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Case 1. A NULL hypothesis might assert that the population mean is equal to 100.

Unless we obtain the sufficient evidence that it is not 100, we will accept it as 100.

Case 2: The NULL hypothesis may assert that the population parameter p is at least 40%.

Case 3: The NULL hypothesis asserts that the population variance is at the most 50.

Case 4: Imagine an automatic bottling machine that fills 2-Ltr bottles with cola. The amount of cola filled in every bottle on the average is expected to be avg 2 Ltrs. Suppose the consumer expert suspects that the average amount of cola is less than 2 Ltr and wants to test it. What should be the NULL hypothesis?

Case 5 To illustrate another possibility, suppose that the bottling company does not make any claim at all, but we simply wish to demonstrate that the average amount filled is less than 2 Ltr. In this case, what we wish to demonstrate is what we write as the alternative hypothesis and its negation becomes the NULL hypothesis.

Case 6 Now look at the another possibility. Assume that the consumers is satisfied with bottles. But the owner of the bottling company suspects that the machine is filling more than 2 Ltr on an average and thus wasting cola. From the owners point of view, no corrective action is required if the average is less than or equal to 2 Ltr and therefore that should be the null hypothesis.

Case 7 Now look at the another possibility. Suppose the engineer in charge of accuracy of the machine wants to test the average amount filled. The engineer will have to take the action when the average is either more than or less than 2 Ltr. Only when the average equals to 2 Ltr, no corrective action is necessary. In this acse, we have

Case 8 A vendor claims that his company fills any accepted order, on the average, in at most 6 working days. You suspect that the average is greater than six working days and wants to test the claim. How will you set the null and alternate hypothesis? Case 9 A manufacturer of golf balls claims that the variance of the weights of the companys golf balls is controlled to within 0.002 oz. If you wish to test this claim, how will you set up the NULL and alternate hypothesis.

Case 10

It is claimed that at least 20% of the visitors to a particular commercial web site where an electronic product is sold end up ordering the product. If you wish to test this claim, how will you set up the null and alternate hypothesis. Case 11 A pharmaceutical company claims that four out of five doctors prescribe the pain medicine it produces. If you wish to test this claim, how will you set up the null and alternate hypothesis

Case 12 A medicine is effective only if the concentration of a certain chemical in it is at least 200 ppm. At the same time, the medicine would produce an undesirable side effect if the concentration of the same chemical exceeds 200 ppm. How would you set up the null and alternate hypothesis to test the concentration of the chemical in the medicine.

Case 13 It is found that web surfers will lose interest in a web page if downloading takes more than 12 seconds at 28K baud rate. If you wish to test the effectivness of a newly designed web page in regard to its download time, how will you set up the NULL and alternate hypothesis

Case 14: It is claimed that the average cost of a traditional open heart surgery is INR 5 Lacs. If you suspect that the claim exaggerates the cost, how would you set up the null and alternate hypothesis Case 15 During the sharp increase in gasoline prices in the summer of year 2000, it was claimed by oil companies that the aveage price of the unleaded gasoline with minimum octane rating of 89 in the Delhi was more than INR 100. If you want to test this claim, how will you set up the null and alternate hypothesis.

One Tailed and Two tailed tests


Lets have the null and alternate hypothesis

In this case, only when sample mean (X bar) is significantly less than 1000, we will reject Ho. Such a region where the rejection occurs on the left side of the distribution of the test statistic is called a left-tailed test.

Now, lets consider the case, where Here rejection occurs when X bar is significantly greater than 1000. In other words, the rejection occurs on the right side of the distribution. This is called RIGHT TAILED test.

Finally, consider the case, where

In this case, we have to reject Ho in both cases, that is whether X bar is significantly less than or more than 1000. Thus rejection region lies on both the tails. Therefore, this is called the two-tailed tests.

Case 16 An automatic bottling machine fills cola into 2 Ltr (2000 cm3) bottles. A consumer advocate wants to test the null hypothesis that the average amount filled by the machine into a bottle is at least 2 Ltr (2000 Cm3). A random sample of 40 bottles coming out of the machine was selected and the exact contents of the selected bottles were recorded. The sample mean was 1.9996 (1999.6 cm3)Ltr. The population standard deviation is known to be 1.30 cm3. 1. Test the NULL hypothesis at an alpha of 0.05. 2. Assume that the population is normally distributed with mean sigma of 1.30 cm3. Assume that the sample size is only 20 but the sample mean is the same 1999.6 cm3. Conduct the test once again at an alpha of 0.05. 3. If there is a difference in the two test results, explain the reason for the difference. Case 17: A manufacturer of golf balls claims that the company controls the weights of the golf balls accurately so that the variance of weights is not more than 1 mg2. A random sample of 31 golf balls yield a sample variance of 1.62 mg2. Is there is sufficient evidence to reject the claim at an alpha of 5%

Case 18 The tensile strength of the part made of an alloy is claimed to be at least 1000 kg/cm2. The population standard deviation from the past experience is

known to be 10 kg/cm2. It is desired to test the claim at an alpha of 0.05.Set up the null and alternate hypothesis.

Case 19: Suppose the makers of Duracell batteries wants to demonstrate that their size AA battery lasts an average of at least 45 minutes longer than Duracells main competitor, the Energiser. Two independent random samples of 100 batteries of each kind is taken and the following results were obtained.Set up the hypothesis to claim that its batteries last, on an average, at least 45 minutes longer than Energiser batteries of the same size? Case 20 A bank feels that when the promotional scheme is in place, the proportion of customers who buy the travellers check buys more than US$ 2500/- will be at least 10% higher than the proportion during the off scheme period. Conduct the hypothesis test. Case 21 The mean lifetime of a sample of 100 light bulbs produced by the company is found to be 1580 Hrs with standard deviation of 90 Hours. Test the hypothesis that the mean lifetime of the tubes produced by the company is 1600 Hrs. Case 22 You are working as a purchase manager for a company. The following information has been supplied to you by two manufacturers of electric bulbs. Which bulbs will you purchase? Case 23 In 600 throws of six faced die, odd points appeared 360 times. Would you say that the die is fair at 5% l.o.s. Case 24 A sales clerk in the departmental stores claims that 60% of the shoppers entering the shop leave without making the purchase. A random sample of 50

shoppers showed that 35 of them left without buying anything. Are these sample results consistent with the claim of the sales clerk? Use l.o.s. of 0.05 Case 25 In a random sample of 100 persons taken from village A, 60 are found to be consuming tea. In another sample of 200 persons taken from village B, 100 persons are found to be consuming tea. Do the data reveal significant difference between the two villages so far as the habit of taking the tea is concerned? Case 26: Before an increase in excise duty on tea, 400 people out of a sample of 500 people were found to be tea drinkers. After an increase in duty 400 people were tea drinkers in a sample of 600 people. State whether there is a significant decrease in the consumption of tea. Case 27 An ambulance service claims that it takes, on the average 8.9 minutes to reach its destination in emergency calls. To check on this claim, the agency which licenses ambulance services has them timed on 50 emergency calls, getting a mean of 9.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 1.8 minutes. At the l.o.s. of 0.05, does this constitute evidence that the figure claimed is too low? Case 28 A product is produced in two ways. A pilot test on 64 items from each method indicates that the product in method 1 has simple mean tensile strength 106 lbs and a standard deviation of 12 lbs, whereas in method 2, the corresponding values of mean and standard deviation are 100 lbs and 10 lbs respectively. Greater tensile strength in the product is preferable. Use an appropriate large sample tests of 5% level of significance to test whether or not method 1 is better for processing the product. State clearly the null hypothesis. Case 29 A company is considering two different advertisements for promoting the product. Management believes that Ad A is more effective than Ad B. Test the hypothesis that Ad A is more effective than Ad B, if a 5% l.o.s is used?

Case 30 An auto company decided to introduce a new six cylinder car whose mean petrol consumption is claimed to be lower than that of the existing auto engine. It was found that the mean petrol consumption for 50 cars was 10 km per litre with a standard deviation of 3.5 km per litre. Test for the company at 5% l.o.s., whether the claim that the new car petrol consumption is 9.5 km per ltr on an average is acceptable.