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Leading Change

Leadership a hot subject


More than 26,000 articles on leadership An integral definition of leadership is the subject of a 60-page article 1

Winston et Patterson (2006)


2006-2007 Marc Bacon

Our Definition of Leadership 2

The process of influencing a group by legitimate means to accomplish its mission.

Roach & Behling (1984), Gulati (2000)

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Leadership vs. Management


Classical DefinitionManagers maintain status quo by controlling, Leaders move things forward by influence. According to W. Edwards Deming (1982): Management = Leadership. One cannot manage without leadership. Leadership is the job of management Alternate view: Leadership = Responsability. Each person in a leadership position is accountable to stakeholders.
2006-2007 Marc Bacon

Leadership is the Everybodys Job3


All players in an organization are responsible for influencing others in the organization towards success.

Kouzes & Posner (2002)

2 Principles of Successful Leadership 4


The leader must desire the good of those he is called to lead.
1.

2.

Leadership consists of finding a means of allowing people to contribute to the accomplishment of something extraordinary. Leadership is not a matter of the head. It is a matter of the heart.
4

Kouzes & Posner (2002)

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Qualities Most Desired of a Leader5


3 studies (1987, 1995, 2002), 10 countries. Chosen from 20 characteristics by more than 50% of respondents:
1. 2. 3. 4.

Honesty A clearly communicated vision of the future Competence The ability to inspire change

If you dont believe the messenger, you wont believe the message.
5

Can be summed up by CREDIBILITY

Kouzes & Posner (2002)

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The Fundamental Secret of Leadership 6


The leader must.be in love with leadership, with the people who do the work, with what the organization produces, and with those who honor the organization by using the goods and services it produces.
6

Kouzes & Posner (2002)

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Leading Change
Requires both leadership (influence) and management (control). We will study:
1. 2.

The character of the leader Techniques for leading change

2006-2007 Marc Bacon

A Leader an example of Commitment 7


1. 2.

3.

Works intensely Develops his competence, communication skills, interpersonal relationships. Improves working conditions for those he leads, makes personal sacrifices, and does whatever else is required to lead the organization towards the accomplishment of its legitimate goals.
7

Maxwell (1999)

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Humility and determination 8


Collins research over 5 years, 1435 companies, 21 researchers. 11 companies out of 1435 were able to increase their performance spectaculary in comparison with others on NYSE. The only common denominator a leader who possessed the rare combination of humility and ferocious determination . According to Collins, the common notion that charismatic leaders produce better performance is not borne out by research.
8

Collins (2001)

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The leader must: 9


1. 2. 3.

4.

Surround himself with competent people who desire the organizations success. Understand the strengths and weaknesses of the organization he leads. Take actions that maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the organization for its own good. Be disciplined, in order to put into place those actions with persistence and focus.

Collins (2001)

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The Leader Serving His Organization


According to Collins10, the best leaders concentrate on the organizations good, without regard to their personal success. Paradoxically, these leaders meet with more success than those who concentrate on their own interests, for the loyalty they breed makes the organization thrive.

10

Collins (2001)

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Three Fundamental Principles 11


1. 2.

3.

Put the focus on what you are, rather than what you have accomplished. The Law of the Silent Sinner. If you cant stand seeing your actions on the front page of the newspaper, dont do them. The true character of a person is determined by what he does when he is alone. The Law of the Tombstone. Write down the epitaph you want to see on your tombstone. Do you resemble it? What are you doing to become that person?

11

Feiner (2004)

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Objective Evaluation
An excellent on-line test based on Collins research, the Leader Potential Indicator, can be found at www.myskillsprofile.com Cost $17.90 CAD Respond honestly, then change behavior to suit.

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3 sources of change
From above strategic From the middle sandwich From the base organic

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How to fail at change management every time! (12)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Act to satisfy the leaders personal goals, rather than those of the organization. Change that does not contribute to the organizations mission. Too much satisfaction with the status quo Failure to create a guiding coalition Underestimate the power of a wellarticulated vision Failure to communicate the vision. Permit obstacles to block the vision Failure to plan for and achieve short-term gains Declaring victory too rapidly. Neglecting to anchor change in the organizational culture.

(12)

Les points 1,2 viennent de Marc Bacon. Les autres viennent de Kotter (1996) Kotter

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1. Act to satisfy the leaders personal goals, rather than the organizations mission
Does not breed loyalty Lack of leader credibility and suspicion of true motives. Can be successful in short term, but fails to effect long-term structural change.

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2. Effect changes that do not contribute to the organizations mission


Waste energy and resources Causes discouragement and apathy Makes future change efforts much more difficult
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3. Permit too much satisfaction with the status quo


You cannot say all is well , and then we must change . If the emperor has no clothes say it!

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4. Failure to create a guiding coalition


No person can effect major change all by himself. A dysfunctional committe is not a powerful coalition.
Yes-men Groupthink Laziness
Incompetence Finger-pointing

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5. Underestimate the power of a wellcommunicated vision


Plans and programs do not replace a vision. Complicated visions dont generate support If you cant explain the vision in 5 minutes and generate interest, it is not sufficiently clear.

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6. Failure to communicate the vision


(by a factor of 10, 100 or even 1000)
Three classical errors:
1.

2.

3.

Excellent vision, but communicated with a few meetings or memos, and nothing more. The CEO preaches enthusiastically, but other leaders remain silent. The CEO and most leaders adopt the vision, but very visible and powerful people oppose it or become passiveaggressive.

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7. Permit obstacles to block the vision


An organizational structure with poorly defined or poorly adapted roles A supervisor/leader who doesnt support the change.

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8. Failure to create short-term wins


Large transformations take a long time.
First victories must happen within 6-18 months. These victories must be clearly related to the changes

Short-term pressure turns theory and longterm goals into reality.


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9. Declaring victory too rapidly


Remember the war in Iraq! It takes much less time to slip from successful change than it did to get there, as any person who is trying to quit smoking can attest!

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10. Neglecting to anchor change in the organization


To effect cultural change:
1.

2.

Demonstrate the importance of change for the good of the organization in order to burn bridges with the past. Take the time necessary to train future leaders

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Consequences of the 10 errors in leading change


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A lack of confidence in the leaders The organization does not accomplish its mission. New strategies are badly executed, if at all. Reorganizations take too long and cost too much. Reducing organization size does not reduce cost Efforts to improve quality fail.
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2006-2007 Marc Bacon

When is it the right time to effect organizational change?


The only valid reason to effect organizational change is that the organization will better accomplish its mission after the change than before.

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Leadership fails to act in the the good of the organization when


It fails to enact necessary change It enacts unnecessary change

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Strategic reasons to effect change


Better respond to competitive environmental forces SWOT, VRIO, Porters 5 force analysis, etc. This analysis typically arises from the top of the organization.

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Continuous improvement
Tweak performance Efforts come mostly from the middle or the base of the organization More effective if the entire organization is minded towards continuous improvement. Creating a learning environment is the responsibility of the leader.
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Change at its most basic level


1. 2. 3. 4.

13

Internal questioning Thaw Movement Refreezing

Most failures in change leadership come from failure to thaw before attempting to move, and failure to refreeze after moving.
13

Bacon (2006), Lewis (1951), tel que dcrit par Cummongs & Worley (2005) d
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An equation for change


C= Change D = Dissatisfaction with the current state M = Effective Model for change P = Procedures which will direct the change R = Resistance to change

14

C=D x M x P > R

Change will take place when the product of dissatisfaction with the present state, the model, and the procedures are powerful enough to break resistance to change.
14

Hughes, Ginnet & Curphy (2002)


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Resistance to change
Change requires people to leave their comfort zones and move to a new state of equilibrium. Change produces fear, since people fear loss.15 People tend to overestimate the value of what they already possess and underestimate the value of what they could obtain by leaving behind some of those possessions.

15

Beers (1988)
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Resistance to Change (contd.)


Change produces a reaction similar to grief.16
Shock Anger Defensive retreat Acceptance Adaptation to change

We want to light a fire in them, and not under them.

Leading change requires sensitivity and resilience on the part of the leader.

16

Gulati (2000)
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Risk associated with change


A study by Wyatt and Company of change efforts of 1005 American companies:
Fewer than 50% managed to achieve their goals. Fewer than 1/3 increased their profitability. Fewer than 1/5 increased the ROI of the shareholders.

Despite this, most of those surveyed planned to undertake major restructuring in the future!
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After the break.


The 5 steps of change Lots more..

See you at.

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The 5 stages of change


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

17

Plateau Cliff Valley The climb The summit

17

Jellison (2006)
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Repetitive change for better or worse!

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Strategic change in 10 steps18


Leaders introspection
1. 2.

Thaw of the current situation


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
18

Constantly examine whether change is needed, and why. Ensure the proposed change advances the organizations mission, and is best for it. Establish a sense of urgency. Create a powerful coalition to guide change Develop a vision and a strategy Communicate the change vision Put in place means that permit everyone to participate in the accomplishment of the vision. Generate short-term gains. Consolidate change to build on it. Anchor the new ways of doing things in the organizations culture.

Movement

Refreeze once the vision is accomplished


Bacon (2006), Kotter (1996)
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Step 1: Constantly examine if change is needed, and why


SWOT analysis VRIO Structured and continuous learning External accountability and benchmarking Question motives for change
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Step 2: Ensure that the proposed change advances the organizations mission and is best for it.
Regularly updated strategic plan SMART goals
Specific Measurable Ambitious Realistic Time-driven

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Step 3: Establish a sense of urgency


At least 75% of leaders, and a majority of members must believe that the situation requires urgent change in order to provide enough reasons for a major change. Examine the market and its competitive realities. Identify and discuss crises potential crises, and opportunities. Establish methods to avoid groupthink, complacency, and laziness.
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Sources of complacency
1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

No visible crisis (fire, bankruptcy, lawsuit, health) Too many visible resources Low performance standards Organizational structures which put individual focus on narrow goals, rather than tying them to the organizations mission. Internal measuring systems that dont measure the right things or dont provide timely feedback to those who can effect change.

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Sources of complacency (contd.)


6.

7.

8.

9.

A lack of external feedback to compare performance with the best possible (benchmarking). A culture which prevents the discussion of negative things, which kills the messenger, points fingers, or prevents constructive criticism. Cognitive dissonance, which prevents people under stress from wanting to entertain even more stress by effecting change (the ostrich mentality). Too much happy chatter from leaders. This often comes from leaders who are proud of their personal success and uncomfortable with criticism.
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To increase the sense of urgency


Be frank in presenting problems and the need for change. Congratulate, but also censure and exhort Eliminate external symbols of success. Estblish barely attainable goals.
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To increase the sense of urgency (contd.)


Insist on measures of performance that reflect reality and measure things that are important to the organizations mission. Ensure that members of the organization are aware when clients are unhappy and poorly served. Use external benchmarks and external accountability to ensure objectivity. Stop the happy chatter of senior management. Inform people in the organization concerning opportunities and rewards associated with those opportunities.
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The finer points of creating a sense of urgency


Dont manipulate by creating false crises. This reduces leadership credibility. Listen to how internal and external players respond in order gauge whether the sense of urgency is sufficient for change, but not enough to cause panic. If there is too much complacency, dont initiate change. Get more data that confirms or rejects the need for change.
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Step 4: Create a Powerful Coalition to Guide Change Taking the wrong path
The competent, but isolated CEO The powerless committee (without enough powerful players).
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Qualities required of coalition members


Positional power. Are the principal players on board? Expertise. Do the members of the coalition have the
skills necessary to guide the change and bring different points of view that represent those of the rest of the organization? Crdibility. Do people in the group have the confidence of the majority of others in the organization? Leadership. Are coalition members true leaders, or simply powerful peopl who desire their own self-interest?
Management without leadership
Produces plans and tactics, but no vision Controls people, rather than motivating them to surpass themselves
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2006-2007 Marc Bacon

To Remedy a Lack of Leadership


Find leaders from outside the organization. (This brings leadership knowledge,
but without technical expertise and historic credibility).

Promote leaders from a lower level.

(Ensure these people have necessary power and arent seen as simpling being the boss friends)

Encourgage people with leadership potential to step forward and accept additional challenges.
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People to Avoid in the Guiding Coalition


Egotists and proud people, who are not conscious of their own faults and seek their own interests. Snakes, who destroy credibility and confidence People who hestitate to act, and only do so when pushed.
Can be useful, if they act as foot soldiers. They must understand the urgency and need for change.
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Facilitate teamwork based on trust and a common vision


Teamwork cannot be imposed
Often several people can form a high-performing group withou ever becoming a team. However, only teams can lead change.

True teamwork requires the leader to encourage differing points of view.


Each person must be able to give and receive criticism without fear or malice The change team must present a united front to the organization, even if it disagrees internally.
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How to Build a Cohesive Team


Social family activities
Once far more popular than now

Off-site meetings
Popular, sometimes useful Often costly and ineffective.

The best tools are a common vision and trust.

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After dinner.
Steps 5-10 in strategic change management. Much more

Back at.

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Strategic change in 10 steps18


Leaders introspection
1. 2.

Thaw of the current situation


3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
18

Constantly examine whether change is needed, and why. Ensure the proposed change advances the organizations mission, and is best for it. Establish a sense of urgency. Create a powerful coalition to guide change Develop a vision and a strategy Communicate the change vision Put in place means that permit everyone to participate in the accomplishment of the vision. Generate short-term gains. Consolidate change to build on it. Anchor the new ways of doing things in the organizations culture.

Movement

Refreeze once the vision is accomplished


Bacon (2006), Kotter (1996)
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Step 5: Develop a Vision and a Strategy


A Well Articulated Vision:
Clearly indicates the direction the organization must take Motivates people to take actions that are not in their short-term interest in order to arrive at a longer-term vision. Helps to improve efficiency by aligning efforts with common objectives.

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How a Common Vision Produces Action


Vision Une image attrayante et rationelle de lavenir

Planning
Stratgies Une approche logique qui permettra de raliser la vision Des tapes avec les ressources (temps, argent, ressources humaines, etc.) ncessaires afin de mettre les stratgies loeuvre La conversion des plans dans des projections financires et des buts SMART.

Plans

Execution
Budgets

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Influencing by Legitimate Use of Power


Influence Comes from 5 Sources of Power
Legitimate power Coercive power Reward power Expert power Referent power

Use of legitimate, coercive, and reward power alone will eventually produce resistance and become ineffective. Expert power will inspire allegiance when used with humility. Referent power combined with a vision that the team can adopt will catalyze change.
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What is an Effective Vision?


Imaginable. Produces a concept of a future state in
the minds of the group members.

Desirable. Appeals to long-term interests and value propositions of stakeholders. Doable. Contains realistic and attainable goals. Focused. Clear enough to guide decisions. Flexible. Broad enough to rally individual initiatives and to allow alternative tactics to match a changing environment. Easy to communicate. Can be explained in 5 minutes and generate genuine interest.
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Ineffective Visions
15% growth (Not

precise enough to give a direction, too hard to achieve for some, not hard enough for others.)

A folder with 80 pages describing a quality plan A list of corporate values


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An Effective Vision
provider of high-quality architectural millwork and associated products in North America. To do this we will:
Increase sales by a compounded annual rate of 6-10% per year by delighting the customer with high perceived value. Continuously improve the R.O.E. of the organization. Continuously reduce the total cost of quality as a percentage of sales on a year over year basis. Continuously improve the timeliness of deliveries on a year over year basis. Provide a workplace that encourages long-term employee engagement.

We will grow Patella to become the premier

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How to create a vision


Visioning takes time. It is a matter of both the head and the heart, and often difficult. Developing a vision can take anywhere from weeks to years! Often developed in embryonic form by one person, the vision should be understood, modified, and debated until it is made clear by the coalition that wants to make the changes. Teamwork is necessary to develop a clear vision.

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How to Create a Vision (contd.)


A vision is not the work of a prophet who sees what others do not, although entrepreneurs may have the knack of seeing farther than most. A vision becomes more clear as it is refined and developped. A vision that is not clear or does not represent the common viewpoint of the group provokes resistance rather than motivating to action.

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Step 6: Communicate the Change Vision


To find out if a vision has been well communicated, ask people at several levels of the organization and in many departments the following 5 questions:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What are the greatest challenges facing the organization now and in the future? Why is the organization facing (or must face) these challenges? What are the opportunities the organization must seize? What is the organization doing to take up challenges and seize opportunities? What part do you have in contributing to the organizations success?

If responses differ widely, the vision is unclear or has been poorly communicated. 66
2006-2007 Marc Bacon

Four Important Things to Communicate19


1. 2. 3.

4.

The goal Why change is necessary. The vision What accomplishing this vision will do for us. The plan The devil is in the details . Being a change agent means being a competent project manager. Managing detail is hard, but necessary for success. The role each person will have Define the role each person must make in the change.
19

Bridges & Mitchell (2000)


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Use all Available Means and Communicate Constantly


The message must be simple. Ford Quality is job 1 . Use metaphors, analogies, images. Word pictures stick. Use many means. Big and small meetings, memos, articles, formal and informa meetings, directed conversations by all members of the guiding coalition. Repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat, repeat
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Use All Available Means and Communicate Constantly (contd.)


Give the example.
The leader must be the mode who reflects more than anyone else the organizations vision and values. The entire guiding coalition must understand the importance of modeling the vision.

Explain things that dont appear to be aligned with the vision. Communicate 2 ways. Listen more and talk less.

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Step 7: Put in place the means to achieve the goals


Remove obstacles like
Structures that prevent people from attaining their goals. Stubborn managers, especially those whose expertise or position makes them hard to move. Lack of money or resources. Methods of communication that are nonexistent or inefficient.
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Step 7: Put in Place Means of Achieving Goals (contd.)


Give necessary training in order to reach goals. Push decision-making as far down in the organization as possible, teaching people to accept responsibility once trained to do their jobs. Dont punish people who make honest decisions that dont work out. Spend most of the leaders time with those who act instead of with those who resist. Align systems and structures with the vision.

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Step 8: Generate Short-Term Gains


Plan ahead for short term gains that are:
Clearly visible to the majority Unambiguous Clearly related to the change effort

Create these improvements Recognize and reward those who worked to make the short-term gains happen.
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Step 8: Generate Short-term Gains (contd.)


The purpose of short-term gains
Provide evidence that the sacrifices are worth it. Reward those who worked Help to refine the vision and strategies Remove power from cynics and those who resist change in order to further their own interests Build confidence in leaders, bankers, etc. Build momentum. Neutral people get on board, people already on board work harder and better.

Planning and achieving short-term gains forces shortterm goals that provide a healthy pressure to succeed. Achieving short-term gains require both leadership (motivation) and management (control). A true leader is also a good manager.
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Step 9: Consolidate Gains to Produce Even more Change


Use increased credibility to push the envelope of change even further. Dont cry victory too fast, because it removes the sense of urgency and the impetus to complete required changes. (Remember the Trojan horse!) Slipping back in the middle of a change can occur much faster than the change itself (As people who try to quit smoking are well aware)

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Step 9: Consolidate Gains in Order to Produce Even More Change (contd.)


Just as in war, one cannot attack on all fronts Change must be led by the lowest level of the organization possible, so as to mobilize the maximum number of people. However, leaders are responsible for results. Engage, push forward, and develop people who can make the vision happen.

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Step 9: Consolidate Change in order to Produce Even More Change (Conclusion)


To consolidate gains, proceed by steps, and progressively involve people in activities related to change, so that they cannot back up.20

Avoid manipulation people react positively to burned bridges if they know the bridges will be burnt, but they will be afraid. They will revolt if bridges are burned without their knowledge.
Give new drive to the process by introducing new themes, projects, and change agents.
20

Watkins (2003).
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Step 10: Anchor the New Methods in the New Culture


The organizational culture reflects the groups behavior (quite easy to change) and its fundamental values (difficult, if not impossible to change). Corporate culture is the last, rather than the first thing to be changed. To change a corporate culture, the vision must have produced the desired results.
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Step 10: Anchor New Approaches in the New Culture (contd.)


Cultural changes require a great deal of communication. It may be necessary for the organization to lose some players. It is important to train future leaders in order for the cultural change to remain permanent once the change leaders have moved on.
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After the break


Influencing towards change Organic change Leading from the Middle Question to think about

Back at..
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Do not skip steps


According to Kotter (1996), skipping steps or moving too fast through multiple steps without finishing previous steps destroys the change process. The 2 most common errors are:
Lack of urgency for change A poorly defined or badly communicated vision.

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Projects within projects


Most change initiatives have a good number of sub-projects built into them. It is important to aim towards longterm goals, but equally important to get things done on a daily, weekly, monthly, quaterly, and yearly basis.

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Management vs. Leadership


According to Kotter (1996), successful change initiatives depend 10-30% on good management, and 70-90% on strong leadership. In most organizations, the control function (management) predominates, because it is easier to teach, it caters more to individual desire for power, and it is less risky. Most change efforts dont succeed because of poor leadership (love for the organization, personal humility, and a ferocious persistence).
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How to Influence People Towards Change21


The conventiona approach start with an inspirational speech, and assume everyone understands. This produces divisions with the following reactions:
Those who are willing to change. Those who wait and see. Those who resist.

Speeches inform, but dont produce much change.


21

Jellison (2006)
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80/20 Rule
Typically, managers use 80% of their time to force resistors to comply. It is much more effective to use 80% of the time to motivate the coalition of the willing. Those who resist due to fear need to receive special attention to try to bring them on board. Those who resist for personal reasons need to be removed.
2006-2007 Marc Bacon

Temps du Leader

Those who act Those who resist

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Resistance to Change
Is quite natural. It comes from a fear of change and a need to grieve the loss of the present comfort zone. Rarely does resistance to change mean opposition to the leader at least at first. Most of the time, opposition comes from people who the leader dislikes because he/she feels threatened by their resistance This eventually causes both sides to draw battle lines, rather than share a common vision.22 When resistance becomes opposition, the leader becomes isolated, and those he leads no longer support change. Multiple unsuccessful change efforts breed apathy and territorial behaviors by local strong personalities that undermine organizational goals.
22

Goldberg (2005)

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To Overcome Resistance
Persuasion is only effective within the limit of comfort zones defined by values. It is, however, rapid and easy. Manipulation finds its roots in a lie, and will eventually destroy trust. It is easy for a leader who is intelligent, educated, or a student of power relationships to breach trust for reasons of expediency, but any advantage gained is short term. Threats produce compliance due to fear, but do not change attitudes. They are habit-forming for the manager, because they obtain immediate results without much effort. Rewards given prior to change in order to motivate towards change have a high cost and diminishing returns. is the best way of motivating those who resist change. Get them to do something that contributes to the change effort, even if it is small.

Activation

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Activation
Break down resistance step by step. Reward successful efforts towards change by focused praise. Allow people to make errors, as long as they are really trying to contribute. Accompany people and train them. Encourage participation Be understanding towards honest negative feelings, while at the same time encouraging action. Facilitate the start of change. The rest will follow when people see results or feel peer pressure.

Communicate at as low a level as possible, and as simply as possible.


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Leading Organic Change


Comes from the base of the organization. Often has partially started before leaders at the top are aware of it. Leadership in this context is a process that is defined by common actions that result in a need for change towards a common goal desired by many, even though it has not been comunicated by a person in authority or been part of a program of structured change .23

23

Woodward & Henry (2004).


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Leading Organic Change (contd.)


Change is often incremental, by small steps. It is often viral, spreading rapidly through the organization and circumventing pockets of resistance. Often more useful in cost reduction efforts, efforts to reduce complexity, and efforts to improve quality than is strategic change. Less well adapted to radical or structural change than strategic change initiatives.

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Leading Organic Change (contd.)


Organic change can have a strategic dissonance with organizational goals or result in unneccessary complexity, which costs time and money. It is often practical, costs little, and generates little resistance. Can give a strong competitive advantage, because beneficial continuous change is hard for competitors to imitate. Can make managers fearful if they are afraid of losing power.
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To facilitate organic change


Communicate the organizational vision all the way to its base. Facilitate decision-making at all levels. Be open to suggestions coming from the organizations base. Provide necessary resources for the change to occur. Train people in order to increase their competence and understand how and why to effect continuous improvement. Create a learning organization. Reward those that effect beneficial change in the organization.
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Change leadership from the middle


Every person that influences others has the responsibility of leadership towards them (up, down, sideways). Harari (1999) et Gulati (2000) offer several recommendations for those who want to lead change, but dont have a CEO role:
1. 2. 3.

Allow the client (or the one who profits from the organizations output) be the one who leads organizational change. Develop standards, measurement methods, procedures, and rewards based on the clients needs. If you act with integrity for the good of the organization and according to its rules, dont ask for permission before acting. However, inform as you act. No boss wants to be blindsided with a fait accompli .

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Change leadership from the middle


(contd.)
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10.

Stay the course with your convictions and persevere. Dont hesitate to ask why or to challenge sacred cows . Be a coach more often than a boss. Insist that change produce rapid results. Embrace continuous change while looking towards future needs. Be proactive towards change. Change is chaotic. Accept chaos, instead of trying to control it. Control mostly the direction of change to keep it moving forwards. Be ready to work very hard every day.

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The leader must serve his organization


Any leader who serves himself before the good of his organization should not be in a leadership role. Doing good for the organization will paradoxically result in the most good for the leader. (The farmer who does not sow or fertilize will not reap). This is well supported by Collins research cited earlier.
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Developing leadership
Leadership comes in part from natural capacities, but is mostly developed by learning and reflecting on the lessons of life. (Hughes, Ginnett & Curphy, 2002). Leadership development requires the leader to reflect on why things happened and change their own behaviors to suit. Leaders are stewards, with a fiduciary responsibility to their organizations.
They must be humble and ferociously determined. They must constantly learn to become better managers and leaders.

Ultimately, leaders must have followers. This is not a right, but an earned priviledge.
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Things to think about


Where am I leading this organization ? Am I willing to invest the time to gain collaboration? Am I willing to make personal changes? Am I willing to be accountable and to oblige others to be accountable? Can I put my organizations needs above my own? Do I listen well? Am I willing to ask for help when I need it?
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References
Barney, J. B. (2002). Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Beer, M. (1988). Leading Change. Reprint No. 9-488-037. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Publishing Division. 9- 488Division. Bridges, W. and Mitchell, S. (April, 2000). Leading Transition: A New Model for Change. Leader to Leader 16 30-36. 30Collins, J. (2001). Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leapand Others Dont. New York: Harper Collins. Leap Don Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (2005). Organization Development & Change, 8th ed. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western. SouthCollison, C., & Parcell, G. (2004). Learning to Fly: Practical Knowledge Management from Leading and Learning Organizations (2nd edition). Chichester, Chichester, Sussex, UK: Capstone Publishing Ltd. Deming, W. E. (1982). Out of the Crisis. Boston, Mass.: MIT Press. Crisis. Feiner, M. (2004). The Feiner Points of Leadership : The 50 Basic Laws That Will Make People Want to Perform Better for You. New York: Warner Feiner, Business Books. Goldberg, R.A. (Sept/Oct 2005). Leading Yourself Through Change. Leadership in Action 25 (4) 20-22. Change. 20Gulati, R. (2000). Leading Change in Organizations. Kellogg Graduate School of Management. Rcupr le 30 juin, 2006 de Gulati, cup http://www.ranjaygulati.com/new/resources/ present/present-leadingchange.pdf. present/presentHarari, Oren (fvrier, 1999). Leading Change from the Middle. Management Review 88(2) 29-33. Rcupr le 8 dcembre 2006 de Harari, (f vrier, 88(2) 29R cup d http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=1587603&site=bsi-live&scope=site: EbscoHost. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=1587603&site=bsiHughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C., & Curphy, J.C. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience, 4th ed. Boston, McGraw-Hill Irwin. Ginnett, Curphy, McGrawJellison, J.M. (2006). Managing the Dynamics of Change : The Fastest Path to Creating an Engaged and Productive Workforce. New York: McGraw-Hill. , e Jellison Workforc McGrawJennings, D.A. (November, 2006). Leading Change. Leadership Excellence 23 (11) 20. Kotter, J.P. (1996). Leading Change. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (2002). The Leadership Challenge, 3rd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Kouzes, Posner, JosseyMaxwell, J.C. (1999). The 21 Indispensable Qualities of a Leader: Becoming the Person Others Will Want to Follow. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers. Porter, M.E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. New York, New York: The Free Press. Strategy. Roach, C.F. & O. Behling (1984). Functionalism: Basis for an Alternate Approach to the Study of Leadership. In Leaders and Managers: international Perspectives on Managerial Behavior and Leadership. Ed. J.G. Hunt, D.M. Hosking, C.A. Schriesheim, & R. Stewar. Elmsford, New York: Leadership. Schriesheim, Stewar. Pergamon Press. Watkins, M. (2003). The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at all Levels. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard Business School Press. Levels. White, J. (1986). Excellence in Leadership: Reaching Goals with Prayer, Courage & Determination. Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press. Determination. Downer Winston, B.E. & Patterson, K. (2006). An Integrative Definition of Leadership. International Journal of Leadership Studies 1 (2), 6-66. 6Woodward, S. & Henry, C. (June, 2004). Leading and Coping with Change. Journal of Change Management 4 (2) 155-183. 155-

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