that presents the steps involved in the process being demonstrated a pattern of speech organization that follows a sequence of important events in a historical pattern the use of natural or customary divisions within a subject as a way of structuring an informative speech a pattern for an informative speech that relates an unfamiliar subject to something the audience already knows or understands a comparison made between subjects within the same field a comparison made between things that belong to different fields an informative speech design that points out similarities and differences between

relevance retention spatial design sequential design chronological design categorical design comparative design literal analogy figurative analogy comparison and

contrast causation design briefing persuasion manipulative persuasion argumentative persuasion evidence reluctant witness proof logos pathos ethos mythos initial credibility emerging credibility terminal credibility reasoning from principle deductive reasoning major premise minor premise conclusion

subjects or ideas a pattern for an informative speech that shows how one condition generates, or is generated by, another a short informative presentation offered in an organizational setting that focuses upon plans, policies, or reports the art of gaining fair and favorable consideration for our point of view persuasion that works through suggestion, colorful images, music and attractive spokespersons more than through evidence and reasoning. It avoids the ethical burden of justification. persuasion built on evidence and reasoning supporting materials used in persuasive speeches, including facts and figures, examples, narratives, and testimony witnesses who testify against their apparent self-interest an interpretation of evidence that provides a good reason for listeners to agree with the speaker a form of proof that makes rational appeals based on facts and figures and expert testimony proof relying on appeals to emotions a form of proof that relies on the audience's perceptions of a speaker's competence, character, good will, and dynamism a form of proof that connects a subject to the culture and tradition of a group of narratives the audience's assessment of your ethos before you begin your speech the changes in the audience's assessment of ethos that occur as you present your speech the audience's assessment of your ethos after you have made a presentation argumentative reasoning that is based upon shared principles, values, and rules, sometimes called deductive reasoning arguing from a general principle to a specific case the statement of a general principle on which an argument is based the statement of a specific instance that relates to the general principle on which an argument is based the ending of the speech, which summarizes the message and leaves listeners with something to remember. Also, the final statement of the relationship between the major and minor premises of an argument pattern of deductive reasoning as it occurs in persuasion about public issues emphasis on factual evidence in guiding one's general conclusions and decisions reasoning from specific factual instances to reach a general conclusion presenting a similar situation and how it was handled as the basis of the argument - often called analogical reasoning creating a strategic perspective on a subject by relating it to something similar about which the audience has strong feelings the factual evidence in an argument as featured in the Toulmin model

enthymeme reasoning from reality inductive reasoning reasoning from parallel cases analogical reasoning data


warrant fallacies slippery slope fallacy confusion of fact and opinion fallacy red herring fallacy myth of the mean flawed statistical comparisons ad hominem fallacy begging the question fallacy shaky principle fallacy omitted qualifier fallacy post hoc fallacy hasty generalization fallacy non sequiter fallacy faulty analogy either-or thinking fallacy straw man fallacy speeches that focus on facts predictions speeches that address attitudes, beliefs, and values cognitive dissonance speeches that advocate action debate awareness

the conclusion the speaker draws based on the data in an argument. Also, conclusions that go beyond factual statements to make judgments about their subjects the principle that justifies moving from data to claim in an argument errors in reasoning that make persuasion unreliable the assumption that once something happens, an inevitable trend is established that will lead to disastrous results a misuse of evidence in which personal opinions are offered as though they were facts, or facts are dismissed as though they were opinion the use of irrelevant material to divert attention the deceptive use of statistical averages in speeches statistical reasoning that offers fallacious conclusions by comparing unequal or unlike situations an attempt to discredit a position by attacking the people who favor it assuming that an argument has been proved without actually presenting the evidence a reasoning error that occurs when an argument is based on a faulty premise a reasoning error that occurs when a persuader claims too much, confusing probability with certainty a deductive error in which one event is assumed to be the cause of another simply because the first preceded the second an error of inductive reasoning in which a claim is made based on insufficient or nonrepresentative information. a deductive error occurring when conclusions do not follow from the premises that precede them a comparison drawn between things that are dissimilar in some important way a fallacy that occurs when a speaker suggests that there are only two options, and only one is desirable understating, distorting or otherwise misrepresenting the position of opponents for the ease of refutation speeches designed to establish the validity of past or present information or to make predictions about what is likely to occur in the future forecasts of what we can expect in the future, often based on projections of trends from past occurrences speeches designed to modify these elements and help listeners find harmony among them the discomfort we feel because of conflict among our attitudes, beliefs, and values speeches that encourage listeners to change their behavior either as individuals or as members of a group the clash of opposing ideas, evaluations, and policy proposals on a subject of concern this first stage in the persuasive process includes knowing about a problem and

understanding agreement enactment integration co-active approach boomerang effect great expectation fallacy multisided presentation inoculation effect sleeper effect problem-solution design stock issues motivated sequence design refutative design ceremonial speaking

paying attention to it this second phase in the persuasive process requires that listeners grasp the meaning of the speaker's message the third stage in the persuasive process, which requires that listeners accept a speaker's recommendations and remember their reasons for doing so the fourth stage of the persuasive process in which listeners take appropriate action as the result of agreement final stage of the persuasive process in which listeners connect new attitudes and commitments with previous beliefs and values to ensure lasting change a way of approaching reluctant audiences in which the speaker attempts to establish goodwill, emphasizes shared values, and sets modest goals for persuasion a possible audience's reaction to a speech that advocates too much change the mistaken idea that major change can be accomplished by a single persuasive effort a speech in which the speaker's position is compared favorably to other positions preparing an audience for an opposing argument by answering it before listeners have been exposed to it a delayed reaction to persuasion a persuasive speech pattern in which listeners are first persuaded that they have a problem and then are shown how to solve it the major general questions a reasonable person would ask before agreeing to a change in policies or procedures a persuasive speech design that proceeds by arousing attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying the need, visualizing results, and calling for action a persuasive speech design in which the speaker tries to raise doubts about, damage, or destroy an opposing position speaking that celebrates special occasions, such as speeches of tribute, inspiration, and introduction, eulogies, toasts, award presentations, acceptances, and afterdinner speeches. Their deeper function is to share identities and reinforce values that unite people into communities a speaker's selecting and emphasizing certain qualities of a subject to stress the values they represent a ceremonial speech that recognizes the achievements of individuals or groups or commemorates special events a speech of tribute that recognizes achievements of the award recipient, explains the nature of the award, and describes why the recipient qualifies for the award a speech of tribute presented upon a person's death a short speech of tribute, usually offered at celebration dinners or meetings a ceremonial speech expressing gratitude for an honor and acknowledging those who made the accomplishment possible a ceremonial speech in which a featured speaker is introduced to the audience a ceremonial speech directed at awakening or reawakening an audience to a goal, purpose, or set of values a brief, often humorous, ceremonial speech, presented after a meal, that offers a message without asking for radical changes a person who coordinates an event or program, sets its mood, introduces, and

magnification speech of tribute award presentation eulogy toast speech of acceptance speech of introduction speech of inspiration after-dinner speech master of

ceremonies embedded narrative vicarious experience narrative master narrative narrative design prologue plot epilogue

provides transitions stories inserted within speeches that illustrate the speaker's points speech strategy in which the speaker invites listeners to imagine themselves enacting a story form of speaking in which the entire speech becomes a story that reveals some important truth speech structure that develops a story from beginning to end through a sequence of scenes in which characters interact an opening that establishes the context and setting of a narrative, foreshadows the meaning, and introduces major characters the body of a speech that follows narrative design; unfolds in a sequence of scenes designed to build suspense the final part of a narrative that reflects upon its meaning

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