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APPLICATION NOTES

AN2009-002

Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

TRAINING AND DOCUMENTATION DEPARTMENT

CelPlanner Suite Application Notes

CelPlan Technologies, Inc. 1897 Preston White Dr. / 3rd Floor Reston, Virginia 20191 Fone: 703.259.4020 Fax: 703.476.8964

Scope: Public Public

Observation: Initial Release Rev 1- Based on Book Text

Version: 1.0 2.0

Date: October, 2009 September, 2010

AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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Table of Contents
1 MODEL DESCRIPTION ................................................................. 2

1.1 Three breakpoints .................................................. 3 1.2 Diffraction ............................................................. 4 1.3 Penetration Loss and Final Factor ......................... 5 1.4 Sample Profile ....................................................... 5

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AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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1 Model Description
CelPlan's experience over the last years shows that the Korowajczuk 2 D model gave, in general, better results than the other models, but, in some situations, in which very detailed building data bases were used, it did not predict the signals well behind high isolated buildings. This was due to the fact that the RF wave would go around the building (instead of going over it) and the RF profile considered in the model was done only in the vertical plane. This is represented in the following figure.

Tower

Building 20 floors

Base station

Building Building 12 floors User Building 2 floors

street

street

Korowajczuk 2D model RF path calculation

Additionally it was found that certain morphologies did not add diffraction losses and should not be considered in the diffraction calculation. This is the case of sparse residential areas, single tree lines and so on. It was possible then to improve on the previous model by adding another dimension. In the new model the propagation is analyzed in the vertical and the inclined horizontal planes between the transmitter and receiver. This leads to three possible paths, and the sum of them is considered as the result. This is illustrated in the following figures. The calculation of each path is the same as the one done for model K2D.

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AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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Horizontal Plane

Tower

Building 20 floors

Base station

Building Building 12 floors User Building 2 floors

street

street

Korowajczuk 3D model RF path calculation on the Vertical Plane

street

street

Building 2 floors User

Building 20 floors

Vertical Plane

Building 12 floors Tower

Korowajczuk 3D model RF path calculation on the Horizontal Plane The morphology based diffraction is applied only to morphologies specified by the designer and each of these morphologies has now its own morphing factor. The K3D model is more complex than the other models as it has to analyze three paths instead of one. . The average increase in prediction time is about 30%.

1.1 Three breakpoints


The model supports up to three breakpoints, allowing for a better adjustment to changing environments. Each of these slopes has a different average propagation loss slope (expressed in dB/decade). The over morphology loss (Mfl Loss) is applied to the lengths that the first Fresnel zone touches the morphology. The configuration dialogue for this model is shown in the following figure.

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AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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Model 3D three slopes

1.2 Diffraction
The diffraction switch indicates what morphologies should be considered when calculating the diffraction, and the diffraction morphing factor (Diffr Factor) is used to adjust the loss] calculated by the knife edge procedure. In the previous models implemented in CelPlanner (models 1 through 5), obstructed signal paths were assumed to propagate via the top of the obstruction. However, buildings and other morphologies can also be circumvented by the sides. For this reason, the K3D model considers that the signal can propagate through the top and sides of the
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AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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obstructions, as highlighted in blue and red respectively in the figure below. The K3D model calculates these signal path lengths and selects the one with the smallest path.

1.3 Penetration Loss and Final Factor


The penetration loss factor (PenL) represents the loss the signal has inside the last morphology type, and it is only considered when the receiver is embedded into the morphology. It is given by the equation Penetration loss= PenL *log(morphology penetration distance +1)

(1.1) penetration loss factor

Model 3D penetration loss This loss should be considered in conjunction with the penetration loss considered for the environment. The final factor (FnFac) is an additional optional loss applied to the overall propagation loss to reflect special circumstances. It can be positive or negative.

1.4 Sample Profile


A cross section of Korowajczuk 3D model is presented in the following figure.

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AN2009-002 Description of the Korowajczuk 3D Propagation Model

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Korowajczuk 3D profile

All information included in this document is a property of CelPlan - Wireless Global Technologies unauthorized copies are prohibited.